This study is perfectly aligned with the mission of the Department of Community Health.
Quality health care: Institute of Medicine’s definition. Patient-centered or personalized care involves providing care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values, and ensuring that patient values guide all clinical decisions. AAP’s definition: Quality care, especially for children, has been defined in terms of the medical home concept which encompasses care that is accessible, family-centered, continuous, comprehensive, coordinated, compassionate, and culturally effective The words in italicized fonts are the concepts we focused on for this study
Preventive services such as age-appropriate vaccinations and screenings. It is also a prerequisite for the optimal management of chronic childhood diseases such as asthma, which require ongoing symptom assessments, trigger management, medication prescription, and patient education.
Some studies have shown that Black, NHs have greater access to care.
Risk factors associated with having a poorer quality medical home include: non-white race/ethnicity Being uninsured Non-English primary household language Poverty status <200% FPL Parent education < High School
Health care access has been identified as a major health concern for all maternal and child health populations especially children in Georgia through the 5-year needs assessment process for the 2010 Title V Block Grant. 88.3% of children 0-17 years of age in Georgia had a preventive medical visit in the past year (88.5% nationwide). For family-centered care, which is one of the components of medical home, the distribution based on parent’s report of ‘always’ or ‘usually’ on the component questions was as follows: HCP spends enough time (79.3%), HCP listens carefully (89.8%), HCP provides specific needed information (87.8%), and HCP helps parent feel like a partner in care (89.0%)
For this study, we focused on Georgia children ages 4-17 years old to ensure a level playing field, given that the guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics stipulate several well visits from 0 to age 3 and only one visit yearly thereafter until age 21.
The merge was performed using the restricted use variable – county of residence The 2007 NSCH is a national, cross-sectional, random-digit-dial landline telephone survey conducted as part of the State and Local Area Integrated Telephone Survey (SLAITS) program by NCHS, CDC in conjunction with the Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Services and Resources Administration (HRSA). The main objective of the survey is to determine national and state-specific prevalence estimates of various health indicators and experiences with the health care system among children aged <18 years in the United States. One child was selected randomly from each household to be the focus of the parent or guardian interview. During April 2007 to July 2008, a total of 91,642 interviews were completed nationwide for the 2007 NSCH and 1,782 interviews were completed in Georgia, with a national response rate of 46.7% (the product of the telephone resolution rate – 81.9%, screener completion rate – 86.4%, and interview completion rate – 66.0%). In the ARF, which is produced by the Bureau of Health Professions, HRSA provides county-level data on several indicators, including geographic codes and classifications, health professions supply and detailed demographics, health facility numbers and types, and hospital utilization . It comprises data collected from more than 50 sources including detailed mortality and natality records from NCHS, physician specialty data from the American Medical Association, and facilities data from the American Hospital Association. The ARF is updated and issued yearly. The MUA variable for Georgia was downloaded from the HRSA website. Medically underserved areas/populations are areas or populations designated as having: too few primary care providers, high infant mortality, high poverty and/or high elderly population. Total sample size for Georgia = 1,782. For our study = 1,397. AAP guidelines: several well visits between 0-3, and then one yearly after that until 21 years of age.
Quality of health care - whether care received was compassionate, culturally-effective, and family-centered
Children who received higher quality care had a response of always to all five questions, children who received moderate quality care had a response of always or usually to all five questions, and children who received lower quality care had any other combination of responses to the five questions (such as sometimes or never to any or all the questions). In creating the composite variable, all those who had no access to care, were coded as having no access to care, irrespective of their level of quality of care. The other three levels were access to lower quality care, access to moderate quality care and access to higher quality care.
