• Save
A disaster management framework for coping with acts of extreme violence in school settings: a field study
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

A disaster management framework for coping with acts of extreme violence in school settings: a field study

on

  • 418 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
418
Views on SlideShare
395
Embed Views
23

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

1 Embed 23

http://conftool.grforum.net 23

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

A disaster management framework for coping with acts of extreme violence in school settings: a field study Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 4th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC Davos 2012 26–30 August, 2012 Davos, Switzerland A Disaster Management Framework for Coping with Acts of Extreme Violence in School Settings: A Field Study Camélia Dumitriu (Ph.D.) Dr. Carmen Aida Huţu University of Quebec at Gheorghe Asachi Technical Montreal (UQAM), Canada University (Iaşi), Romania The present study is part of an interdisciplinary three-year research project (2008–2011) on crisismanagement planning for coping with acts of extreme violence in schools, which was funded by the SocialSciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC)
  • 2. Agenda 1. School shootings: a social phenomenon 2. Research method, sample, and research framework 3. Findings 3.1 The ecological model : 110 events ■The school shooters. Who are they? ■ Why does it happen ? ■ Where do school shootings occur? Are some schools, communities and countries more vulnerable to such events than others? 3.2. The “Pressure and Release” model (Blaikie et al., 1994) and the “Triangle of Risk” model (Birkman, 2006) : 10 cases ■ Root causes and pre-exiting vulnerabilities ■ Dynamic pressures ■ Unsafe conditions ■ Coping with the event and its consequences 4.Integrate findings: the three stages of the “risk cycle” in school shooting situations Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 3. School shootings: a social phenomenon School violence - a “global phenomenon that affects one of the core institutions of modern society […] in virtually all nation-states” (Akiba et al., 2002). This social phenomenon, which seems to have its historical roots in North America, has become contagious, spreading after 1990 to European countries; then to Latin America countries, and; more recently, Asian countries. (8) Finland (3) 90s Germany (7) 8 Scotland France (6) (2) China (5) (69) After 2000 Brazil (1) (2) Argentina (1)© Dumitriu, 2012 Number of school shooting events worldwide (1920-2012)
  • 4. Number of school shooting events worldwide (1920-2012)Timing 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s 70s 80s 90s 2000s 2010- Total 04.2012Number of school 2 0 1 0 5 6 12 31 38 15 110shooting eventsworldwideUSA 1 1 2 4 9 22 22 8 69Canada 2 1 4 1 8Germany 1 1 5 7France 1 3 2 6Finland 1 2 3Australia 1 1 2Scotland 1 1 2Netherlands 1 1 2China 1 4 5Taiwan 1 1Japan 1 1South Africa 1 1Lithuania 1 1Brazil 1 1Argentina 1 1Source: Dumitriu, 2012 Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 5. Could a school shooting event be considered a disaster ? Disaster A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources (UNISDR, The United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction, 2009). School shooting A multiple-victim event and an act of extreme violence that is perpetrated on the school’s premises, generally by a school-related perpetrator who carefully plans the act in advance. Human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts Cost of the Virginia Tech event: $ 43.28 million (The Center for American Progress, 2012) Earthquake and tsunami, Japan - estimated cost: $235 billion (World Bank; March 30, 2011) Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 6. Could a school shooting event be considered a disaster ? ■ Long-term impact of the school shootings - Johann Gutenberg Gymnasium (Germany, 2002) lost one third of its teaching staff during the shooting. (Jacob and Dumitriu, 2009). -Dawson College (Canada, 2006; 10,000 students): four years later (2010), 50% of students were still struggling with depression and/or had suicidal thoughts; 7% of them suffered from PTSD. (Fernand-Seguin Research Centre and the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada) -Islas Malvinas Middle School (Argentina, 2004): after the event, two years of total anarchy (three successive management teams resigned and the school was placed under the tutelage of the General Inspectorate of Education.). ■ The affected community is not able to cope with the event using its own resources -The Amish School (Lancaster county, USA, 2006): 69 fire companies from eight counties; 100 state agencies and police officers; 20 ambulance crews; trauma centers from four counties (Dumitriu, 2009). Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 7. Sample of Cases Country/ date School & school enrollment Community & pop. The shooter of event USA (Co); Columbine High School (2,000) non-incorporated area Students (2); 18 April 20, 1999 USA (VA); Virginia Tech University (26,000) rural community; Student (Korean descent); 23 April 16, 2007 48,000 USA (PA); Oct. West Nickel Mines school (27) rural community; 4,000 Outsider with ties with the 2, 2006 Amish;32 Canada (QC); Dawson College (10,000) metropolitan area; 1.8 Outsider (ethnic minority family); Sept. 13, 2006 M 25 Canada (QC); Concordia University( 40,000) metropolitan area; 1.8 Professor (Russian descent); 52 August 24, M 1992 Scotland; Dunblane Primary School (640) Small town; 7,900 Outsider with ties to the school ; 43 March 13, 1996 Australia; Oct. Monash Univ. (55,000) metropolitan area 4.1M Student (Chinese descent); 36 21, 2002 Germany; April Gutenberg Gymnasium (700) town; 207,000 Former student; 19 26, 2002 Germany; Nov. Geschwister Scholl (700) small town; 36,000 Former student; 18 20, 2006 Argentina; Sept. Islas Malvinas School (400 ) rural community; Student; 15 28, 2004 30,000Source: Dumitriu, 2012 Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 8. Research method ■ A qualitative research method : multiple case studies (Yin, 2003): ten school shooting events ■ First, data were collected from the strategic plans of the ten schools at the time of the event, from governmental reports of inquiries into these events, police reports, newspaper articles and archival documents. ■ Then, field data were collected through semi- structured interviews and/or focus groups ( 8/10 cases) with: (a) relevant stakeholders who had been involved directly in managing these crises (school administrators; senior officials of the Ministry of Education; health professionals at various hospitals and members of the emergency medical teams or law enforcement agencies, etc.), and; (b) students, parents, relatives of some shooters and some of their former friends Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 9. Research Framework We used the “Pressure and Release” model (Blaikie et al., 1994) and the “Triangle of Risk” model (Birkman, 2006). Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 10. Exposure to hazards. The ecological model Society & Gov. Structural issues - laws and regulations: gun policy (L/M); education law (Medium); “Violence is a social policy (Medium) "multiply Community determined School (High): (a) size, (b) rules and regulations, (c) culture, (d) leadership style; and (e) parent-school relationship behavior" with risk emanating Relationship Family: In most cases, normal and functional from a variety of families, but frequent moves and/or immigration personal and stress contextual ? Characteristics (‟pre- disposing factors”): domains.” ■ biological (High) (Boxer et al., ■ psychological (Low) 2009, p. 425) ■ behavioral (Low) Individual “No one factor is decisive” but Peer group: drugs (not an issue), alcohol (not an issue), exposure to violent media (High) “no one factor is completely The larger community: (a) demographics (Low); (b) social issues without effect.” (Low), and; (c) cultural issues (Medium). (FBI, 1999) Cultural issues (national culture characteristics: High): High Individualism and Low Power Distance (Hofstede, 1980) Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 11. The school shooters. Who are they?FBI (The Four-Pronged Assessment Model, 2004) : “ depressed adolescents with narcissisticpersonality characteristics and other possible mental health problems, and ; substance abusedisorders. ” Our findings (based on 110 events) Biological characteristics ? ■ Men; 15-19 and 40-50 years old Psychological and behavioural characteristics ■ “ straight A student ” or, at least “ in good academic standing ”; “ hard-working person” ■ “pleasant guy” ■ “ shy ”(difficult relationships with girls; rejection); few friends. ■ “ talented” Others ■ Medical records(mental illness) -very few cases (e.g., Virginia Tech) ■ Personality disorder (in some cases); the personality disorder was diagnosed after the event ■ Police records: very few cases; instead, military aspirations but rejected as “unfit” or; parents working for the Army/Navy/Marine Corps Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 12. The school shooters. Who are they? The shooter Former Student Employee/ Teacher/ Outsider - Outsider- Total student Former Professor/ school no ties to employee School related the school adms. USA 14 41 2 3 3 9 72 Canada 5 1 1 1 8 Germany 4 1 2 7 France 2 4 6 Finland 3 3 Australia 1 1 2 Scotland 1 1 2 Netherlands 2 2 China 5 5 Taiwan 1 1 Japan 1 1 South Africa 1 1 Lithuania 2 2 Brazil 1 1 Argentina 1 1 Total 20 60 4 5 5 21 114 Source: Dumitriu, 2012 Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 13. Why does it happen ? ■ They -think that they have a motive: in most cases, “ to get revenge” on some people and/or institutions - have a “ target ” - carefully plan the attack MOTIVE ■ Tenure dispute; “trauma of tenure denial” (Van Wormer, 2010) ■ Difficulties with the English language and; not able to cope with the academic demands of the curriculum ■ Exclusion: expelled student ■ Bullying (teased/bullied; outcast) or academic mobbing ■ Perceived unfair treatment at school (unfair rules and regulations; unfair culture- some student groups are privileged over the others; etc.) Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 14. Why does it happen ?
