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2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward
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2012 URISA Track, Four Corners Legacy: Monuments, Not Math, Warren Ward

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Recent media attention reported that the Four Corners Monument was "in the wrong place" by 2.5 miles. In fact, the history of the Four Corners Monument, set in 1875 and refurbished in 2010, provides …

Recent media attention reported that the Four Corners Monument was "in the wrong place" by 2.5 miles. In fact, the history of the Four Corners Monument, set in 1875 and refurbished in 2010, provides surveyors and GIS with all the legal backing necessary to accept existing monuments instead of setting new multiple monuments. Surveyors are responsible for the curious practice of setting multiple monuments, or "pin gardens". This presentation examines numerous pin gardens and explains how only one constitutes a property corner by using legal rational, not math.

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  • 1. The FOUR CORNERS LEGACY Monuments, Not Math, Define Property Boundaries And 1,001 Reasons Why Surveyors Plant Pin Gardens Anyway Warren D. Ward, CO PLS 25971 March, 2012
  • 2. A (property) CORNER is a point of reference determined by the survey process.• A monument is the physical object set in the ground to identify a corner.• The above concept is stated in the BLM Manual, and codified by many state statutes.• End result: When a duly licensed surveyor places a monument, they have established a legal property corner. Subsequent surveyors DO NOT have some mystic right of superior math to discard previous surveyors’ work. Retracement, retracement, retracement!
  • 3. - Four Corners monument set in 1875.- 2009 News report that the 1875 stone was off by 2.5 miles!
  • 4. • The true history is a good example of case law for surveyors to follow
  • 5. – Some surveyors practice the frustrating act of setting multiple monuments for one property corner, or “pin gardens”
  • 6. 1,001 reasons surveyors give for planting pin gardens, despite the legal precedent that discourages such confusing practice.
  • 7. Have a nice day! In other words, may your monument prevail over some other guy’s touchscreen.
  • 8. Deseret News Four Corners marker 2 1/2 miles off? Too late• By Lynn Arave• Published: Monday, April 20, 2009• Laypeople easily use modern GPS
  • 9. Laypeople can easily research surveying history, and make the wrong conclusion
  • 10. Deseret NewsFour Corners Monument is indeed off mark • By Lynn Arave • Published: Thursday, April 23, 2009 • After surveyors call in to insist that there is no error
  • 11. PID: NGS DATA SHEET BBCD57Designat FOUR CORNERS 2010ion: Sta mpi COLORADO UTAH ARIZONA NEW MEXICO 1992 ng:Stab Monument will probably hold position wellility:Setti Mat foundation or concrete slab other than pavement ng:Desc THE STATION IS THE CENTER OF AN 8-INCH DIAMETER BRASS USDOI/BLM DISK MARKINGripti THE POINT COMMON TO COLORADO, UTAH, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO. IT IS LOCATED on: AT THE NAVAJO NATIONS FOUR CORNERS MONUMENT, MANAGED BY THE NAVAJO PARKS AND RECREATION DEPARTMENT, TEL: 928-871-6647. THE FOUR CORNERS MONUMENT INSTALLED IN 1992 (NGS PID: AD9256, NOW CONSIDERED DESTROYED) WAS REMOVED AND THE DISK RESET IN 2010 DURING RECONSTRUCTION OF THE MONUMENT AND VISITOR PLAZA. THE DISK WILL EVENTUALLY BE STAMPED "2010."Observe 2010-07-07T22:39:00Z d:Sour OPUS - page5 1009.28 ce:
  • 12. REF_FRAME: NAD_83(CORS96 EPOCH: 2002.000 SOURCE: NAVD88 (Computed using UNITS: SET PROFILE DETAILS) 0 GEOID09) m ± 0.027 LAT: 36° 59 56.31568" UTM 12 SPC 3003(NM W ) m ± 0.011 LON: -109° 2 42.62051" NORTHING: 4096544.982m 666054.142m m ± 0.003 EASTING: 673944.597m 722137.487m ELL HT: 1460.802 m CONVERGENCE: 1.17671173° -0.72935591° ± 0.015 X: -1664599.638 POINT SCALE: 0.99997275 1.00005994 m COMBINED FACTOR: 0.99974356 0.99983074 ± 0.009 Y: -4821995.076 m ± 0.023 Z: 3818181.565 m ± 0.016ORTHO HT: 1481.544 m
  • 13. Denver Post Four Corners spot is off the mark• By The Associated Press• Published: Monday, April 20, 2009• Updated: Thursday, April 23, 2009
