Impact of International Organizations on Governmental OER Policies


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PhD research presentation GO-GN seminar in Cape Town. Igor Lesko

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Impact of International Organizations on Governmental OER Policies

  1. 1. Impact of International Organizations on Governmental OER Policies PhD Research Presentation, GO-GN Seminar, December 2013, Cape Town, South Africa Twitter: @igor_lesko Unless otherwise noted, Impact of International Organizations on Governmental OER Policies by Igor Lesko is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Open Sharing, Global Benefits The OpenCourseWare Consortium
  2. 2. Context: Personal • Working in the OER field (Openness in Education) for 6 years
  3. 3. OpenCourseWare Consortium
  4. 4. OCWC Members present in 49 different countries Nearly 300 institutions and organizations worldwide advancing development, use and sharing of OER and open educational practices in higher education
  5. 5. The purpose of Open Education Week, organized by OCWC, is to raise awareness of the open education movement and opportunities it creates in teaching and learning worldwide:
  6. 6. Context: Personal • Working in the OER field (Openness in Education) for 6 years • Participated in numerous research projects (impact of OER/OCW, benefits as well as challenges)
  7. 7. Context: Demand for Education Demand versus Supply Tens of thousands of universities would have to be built (with 40 000 students each) in order accommodate growing demand for HE from South American, Asian and African regions International Council for Open and Distance Learning (2009): Global Trends in Higher Education, Adult and Distance Learning ( Accessed 14 May 2013 By michaelmessina(CCBY-NC-ND)
  8. 8. Context: Rising cost of education and decreasing public funding By marsmet471 (CCBY-NC-SA) By mrchrisadams (CCBY-NC)
  9. 9. Context: Developments in ICTs: Access to resources anytime, anywhere By thelampnyc (CCBY-NC-ND) By Matt from London (CCBY) By Ed Yourdon (CCBY-SA) By OER Africa (CCBY)
  10. 10. Role of OER OER can make education: • More Accessible •Affordable •Efficient •Contribute to improved quality •Sustainable While, at the same time, contributing to: •widening access •expansion of lifelong learning opportunities Since 2002, thousands of resources released as OER
  11. 11. Next big step in the OER/OE movement OER policies in order to advance mainstreaming and uptake of OER practices (openness in education)
  12. 12. PhD Research Impact of International Organizations on Governmental OER Policies
  13. 13. Why Governmental OER policies? • In the context of widespread budget cuts, growing demand for education, and rising cost of education, governments are searching for new and innovative ways to address the growing demand for postsecondary education while making education more affordable, accessible and of better quality. • In this context, governments around the world have been proposing strategies or approving policies related to OER (India, Netherlands, Indonesia, USA, Brazil, South Africa, etc).
  14. 14. Why focus on International Organizations (IOs) ? • IOs increasingly seen as policy actors as opposed to just policy advisors or mediators (Henry et al., 2001) • National policymaking is still largely mediated by national politics and traditions However • It is increasingly linked to globalized policy discourses, pressures from Inter-governmental Organizations (IGOs) and/or global policy networks (INGOs, etc.) (Rizvi and Lingard, 2010)
  15. 15. Why focus on International Organizations (IOs) ? • While there appears to be consensus about the influence of IOs on national policy making little is known about whether and how these IO’s influences translate into concrete national policies
  16. 16. Research Questions • What are the key IO OER policy instruments? • What impact have these key IO OER policy instruments had on Governmental OER policies? • What recommendations, if implemented, would lead to IO OER policies more effectively supporting governmental OER policies?
  17. 17. Which IOs? IGOs INGOs IOs Associati ons
  19. 19. IGOs: Instruments to Influence educational policy processes • Producing policy reports • Providing financial support through loans and funding initiatives • Data collection and analysis • Offering policy advice • Sponsoring or organizing international/regional conferences and networks • Providing analytical assistance • Issuing non-binding and biding guidelines or declarations • Carrying out country and thematic reviews (Balzer and Martenas 2004; Shuller and Vincent-Lancrin, 2009)
  20. 20. IGOs: Some notable OER Policy Instruments • UNESCO: Paris OER Declaration • OECD: Policy Recommendations • UNESCO/COL: OER handbooks and policy template • EC: Opening up education