Selection of control variables was guided by the Andersen’s behavioral model of health services utilization (comprising the external environment, predisposing, enabling and need domains. The external environment domain includes factors related to the child’s neighborhood: neighborhood detracting factors (presence of litter or garbage on street or sidewalk, dilapidated housing, vandalism – broken windows/graffiti) and neighborhood amenities (presence of sidewalks or walking paths, parks or playgrounds, recreations centers, and libraries). The predisposing domain includes factors that would predispose the child to use health care and a broad array of characteristics, including social networks, social interactions and culture. The enabling domain includes community and personal enabling resources, i.e. the availability of health personnel and facilities and the personal means and know-how to get to those services and make use of them. Insurance coverage (never/intermittently insured, continuous-inadequate-private, continuous-inadequate-public, continuous-adequate-private, continuous-adequate-public). The insurance coverage variable is a composite variable created from several questions covering current insurance, gaps in insurance in the previous 12 months, adequacy of insurance in terms of benefits, providers, and out-of-pocket costs, and type of insurance (public or private). The need domain includes child’s special health care need status and child’s overall health status. Apart from four variables (number of FQHCs, number of RHCs, HPSAs, and RUCC), which were obtained from the 2008 Area Resource File (ARF), and the MUA variable downloaded from the HRSA website, all other variables were obtained from the 2007 NSCH PUF.
Mother-type: biological, step, foster, adoptive
Reference group for insurance is children with continuous-adequate-private insurance
First bullet: Higher odds of having access to lower quality care versus no access to care. Analysis among the subpopulation of CSHCN showed estimates generally in the same direction as those among all children aged 4-17 years. The estimates were however larger with wider confidence intervals
Insurance coverage is the major determinant of whether children have access to health care ( ↑ in enrollment (face-to-face versus online), elimination of gaps (economic situation or administrative bottlenecks), adequacy (providers, benefits, out-of-pocket costs). The Medicaid & Peach Care for Kids program in Georgia, while providing eligible children with access to needed care, would have to ensure that pediatricians who accept to see these children are willing to provide family-centered care for them. As is well known, reimbursement rates are lower in the public insurance market than in the private market. Pediatricians who see Medicaid/Peach Care for Kids patients may not spend as much time with each patient in order to increase their volume. The state needs to provide adequate reimbursement rates to maintain and improve provider participation, and quality standards must be enforced for all providers. Race/Ethnicity It is unfortunate that minority populations (Black, NHs and Hispanics) have significantly lower odds of having access to higher/moderate quality care. Previous research supports our findings. This may not be unconnected to cultural differences between providers and patients. However, we were unable to explore this factor in our data.
Among the CSHCN population , younger age (4-9 years) was associated with having access to higher/moderate quality care. In order to ensure smooth transitions from pediatric providers to adult health care providers for this special population, it will be important to maintain the recommended yearly well-checkups for developmentally appropriate health assessments and counseling. The Children Medical Services (CMS) program in Georgia, a state health program charged with providing care coordination and other needed services for children (0 to 21yrs) who have an eligible chronic medical condition and meet the financial criteria, needs to ensure that their clients are making visits regularly to their pediatricians. This will create opportunities for transition plans to be made. Making this transition smooth will also meet the National Performance Measure 6: the percentage of youth with special health care needs who received the services necessary to make transitions to all aspects of adult life, including adult health care, work and independence. It may also be that the older CSHCN (10-17 years) have less access to quality health care because the pediatricians do not feel competent to handle them and so prefer not to see them or when they do see them, provide care that is not compassionate, culturally-sensitive or family-centered. For Georgia, one of our current performance measures (State Performance Measure 6) is the percent of pediatricians and family physicians who have positive attitudes toward treating children with special health care needs. As Georgia addresses this measure through activities such as an attitudinal survey of AAP-Georgia Chapter, and the Georgia Association of Family physicians, and holding meetings with leaders in Georgia medical schools to develop a strategy to expose medical students to treating CSHCN, this may go a long way to improve the kind of care that the older CSHCN receive.
Limitations: The NSCH survey is cross-sectional and therefore causality cannot be inferred. Responses were based on parent’s perceptions and were not validated by cross-checking the children’s medical records. Given that the survey required parents to report on occurrences in the past year, there may have been some reporting errors. In addition, given that the analyses were performed at the state level, some cells containing very small numbers had to be collapsed. Another limitation is the lack of a multilevel model to address the county level factors.
THE DETERMINANTS OF TIMELY ACCESS TO QUALITY HEALTH CARE Presentation to GEORGIA PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION ANNUAL MEETING APRIL 12 TH , 2011 CHINELO OGBUANU, MD, MPH, PHD, SENIOR MCH EPIDEMIOLOGIST
DCH Mission ACCESS Access to affordable, quality health care in our communities RESPONSIBLE Responsible health planning and use of health care resources HEALTHY Healthy behaviors and improved health outcomes
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