  • 14. Cortez Journal On the markFour Corners National Monument officials dedicate completion of $1M plaza work • By Hope Nealson • Published: Sunday, September, 19, 2010 • 18 months after first report, the monument is now correct.
  • 15. New Mexico
  • 16. Utah
  • 17. Arizona
  • 18. Colorado
  • 19. Colorado Case Law: Monuments, Not Math Define Property! • All monuments in 10- Lot subdivision otherwise set• Morales v. CAMB, a partnership Colorado Court of Appeals, March 22, 2007 correctly in 1980, and• 2007 Colo. App. LEXIS 482, 2007 WL 851628 all acreages correct as• Boundary dispute; subdivision monuments; monuments vs. calls. reported on 1980 plat.• In this boundary dispute between the owners of adjoining subdivision lots, a simple issue • Two 1980 monuments was presented. The location of the boundary as described on the metes and bounds were set in error, or descriptions on the subdivision plat, and as shown on the plat map, favors one lot owner. blunder, by 13’, along (Note: Monuments set accurately throughout 1980 subdivision, two corners “off” by 13’) a 100’ lot line. • Both Lots vacant.• The location of subdivision monuments on the ground, placed pursuant to C.R.S. § 38- • In 2003, surveyor 35-105(1), and approximately 13 feet south of the platted line, favors the other lot owner. during a “replat” discovered the discrepancy, set two• The subdivision plat contains the required surveyor’s certificate attesting that appropriate new monuments in monuments had been placed on the ground. Applying rules of survey interpretation, the the accurate latter owner wins. mathematical location, and filed a• Monuments prevail over metes and bounds description (sic – see note), even if they are plat that showed the graphically depicted on a subdivision plat map.(emphasis added)(note: Subdivision discrepancy. Lots are simultaneous conveyance, not metes and bounds).• Indeed, in this situation, the monuments are “conclusive.”See Everett v. Lantz, 126 Colo. 504, 514, 252 P. 2d 103 (1952).• This is the holding even if (as here) the plat’s legal description does not “close” if one defers to the monuments, implying that the monuments were misplaced at the outset. (emphasis added)
  • 20. U.S. Supreme Court Monuments – Not Math Define Property!• U.S. Supreme Court• New Mexico v. Colorado, 267 U.S. 30 (1925)• No. 12 Original• Decided January 26, 1925• 267 U.S. 30• (a) That New Mexico, upon her admission as a state, was bound by the previous recognition and adoption of the earlier location by the United States, her predecessor, and could not be heard to disavow the boundary thus recognized. P. 267 U. S. 41.• (b) The effect of this recognition of the earlier location by the United • The lengthy, archived States was not impaired by the temporary recognition of the later one by explanation includes the General Land Office. Id. recognition of the many problems that• (c) After Colorados admission as a state, her right to rely upon the disrupt an orderly boundary previously established could not be impaired by any subsequent society when survey action of the United States. Id. lines and monuments are changed.• (d) New Mexico was bound also by her own recognition and adoption of the earlier line upon and after her admission to statehood. Id. .• 2. The boundary between the States of Colorado and New Mexico is the line of the 37th parallel as surveyed and marked by Darling (emphasis added) from the Macomb monument westwardly to the 109th Meridian, and as surveyed and marked by Major and Preston from the said Macomb monument eastwardly to the Preston monument on the 103rd or Cimarron Meridian. P. 267 U. S. 39• Page 267 U. S. 31
  • 21. Some of Many Biblical References• Deuteronomy 19:14: Thou shalt not remove thy neighbor’s landmark, which they of old time have set…. – Proverbs 22:28: Remove not the ancient landmark, Which thy fathers have set• Deuteronomy 27:17: Cursed be he that removeth his neighbor’s landmark. And all the people shall say, Amen.
  • 22. ASKED CREW CHIEF TO FIND ORIGINAL MONUMENT, HE SAID ITWASN’T THERE. SET NEW PIN. SAME CREW CHIEF 15 YEARS LATERAS PLS FINDS ORIGINAL MONUMENT, REJECTS NEW PIN ON PLAT.
  • 23. ORIGINAL 1970 REBAR NOT GOOD ENOUGH? GREAT JOB OF CALCULATING, POOR JOB OF SURVEYING!

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