  • 15. Where do school shootings occur? Are some schools and communitiesmore vulnerable to such events than others? ■ All schools are vulnerable to Schools Universities NA Total such events. School size less 600- 1,001- 1,501- 2,501+ Small/Medium Large [number of than 1,000 1,500 2,500 [less than [20,000+] -Small isolated schools in a students] 600 20,000] virtually closed community USA 21 16 8 8 1 1 11 3 69 (e.g., the Amish community of Canada 2 2 1 1 1 1 8 Lancaster County, Pa) Germany 2 3 1 1 7 France 4 2 6 - Large schools and universities with their own campus police Finland 2 1 3 (e.g., Virginia Tech) and/or Australia 2 2 located in the heart of a major Scotland 1 1 2 city (Concordia University and Nederland 2 2 Dawson College in Montreal) China 5 5 ■ Nevertheless, small and Taiwan 1 1 medium-sized middle schools Japan 1 1 in small rural and suburban South Africa 1 1 communities and large Lithuania 1 1 colleges and universities in Brazil 1 1 large multi-ethnic cities seem Argentina 1 1 to be more vulnerable. Total number of 35 21 10 8 2 2 14 18 110 schools© Dumitriu, 2012 Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 16. Where do school shootings occur? Are some countries and societies morevulnerable to such events than others?Gun culture: easy access to guns is an important factor in the increase in the homiciderate, but low correlation with the school shooting events Rank Average rate of civilian ownership (guns per 100 people) Argentina 62 10.2 Australia 42 15 Brazil 75 8 Canada 13 30.8 China 102 4.9 France 12 34 Finland 4 69 Germany 15 30.3 Lithuania 160 0.7 Japan 164 0.6 Netherlands 11 31.3 Scotland 93 5.5 South Africa 50 12.7 Taiwan 106 4.4 USA 1 88.8 Source: Small Arms Survey 2007. The largest civilian firearms arsenals for 178 countries Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 17. Where do school shootings occur? Are some countries and societies morevulnerable to such events than others?Strong correlation between national cultures (as defined by Hofstede, 2001) and schoolshooting events -low Power Distance index -high Individualism index © Dumitriu, 2012 Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 18. Research Framework. Stage 2: Root Causes √ Research Framework Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 19. Root causes and pre-exiting vulnerabilities Vulnerability – an inherent state of a system (e.g., physical, technical, organizational, cultural) that can be exploited to cause harm or damage (ANSI, 2010) 1. Some school policies and procedures proved in some respects inappropriate for dealing with exceptional circumstances and/or contributed, to a certain extent and in conjunction with other factors, to triggering the shooting. ■the hiring, firing and promotion policies (e.g., Concordia university) ■ the research policy (e.g., Concordia University); ■ the student exclusion policy (e.g., Monash University; Gutenberg Gymnasium) ■ the admission procedure (e.g., Virginia Tech; Gutenberg Gymnasium and more broadly, the educational system in the state of Thuringia, Germany). Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 20. Root causes and pre-exiting vulnerabilities 2. Lack of explicit rules and regulations to deal with: - disruptive and violent behavior - academic mobbing - bullying - discrimination 3. Lack of internal reporting mechanism to enable staff and students to report threatening behaviour -nine types of warning signs; (UNISDR, 2009: “Preparedness is based on a sound analysis of disaster risks and good linkages with early warning systems”)
  • 21. Root causes and pre-exiting vulnerabilities Warning signs ■ SL: Suicide letter /intention; ■C: Written complaints ■ T: Explicit threats ■Planning the shooting well in advance: diary (D); written notes (WN) “death list” (DL); website (W); videotapes sent to the media (VT) ■ Friends or relatives knew about his intentions (I) ■Sudden violent behavior, in school/mood swings (MS); violent writings- student papers (VW); verbal violence (VV); cyber violence (CV) ■Legal procurement of guns- (LP); Illegal procurement of guns (IP); Family gun (FG) ■Medical records (MR); Previous psychological assessment (PPA); Police records (PR) ■Dressing and hobbies (DH)/ Goth culture; Pro-Nazi culture; heavy metal music+ violent videogames (VV) etc.