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Commercial Application of Military Airlift Aircraft (CAMAA) is a joint initiative between the United States Air Force (USAF), Boeing, and academia designed as a means to mitigate Congressionally ordered end-of-Cold War force reduction through directives such as the Base Realignment and Closure Act (BRAC). In its original form in October 2000, it was found to be inadequate or possessed limitations not necessarily conducive to project success in the estimations of program participants. A second iteration was approved for development as representative of atypical levels of industry and government collaboration. The Heavylift initiative is an outgrowth of the intent and focus of the CAMAA program utilizing a very modestly modified commercial variant of the military Boeing C-17 Globemaster IIIs, designated BC-17, so as to facilitate a duality of mission. In pursuit of this, modifications are kept to an absolute minimum (fuel tank armor designed to withstand a 23mm round retained; military radios kept locked and stowed, a steel plate fitted over the dorsal aerial refueling aperture and de-energizing of the rear cargo door to prevent in-flight deployment during commercial use) thus rendering these aircraft operational in under an hour by Air Force crews in times of national emergency, particularly those missions requiring flight into potential conflict areas.