Teaching as Inquiry What capabilities do we What educational as students need in outcomes are valued order to achieve more as for our students? and self-regulated learners? How are our students doing in relation to those outcomes? What capabilities do we as teachers need to better promote the What has been the learning of our impact on student students? outcomes of our changed actions aslearners, teachers and leaders? What capabilities do we as leaders/ facilitators need to better promote the learning of our Engage students in new teachers to bridge the learning experiences gap for our students? Deepen our capabilities as students, teachers and leaders through further learning
Assessment● How do you know what learners need? Where does data collection and analysis fit into our inquiry cycle?● Why collect data? When is it appropriate to collect data? Assessment data or information is time limited in terms of its value to support students with their current learning.● We often use ‘data’ or ‘assessment information’ interchangeably, but what do we mean? Discuss with the people around you.
Purposes of Assessment1. The use of assessment to help build pupils’ understanding, within day-to-day lessons.2. The use of assessment to provide information on pupils’ achievements to those on the outside of the pupil- teacher relationship: to parents (on the basis of in-class judgments by teachers, and test and examination results), and to further and higher education institutions and employers (through test and examination results).3. The use of assessment data to hold individuals and institutions to account, including through the publication of results which encourage outsiders to make a judgment on the quality of those being held to account.
Formative and Summative AssessmentWhat a pupil does or says will be observed and interpreted by theteacher, or other learners, who build on that response to develop adialogue aimed at helping learners to take their next steps. This isformative assessment, which contrasts with summativeassessment.There are characteristic differences between the two uses ofassessment:• Summative comes at the end of learning episodes, whereas formativeis built in to the learning process;• Summative aims to assess knowledge and understanding at a givenpoint in time, whereas formative aims to develop it;• Summative is static and one-way (usually the teacher or examinerjudges the pupil), whereas formative is on-going and dynamic(feedback can be given both to the pupil and the teacher);• Summative follows a set of pre-defined questions, whereas formative
Formative and Summative Assessment● How and when do you, as a classroom or subject teacher, employ each of these strategies?● What do you do with the information that you gain from the assessments?● What are the difficulties associated with each?
ASSESSMENT for Learning“…the term ‘assessment’ refers to all those activities undertaken by teachers, and by their students in assessing themselves, which provide information to be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged.” ‘Inside the Black Box’, 1998
However, frequent summative testing is not, of itself,formative.A teacher may set pupils some questions, whether in a testor in routine written work, and in the light of their results tellthem what they need to do to reach, for example, the nexttarget or level. This is not formative unless the interaction isdesigned to help pupils to learn. This crucial point can be illustrated by a boy’s response tothe marking of his homework. The teacher had written onthe work “use paragraphs”, to which he retorted: “If I’dknown how to use paragraphs, I would have done”. Marks,levels, judgmental comments or the setting of targets,cannot, on their own, be formative. Pupils may need help toknow how they can improve.
Self Assessment● Learners of any age self-assess when they have the required information● Learners need to be taught how to use that information in order to self-assess accurately● Clear learning intentions, success criteria and exemplars support learners to self assess● Self-assessment encourages learners to take responsibility for their learning
Peer Assessment● Assessing the work of others against given criteria compels learners to understand more comprehensively and supports the development of their own metacognition.● “Pupil groups can mark each other’s work, and thereby learn to think about the aim of a piece of work and to understand the criteria of quality” (Black and Wiliam, 1998).● If pupils merely compete to prove who is right or dismiss one another’s comments rather than taking them seriously, they are again being judgmental rather than formative. Thus the ideal is that pupils engage in formative assessment for
Think, Pair, Share● Describe a lesson/topic where learners engaged in self or peer assessment● What information did you give them in order for them to successfully carry this out?● What happened as a result of the self or peer assessment?● What would you do differently?
In summaryEffective Assessment:● Benefits students● Involves students● Supports teaching and learning goals● Is planned and communicated● Is suited to the purpose● Is valid and fair