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An Intergrated Framework and Tools for Better Disaster Risk Governance to Innovate Disaster Prevention Capability in Multi-Risk Society: Lessons from Disaster Risk Communication in Japanese Communities
 

An Intergrated Framework and Tools for Better Disaster Risk Governance to Innovate Disaster Prevention Capability in Multi-Risk Society: Lessons from Disaster Risk Communication in Japanese Communities

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An Intergrated Framework and Tools for Better Disaster Risk Governance to Innovate Disaster Prevention Capability in Multi-Risk Society

An Intergrated Framework and Tools for Better Disaster Risk Governance to Innovate Disaster Prevention Capability in Multi-Risk Society

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    An Intergrated Framework and Tools for Better Disaster Risk Governance to Innovate Disaster Prevention Capability in Multi-Risk Society: Lessons from Disaster Risk Communication in Japanese Communities An Intergrated Framework and Tools for Better Disaster Risk Governance to Innovate Disaster Prevention Capability in Multi-Risk Society: Lessons from Disaster Risk Communication in Japanese Communities Presentation Transcript

    • National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Disaster Risk Information Platform Project BOSAI-DRIP The 3rd IDRC in Davos 2010 An Integrated Framework and Tools for Better Disaster Risk Governance to Innovate Disaster Prevention Capability in Multi-Risk Society Lessons from Disaster Risk Communication in Japanese Communities NIED BOSAI-DRIP National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba, Japan (http://www.bosai.go.jp/) 1
    • National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Disaster Risk Information Platform Project BOSAI-DRIP Speakers and Topics 1) Saburo Ikeda: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Disaster Risk Communication from the Long-term Perspective of Risk Governance 2) Hitoshi Taguchi: Interoperable Web Mapping Systems for Risk Communication —Enhancing the Disaster Prevention Capabilities of Local Communities 3) Yohei Sunaga: Evolving Disaster Risk Governance in Local Communities: Demonstration Experiments in Aichi Prefecture in Japan NIED BOSAI-DRIP 4) Taiyoung Lee: Re-organizing of Local Disaster Prevention Capabilities through Scenario-based Risk Communication: A Case Study of Tsukuba City in Japan 2
    • National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Disaster Risk Information Platform Project BOSAI-DRIP An Interdisciplinary Approach to Disaster Risk Communication from the Long-term Perspective of Risk Governance Saburo IKEDA *1, *2 , Toshinari NAGASAKA *1, Takao SATO *1 NIED BOSAI-DRIP *1 National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) URL: http://bosai-drip.jp/ *2 University of Tsukuba, 3-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba-City, 305-0006, Japan 3
    • National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Disaster Risk Information Platform Project Content  To overview our experiences in relation to the important methodological issues of “Disaster Risk Governance” since the NIED launched the project of “Disaster Risk Information Platform: DRIP” in 2008.  To re-examine the context of “Coping Capacity against Disaster Risks” in both pervasive and catastrophic types in post-industrial and aging society.  To suggest a new interdisciplinary approach to “Disaster Risk Communication” in terms of identifying NIED BOSAI-DRIP proper risk-profile, and reorganizing self-preventive and collaborative activities based on multi-layered networks among residents and stakeholders cultivated in local communities 4
    • National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Disaster Risk Information Platform Project Lessons learned from “risk communication” by NIED project of “Disaster Risk Information Platform” (1) 1. High reliance on hard measures of structural facilities but low dependence on soft measures of warning or evacuation. 2. Early and frequent provision of official warning but extremely low rate of evacuation and buying “insurance” Urban infrastructure: complex and vulnerable to not only Low Probability but High Both local residents and Consequence, but also pervasive disasters regulatory authorities: “There cannot be any catastrophic flood in our river basin since we have made a series of dams and Wa e lv lof rivers tr e e reinforced banks since the last Water level of flooded area flooding” Drainage Pump Inner stopped flooding Dyke NIED BOSAI-DRIP Over P break P flow 5
