Managing Population Change <ul><li>Key statements: </li></ul><ul><li>The population of many LEDCs is growing rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>Governments in LEDCs have tried to manage population growth </li></ul><ul><li>LEDC Governments use anti-natalist policies </li></ul>
Examples of Managing Population in LEDCs <ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><li>The one child policy </li></ul><ul><li>Population Control </li></ul><ul><li>Kerala, </li></ul><ul><li>Southern India </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Population Education </li></ul> http://www.globaleye.org.uk/secondary_summer2002/focuson/case1.html http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F05E2DE113EF937A35752C0A962958260
China ’s One Child Policy <ul><li>Why did China ’s Government need to introduce such a drastic scheme? </li></ul><ul><li>What have been the impacts of this type of population control? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some of the long term impacts of a one child policy scheme? </li></ul>
China ’s One Child Policy Why was it introduced? <ul><li>http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/7000931.stm </li></ul><ul><li>Previous Governments had been encouraging couples to have large families to increase the country ’s workforce. </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1970 ’s China’s population was growing very quickly – in 1950 it was 1.9% </li></ul><ul><li>The Government soon realised if this continued population growth would be unsustainable </li></ul><ul><li>In 1979, the Chinese government introduced the 'One Child Policy', limiting couples to one child. </li></ul><ul><li>This form of 'population control' has caused controversy ever since. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Poorer families in the </li></ul><ul><li>countryside have strongly </li></ul><ul><li>resisted the 'One Child </li></ul><ul><li>Policy'. They need children to work the land, and some have had more children despite the risk of heavy fines. </li></ul>China ’s One Child Policy What is it? But without registration as a citizen, the newborn child is doomed to a hidden life, with no right to education or a decent job.
<ul><li>In December 2001, the government took steps to soften the policy. Families in rural areas are now officially allowed two children if their first-born child is a girl. Meanwhile, ethnic minorities are allowed two or three children because they represent only a fraction of China's population and often live in hostile environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, a new fund to help children is paid for by the fines from couples that break the rules. The Chinese government has also introduced measures that will improve the position of women by giving them more opportunities in education and jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>China's population is now 1.3 billion. The Chinese government argues that without the 'One Child Policy', there could have been 320 million more mouths to feed. But education and health care has also played a part in reducing China's birth rate. </li></ul>China ’s One Child Policy Long term Implications
<ul><li>The falling birth rate is leading to the population structure becoming unbalanced between young and old and male and female </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think might happen to the population structure in the future? </li></ul>China ’s One Child Policy What does the future hold?
India ’s Population <ul><li>In March 2001, India's latest census revealed a total population of 1.027 billion. </li></ul><ul><li>Over the last decade, India's population has grown by 181 million, the equivalent of the entire population of Brazil and could become the world's most populated country by 2020. </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, the rate of population growth in India is falling, and population policies are changing too. </li></ul>
Kerala Kerala may be one of India ’s poorest states but it has experienced the greatest fall in fertility rates. Here women have an average of 2 children, the same level as the UK
Kerala <ul><li>Kerala isn ’t a country, but merely a state within India, but its population is 29 million people!! (larger than Canada's population) </li></ul><ul><li>Kerala State has the highest life expectancy in India (more than 70 years -- a little higher than China's) and the highest rate of literacy in general and female literacy in particular (considerably higher than China's). </li></ul><ul><li>In the late 1980 ’s Kerala's birth rate reached 20 per 1000 (falling from 44 per 1,000 in the 1950's) </li></ul><ul><li>Kerala's declining birth rate (estimated at 18 per 1,000 by 1991). </li></ul>
Kerala <ul><li>The moving force has been the desire of Keralan women -- less threatened by child mortality and more educated than in other poor societies -- to free themselves from continuous child rearing. </li></ul><ul><li>where gender bias has been overcome through expansion of female education and pro-female laws of property inheritance for many. </li></ul><ul><li>It suggests also the importance of education (especially female education), good health services (along with permissive opportunities for family planning) and legal rights for women. </li></ul>
Emancipation of Women <ul><li>Another clear difference is their level of education. 85% of women in Kerala are literate, and girls outnumber boys in higher education. </li></ul><ul><li>Women with qualifications are more likely to work, and marry later. The average age of marriage for women in Kerala is the highest in India, which again reduces the likelihood of having a large family. </li></ul><ul><li>With better education, women are more likely to know how to keep their children healthy. Greater investment in health care by the state government helps too. Consequently, infant mortality in Kerala has fallen dramatically from 210 deaths per 1,000 children in 1930 to 14 deaths per 1,000 today. If children have a greater chance of survival, families are less likely to try for more. </li></ul>
The position of women Kerala's success is thanks to the state government's priority in meeting the basic needs of people, especially young mothers. Compared to other parts of India, women have been treated differently in Kerala for over a century. Keralese women are regarded as an asset rather than a drain on a family's finances. Instead of paying out a dowry when daughters marry, parents in Kerala receive money from the bridegroom's family. Some women can inherit and own land, giving them financial independence and power of their own.
Population Changes in MEDCs <ul><li>Why has life expectancy continued to grow in MEDCs? </li></ul>Reasons for high life expectancy
Ageing Populations <ul><li>More pensioners than under 16 ’s for first time ever </li></ul>
Population Card Sort exercise… <ul><li>Sort the cards into categories (of your choice). There must be a minimum of 3 groups, maximum of 6. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What categories did you use? Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Define social, political and economic </li></ul><ul><li>Sort your cards using these 3 headings. </li></ul><ul><li>When you have completed the lists try to use evidence from the cards to complete the worksheet ( ‘social, economic, etc) </li></ul>
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