- more than the usual teenager others ■Direct or indirect ties to: : Army/Navy/ Marine Corps/ other organization with military ties (AN) Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 22. Internal reporting mechanism : nine types of warning signsThe School (SL) (C) (D) (I) (MS) (LP) (MR) (DH) (AN) & (WN) (D) (VW) (PPA) (VV) (T) (DL) (VV) (IP) (PR) (W) (CV) (VT) (FG)Columbine High SL D; WN I VW IP PR DH ANSchool DL; W PPA VVWest Nickel SL WN NAMines AmishschoolVirginia Tech SL WN; VT D VW LP MR DH PRMonash Univ. C DL LPIslas Malvinas SL WN I FG PPA DH ANDunblane Primary C D MS LP PR ANSchoolConcordia Univ. C I; D VV LP &TDawson College SL W CV LP DH AN VVJohann Gutenberg VV LPGymnasiumGeschwister- SL W; DL CV IP PR DH ANScholl VV© Dumitriu, Springer, 2012 Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 23. Dynamic Pressures ■Growth-related pressure points (aggressive growth strategy prior to the shootings): Monash University, Concordia University, Columbine High School, Virginia Tech. ■Competition-related pressure points : unrealistic competition-related goals put high pressure on students and staff to perform better: Monash, Concordia, Gutenberg Gymnasium ■Culture-related pressure points - Authoritarian, individualistic and performance-driven organizational culture - harsh discipline and lack of “school connectedness” as defined by Blum & Libbey (2004): Monash University; Gutenberg Gymnasium; Islas Malvinas school. - Permissive but “non supportive” culture and favouritism toward specific categories of students: Columbine High School, 1999. - Permissive and unethical culture : Mechanical Eng. Dept. at Concordia, 1992 - An organisational culture based on some very generous values but bounded by religious restrictions (West Nickel Mines Amish school) ■Budget-related pressure points: Monash University, Concordia University Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 24. Unsafe conditions ■School location, size and type : small and medium-sized middle schools in small rural and suburban communities and large colleges and universities in large multi-ethnic cities seem to be more vulnerable to such events. ■Community and school demographics: not a significant factor ■ Some parts of the school building and its surroundings seem to be more exposed than others: the main lobby, sports hall, cafeteria, library, and the schoolyard ■ Other important safety issues -door locks -visitor sign-in policy -student badges - control access to the building -ICT: some devices are necessary, while others are not; decision to be based on cost efficiency estimates -mental health service providers in school/associated to the school -some specific safety issues have to be adapted to each school according to the Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 25. Research Framework. Stage 5: Capacity to cope with the event √ √ √ √ √ Research Framework Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 26. Coping with the event and its consequences The intervention stage: A stakeholder-based view Source: adapted from World Resources Institute, Sustainable Enterprise Program, 2008 Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 27. Coping with the event and its consequences Preparedness action plan a) Measures to speed up the evacuation process: a) school blueprints ; b) crisis exercise b) Measures to speed the victim identification process: accurate records for staff and student identification and specific responsibilities for maintaining and safeguarding student records, controlling access to the records, and providing copies of the records. c) Crisis communication process: - communication with all stakeholders: list of stakeholders and their coordinates - media communication and designated spokesperson - crisis team and crisis center - a meeting place should be chosen in advance and disclosed to students and parents - rumor control mechanism Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 28. School shootings and integrative risk management along the “riskcycle” : prevention, intervention and recovery- Our findings support the United Nations’ model of disaster risk reduction (2002; 2009)- We have adapted this model for the school shootings situations. Signal detection, prevention and Intervention preparation: school administrators should a) measures to speed up the evacuation process: a) carefully scrutinize five specific policies school blueprints and crisis exercise from several perspectives, including that of b) measures to speed up the victim identification hazards related to acts of extreme violence