It is thought that in pagan times this was the location of an altar, an eternal fire, or even a temple to Perkūnas. King Mindaugas built the original cathedral in 1251 after his conversion to Christianity . In the long course of history it has been rebuilt several times . As a result, othic, renaissance, and baroque styles are reflected in its architectural history.
As reconstructed by Laurynas Stuoka-Gucevičius in 1783 , the Cathedral
is a grandiose, harmonious and monumental building in the classicist style, with 11 lateral chapels, a sacristy, north and south side entrances and a portico at the western end. The building is rectangular and of symmetrical composition.
The bell tower is 52 metres high and free-standing in front of the church. The bell tower stands on the remains of the fortifications of the Lower Castle.
The lowest round tier of the bell tower dates back to the second part of the 14th century. Later the bell tower became a belfry. The next tier was built in the 17th century with the installation of the clock made in Germany by Joseph Bergman.
The clock still shows the time perfectly .
St. Casimir’s chapel The symmetrical cupolas of the sacristy and the Chapel of St Casimir rise at the eastern end of the building, while colonnades line both sides. They consist of domes, lamps and helmets with crosses.
A tall portico with 6 Doric columns decorate the main fasade of the Cathedral. The tympanum portrays the sacrifice of Noah. Three monumental figures stand a top the Cathedrals front pediment: St Stanislaus, St Helen and St Casimir.
The main facade was adorned with sculptures of the Four Evangelists by Italian sculptor Tommaso Righi. Baroque statues stand in niches among the columns and in the niches at the extremes of the façade.