  21. 21. Which IOs? IGOs INGOs IOs Associati ons
  22. 22. Which INGOs? Selection criteria: Currently influencing global/national educational policy landscape or potential to do so in the future OCWC CC OPN INGOs OER Africa OER Asia
  23. 23. Which Associations? Selection criteria: Currently influencing global/national educational policy landscape or potential to do so in the future ICDE EADTU AIESAD Associati ons AAOU ACDE
  24. 24. INGOs and Associations: Policy Instruments • • • • • • • Producing policy reports Providing policy advice Data collection and analysis Carrying out country and thematic reviews Advocacy (national and global levels) Organizing international conferences and networks Actively promoting and encouraging OER practices at HEIs • INGOs and soft law – potential to influence development of international norms through IGOs for example (Christensen, 2006)
  25. 25. Example: IGO Policy Initiative Urging governments to openly license publicly funded educational materials:
  26. 26. Example: IGO Policy Initiative Policy implications in relation to expanding OER initiatives:
  27. 27. Foundations Included because: • Early catalytic players in the field (providing seed funding for OER projects) • Small amount of funding = national initiatives in some cases • While government funding and policy is more important, it is necessary to document such processes/impact of foundations (part of policy process)
  28. 28. Which Foundations? Hewlett IDRC Saylor Gates Foundations Shuttlew orth OSF Qatar F.
  29. 29. Foundations: Policy Instruments • Providing seed funding for new initiatives • Organizing and sponsoring meetings with various stakeholders • Providing funding for research initiatives in order to increase impact evidence base (part of policy process)
  30. 30. Which Governments to include in the study? Level of analysis (jurisdictions): provincial/state, national Netherlands Wales India Mongolia South Africa Kenya Colombia Oman Indonesia France Poland Slovenia USA Brazil Scotland Lithuania Senegal
  31. 31. Example of National Policy Initiatives I Improve ability to deliver education and career training programs:
  32. 32. Example of National Policy Initiatives II Address demand through increasing distance teaching offerings and creation of OER
  33. 33. Example of National Policy Initiatives III
  34. 34. Research Methodology Step I Case studies approach • In relation to IOs and Foundations: • Identification of main policy instruments for influencing policy developments or changes • Identification of key OER policy instruments at IOs (to be validated through interviews) and instruments at Foundations to be also validated through interview
  35. 35. Research Methodology Step I • Interviews with IO representatives (validation of key OER instruments, exploring intended/observed impact of such instruments) • Interviews with representatives from Foundations (validation of key OER) instruments, exploring intended/observed impact of such instruments
  36. 36. Research Methodology Step II In relation to Governments • Documenting/researching OER policy developments that have taken place in the country x (retrospectively plus 4 years) • Protocolled interviews with Government representatives
  37. 37. Research Methodology Step III • • • • Based on lessons learnt from Steps 1 & 2 developing recommendations/guidelines in the context of how IOs OER policies/policy instruments could more effectively support governmental OER policies Policy analysis framework developed by Rizviand Lingard (2010): Policy as process as opposed to policy as text document only: Contextual issues; Policy and Textual Issues, Implementation and Outcomes Issues – to be appropriated for interviews with governmental representatives Evaluation – IOs OER policy instruments Delphi Method
  38. 38. References • Balzer, C., and Martens, K. (2004). International higher education and the Bologna process: What part does the European Commission play. epsNet 2004 Plenary conference on political science after the EU enlargement, Prague, June. • Christensen, K. R. (2006). International Nongovernmental Organization: Globalization, Policy Learning and Nation-State. Intl Journal of Public Administration (29): 281-303. • Henry, M., Lingard, B., Rizvi, F. and Taylor, S. (2001.) The OECD, Globalization and Education Policy, Oxford: Pergamon Press. • Rizvi, F. and Bob, L. (2010). Globalizing Education Policy, New York: Routlege • Schuller, T. and Vincent-Lancrin, S. (2009). OECD Work in the Internationalization of Higher Education: An Insider Perspective. In Bassett, R.M. and Maldonado, A. (Eds.), International Organizations and higher education policy: Thinking globally, acting locally? (pp. 65-81). New York: Routlege.
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