process: accurate records for staff and student b) implement an internal reporting identification and specific responsibilities for mechanism to enable staff and students to maintaining and safeguarding student records, report threatening behaviour (nine types of controlling access to the records, and providing warning signs) copies of the records. c) identify school’s pressure points and assess c) crisis communication process: list of the impact on students and staff (four stakeholders and their coordinates; media categories of pressure points that are related to communication and designated spokesperson; school shootings). crisis team and crisis center; meeting place; d) prepare contingency plans rumor control; etc. Recovery a) conflict management; b) symbolic management; c) asset management; d) change management; e) psychological consequences; f) legal consequences; g) financial consequences; h) lessons learned-getting feedback and finding ways to improve the disaster risk management process Dumitriu & Hutu, IDRC Davos, August 2012
  • 29. Thank You ! 29
  • 30. Questions ? 30
  • 31. REFERENCESAkiba, M.; LeTendre, G.K.; Baker, D.P.; Goesling, B. (2002). Student Victimization: National and School System Effects on School Violence in 37 Nations. American Educational ResearchJournal, volume 39 (4), 829–853.Arthurs, H. W., Blais, R., & Thomson, J. (1994, April). Integrity in scholarship. A report to Concordia University. Independent committee of InquiryBirkman, J.(2006). Measuring vulnerability to promote disaster-resilient societies: Conceptual frameworks and definitions. In Birkman, J. (ed.), Measuring Vulnerability to Natural Hazards –Towards Disaster Resilient Societies, United University Press, pp 9-54.Blaikie, P. M.; Cannon, T.; Davis, I. and Wisner, B. (1994) At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability and Disasters. London: Routledge. Second edition (2003).Blum, R. W., & Libbey, H. P. (2004). School connectedness: Strengthening health and education outcomes for teenagers. Journal of School Health, 74, pages 229–299.Boxer, P., Huesmann., R., Bushman , B., O’Brien. M., and Moceri., D., 2009. The Role of Violent Media Preference in Cumulative Developmental Risk for Violence and GeneralAggression. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38 ( 3). March 2009, p. 417-428.(The) Center for American Progress (Anthony Green and Donna Cooper), April 2012. Auditing the Cost of the Virginia Tech Massacre.Dumitriu, C. (2012). Crisis Management in School Shootings Situations. The School - A Forgotten Factor in the Equation. In Nils Böckler (ed.), School Shootings: International Research,Case Studies, and Prevention [in print], Springer, USA.Dumitriu, C. (2009). Crisis Management: The case of school shootings. The West Nickel Mines (Amish) School Case. Library and Archives Canada. Bibliothèque et Archives Nationales duQuébec (Quebec Library and Archives). ISBN 978-2-9810956-0-2Faris, R.E., 1955. Social Disorganization. (2nd Edition). New York: The Ronald Press Company.FBI Academy (Mary Ellen OToole); Critical Incident Response Group (CIRG), and National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime (NCAVC), July l999. A THREAT ASSESSMENTPERSPECTIVE. Washington, D.C. 20535. (Arnold R. Isaacs, Editor). Virginia. http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/school-shooter/Hofstede, G. (2001). Cultures Consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.Robers, S., Zhang, J., Truman J., Snyder, T., 2010. Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2010 NCES ( National Center for Education Statistics) Report. U.S. Department of Education.(November):United Nations (2009). United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. Terminology for Disaster Risk Reduction. Geneva. Switzerland (May 29).(The) United Nations (ADRC, ISDR, UN, WMO; 2002; 384 pages ) , 2002. Living with Risk: A Global Review of Disaster Risk Reduction Initiatives (preliminary version).Van Wormer, K. (2010, February 16). Crimes of Violence: Analysis of high-profile crimes of violence of psychological significance. Amy Bishop and the Trauma of Tenure Denial.Psychology Today. online : http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/crimes-violence/201002/amy-bishop-and-the-trauma-tenure-denialYin, R., K. (2003). Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 3rd ed. (2003). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publishing