    • National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Disaster Risk Information Platform Project Lessons learned from “risk communication” by NIED project of “Disaster Risk Information Platform” (2) 3. Introduction of “Probability” of hazard Risks and risk, but only Everybody want maximum damage in the to know their area-wide perspective own risk, not hazard. In ven t or ies documented in the official But, “ from “Hazard Map” which is hazard to risk” will need a supposed to be prepared deliberative based on scientific risk communication Af f l ic t ion among experts Rat io assessment. and 4. Aggregated “macro risk stakeholders information” from in terms of values, Gr oun d authorities but uncertainties, Types NIED BOSAI-DRIP “Individual micro risk and ambiguity information” is required for the informed-decision Ear t hquak e Sour ce making 6
    • National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Disaster Risk Information Platform Project The NIED’s concept of disaster risk governance (Japanese Journal of Risk Research, V.17-3, 13-23, 2008) A colaborati ri m anagem ent l ve sk of di sks through soci netw orks based on “hori saster ri al zontal /m ul -l ti ayered colaborati am ong stakehol l on ders” Formal institution Autonomous, Commands and Non- control institutional, Prevention by Voluntary structural Top-down approach Activities in facilities Bottom-up approach relation to local Commons and social capital N ational and M uni pal ci R esidents, N P O s, R egul atory R esidents- S hops, A genci & es associ ons, ati E nterprises ed -a r i l ye G overnm ents C om m uni es ti t / ul ntal M ti n H ori o labora o NIED BOSAI-DRIP z co l 7
    • National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Disaster Risk Information Platform Project Major issues of disaster risk governance under high uncertainty and stakes of emerging disaster risks For better risk governance Stakeholders participation in all processes 1) Functional/Institutional of “risk analysis” Separation ? ? Hazard and Risk assessment Risk characterization Risk management risk scenario 2) Peer-review (experts) vs. Meta/post-review (stakeholders) 3) Implementing risk communication Traditional expression of “disaster risk” Risk = Hazard x Vulnerability What forms, procedures? (degree of possible damages in society) How organized? Who to participate? How discussion/debates should be Triplet expression of “disaster risk” facilitated? Risk = R{ < Si, Pi, Di>},( i = 1, 2, .. ) 4) Role of information communication NIED BOSAI-DRIP technology (ICT: E-community) 1)Si: Scenario: What is the nature of disaster Risk Literacy (Sense of risk, informed events that can be happen? 2)Pi: Probability: How likely is a particular choice) event? Societal platform of risk information 3)Di: Damage: What are the consequences? (DRIP) Enhancement of social capital 8 (Multi-layered networking in local
    • National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Disaster Risk Information Platform Project Overall scheme of interdisciplinary approach to “disaster risk communication” for improving “risk governance” in the long-term perspective Traditional Disaster Traditional attitude for Prevention Systems (Fire waiting brigade, disaster governmental help management authorities, neighborhood associations, etc.) Formal drills of fire-fighting , evacuation, etc. Risk- Disaster Coping Disaster Risk scenarios Improvement of Capacity Information with risk- Collaborative risk governance (revealed and Platform (DRIP) profile or Risk Reduction in terms of latent context) (Integration of disaster risk- Activities risk knowledge among prevention, experts, residents and mapping emergency, communities) based on relief and DRIP Collaboration with recovery a wide range of responses stakeholders who in the long-term Multi-layered networking are associated with perspective NIED BOSAI-DRIP local common among organizations of resources residents, communities, Drills of self- NPOs, business that are management of associated with local evacuation center and/or joint local common resources response center Before after 9
    • National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Disaster Risk Information Platform Project Overall scope of “Disaster Risk Information Platform: BOSAI-DRIP” Advancement of information Damage Assessment Hazard Map Interoperability of information DRI for Earthquakes DRI for Volcanic Eruptions Geospatial Information Universities, Institutes Governments DRI for Floods History and Record of Disasters Companies, NPOs DRI for Landslides …… …… Interoperable DRI for Heavy Snow and Ice Institutions and Services Information Disaster-Risk Evaluation System Environment “AIU(Japanese ABC)” for BOSAI-DRIP Clearinghouse for Disaster Risk Information A I U Disaster-Risk Management System for Individual 災害危険度メータ _ □× Utilization of 自宅の登録 家族の登録 自宅の耐震評価 備蓄登録 ファイル 編集 表示 ツール ヘルプ 緊急地震速報 なし 台風や豪雨予想 危険度3 information 大丈夫? なし Disaster-Risk Management System for Local NIED BOSAI-DRIP Community DRMS for LC DRMS for I DRMS for I DRMS for 災害危険度メータ 自宅の登録 家族の登録 自宅の耐震評価 ファイル 編集 表示 ツール ヘルプ 危険度3 _ □× 備蓄登録 緊急地震速報 なし 台風や豪雨予想 なし 災害危険度メータ 自宅の登録 家族の登録 自宅の耐震評価 ファイル 編集 表示 ツール ヘルプ 危険度3 _ □× 備蓄登録 緊急地震速報 なし 台風や豪雨予想 なし LC 大丈夫? 大丈夫? Disaster-Risk Information Platform in Japan (BOSAI- 10
