Nexus International School Putrajaya Clarity about the Learning Dr Rosemary Martin Monday 19th September
Learning IntentionPrinciples and practices of establishingclarity about learning in the classroom
Clarity about the Learning: the Keystone of AfL● Learning intentions● Relevance● Examples and modelling● Success criteria● Checking for understanding Both teacher and learners need to be clear about what is being learnt.
Learning intentions can come from:● The curriculum goals● IGCSE prescriptions● Diagnostic assessment information● Other assessment that has been identified as a learning need (EG learner profiles/skills)● Reflective discussions between teachers and learners that indicate the next learning step.
Levels of Learning● Learning intentions can be:● Global – e.g. to write a report● Or specific – e.g. to structure a report● Or more specific - e.g. to write the introduction to a report in order to summarise what the report is about.
Levels of learningLevels of learning covered within eachclassroom are very much dependent onlearners’ needs. The learning should bein manageable “chunks” that thelearners can handle.
A maths example● Global - e.g. statistics● Specific – e.g. to draw a line graph● More specific – e.g. to mark axes on a line graph
A science example● Global – e.g. light and sound waves● Specific – e.g. how to measure light and sound waves● More specific – e.g. to use a cathode oscilloscope
A history example● Golbal – e.g. the revolutionary process● Specific – e.g. The Russian Revolution● More Specific – e.g. The causes of the Russian Revolution
A Skills ExampleGlobal – e.g. to learn collaborativelySpecific – e.g. to work in groups of fourMore specific – e.g. to listen to each otherand make sure that everyone has a chanceto be heard.
Transparency of Learning IntentionsIn order for a learning intention to be sharedeffectively it needs to be clear andunambiguous, explained by the teacher in away that makes sense to the learners – inlearner-friendly language.
Don’t confuse the learning with the task!● The learning intention is what you want the learners to recognise, understand or be able to do.● The instructions for the activities and tasks outline the activities that the learners will carry out in order to learn.
Judging the quality of learning intentions …● To make a list of words which could replace “said” Write a learning intention that captures that learning behind this activity.
Judging the quality of Learning Intentions● To estimate the length of a horse Reword this as a learning intention that is“context free”.
Judging the quality of learning intentions● Learning to make a kaleidoscopeRewrite this so that it captures the deeperideas inherent in the learning.
Establish Relevance● Discuss with the learners why they are learning this at all.● How is the learning relevant in their lives? When might they use or need this learning?● Share with them how it fits into the bigger picture of their learning.
Model the process or look at an exemplar● This provides learners with an opportunity to see what the learning might look like● Learners have an opportunity to discern what ‘quality’ is or is not● It can be used to co-construct success criteria● Learners appreciate the guidance that exemplars or modelling provide.
Marshall and DrummondIt is simply about making the learning explicitby focusing learners’ attention onunderstanding quality.Learning is improved when notions of qualityare combined with modelling.
Success Criteria – why bother?● They show the learners what they are aiming for and how to get there● Learners can self and peer assess independently from the teacher● Learners are clear about what it is they are going to be evaluated or assessed on● Learners have something to refer to when they want to check if they are on track or not.
Process and Product Criteria● Process – How will learners go about achieving the learning intention?● Product - How will they know that they have achieved it?● Whether learners require process or product criteria or both depends on the learning being covered.
Learners should help to define the Success Criteria whenever possible.● It involves them in the definition of process and quality● They are being asked to link the learning intention with the criteria – they are making connections● Thinking about what the learning might entail is a much more challenging learning experience than being told.
Learning Intentions, Success Criteria and Task need to be separated but aligned.● The learning intention is what you want the learners to recognise, understand or be able to do● The Success criteria answer the question ”how will we know that we have achieved this?” or “How will we go about this learning?”● The instructions for the tasks or activities describe the activities that the learners will carry out in order to learn. These will change according to the context of the learning.
Alignment● L.I. We are learning how to describe a particular event in detail● S.C. ● Focus on a particular event ● Give details of setting and atmosphere ● Cover only relevant aspects of the event ● Pace your writing to suit the event ● Use precise verbs and adjectives Task: Choose an important event in your story about the swimming sports and rewrite in detail
Lack of Alignment● L.I. We are learning how to describe a particular event in detail● S.C. ● Give details of setting and atmosphere ● Use language appropriate to audience ● Make sure spelling and punctuation are correct ● Write at least one page. Task: Re-write your story about yesterday’s swimming sports
Check that learners understand● Give frequent opportunities for learners to check their understanding (or correct their misunderstandings!) with you or one another● Give learners time to think before responding to a question● Model the use of thinking tine and shared understanding if necessary.
Display Learning Intentions and Success CriteriaThese need to be visually displayed forevery lesson so that you and thelearners can refer to them during thelesson.
Recap.● Clarify L.I. at planning stage● Create a climate where learners expect a learning intention● Explain LI in learner speak and display it● Discuss the relevance of the learning● Model the process or look at an exemplar● Invite learners to share in writing the success criteria● Keep checking that the learners understand● Ensure that learners refer to the LI and SC when working on the task.
Suggestions for group discussions● How might planning and classroom practice s change to incorporate principles of clarity?● How can we plan for units of work to include global and specific learning intentions?● Are we teaching according to learners’ needs?● How can we plan so that teaching is flexible to learners’ needs?● Have we broken the learning down into manageable “chunks” for learners – each one of them as a separate learning intention?● Are our plan books “live” documents?