    • National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Disaster Risk Information Platform Project Example of scenario-based evacuation shelter operation workshops Disaster risk scenario : Chronological descriptions of the emergence of various risks related to the concerned disaster expressed in narrative form of the virtual reality. The scenarios will be generated at workshops with participation of local residents and other stakeholders who might share the disaster experience by acting out the assigned “roles” of stakeholders. Workshop Operation: more than 20 local communities in Japan The role of evacuation shelters in the overall disaster risk What will happen in an evacuation shelter? governance process How to manage and take actions on those issues? Stage ・Occurrence of disaster and emergency response Quality of Life: food, water, toilet ・ 災害の発生と緊急対応 the safety • Ensuring physical safety and verifying ステージ • 身の安全の確保,安否確認など of individuals Handicapped and aged people 1 Mutual help, Volunteers ・Living as evacuees in shelters, etc. Stage Health maintenance • 避難(所)生活 ステージ ・Quality of life, health maintenance, mutual help, etc. Applications for the official reliefs • 生活の質の確保,健康維持,相互扶助など 2 ・Recovery Acting out assigned roles Stage • 生活の復興 ステージ ・Rebuilding homes, restoring lifestyles, • 自宅再建,生活復興など etc. As school principal and the facility manager, I cannot 3 Facility simply allow even neighborhood residents to come in Fujisawa city, Kanagawa Pref. NIED BOSAI-DRIP manager until the building has been confirmed safe. We should call in experts. Town As town councilor, I want to get councilor My family includes evacuation shelters opened as a handicapped girl. soon as possible so that they Can we please can start accepting evacuees. have a separate We should check the building room from the according to the town manual other evacuees? and make the decision together. Evacuee B 11
    • National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Disaster Risk Information Platform Project Example of action plans generated at the workshop “Whether a facility is safe enough for opening a shelter“ Issue 1: Community Confirming the safety of evacuation shelter facilities Identification and use of regional human resources Agreeing in advance on rules Indication of buildings’ Cooperation with of confirming earthquake resistance. government authorities shelter safety Clarifying rules for opening shelters, such as waiting Identifying and outside until safety has been listing the experts confirmed. Setting standards of in advance Need for building strength in Requesting cooperation in understanding the advance Requesting advance from building experts in current situation cooperation from the neighborhood. building experts Obtaining the cooperation of Expectations Compiling a building experts among NIED BOSAI-DRIP related to manual on evacuees. evacuation Arranging for confirming multiple programs and safety shelter facilities Preparing building experts emergency electric generators Government Business and authorities stores 12
    • National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Disaster Risk Information Platform Project Criteria to evaluate action plans in terms of risk governance Action plans Knowledge Diversity of Use of local Reorganization of integration stakeholders resources stakeholder’s role Identify local experts who will be needed at disaster Set alternative evacuation facility for use in emergency Identify persons requiring support & verify their safety Organizing system for utilizing disaster NIED BOSAI-DRIP volunteers Agreement in advance with stores and business on relief materials
    • National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Disaster Risk Information Platform Project Summary Lessons learned from a series of case studies 1. Given the different roles of stakeholders, the participants are able to speak more freely than they might if they were speaking as themselves from the broader perspective of utilizing resources attached to various stakeholders, such as business people and professionals. 2. Risk scenarios in narrative form can be easily transformed into a variety of radio-play dramas which help the dissemination of the outcomes of the workshop to a wider range of residents who have not participated. 3. We plan to further develop such interdisciplinary approach to disaster risk communication as making a map of the risky sites NIED BOSAI-DRIP and facilities, generating a story-type of risk scenarios, and scripting radio-play dramas of the risk scenarios to go on the air for encouraging local residents to take collaborative actions from the long-term perspective of risk governance in their communities. 14