Super chilled grains


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Products such as grains, seeds, oilseeds, nuts, and similar are still alive when stored after harvest. Their vital activity consumes their own mass and oxygen, generating carbon dioxide, water and heat. This can create a multitude of well-known troubles such as stored product weight loss and quality decrease.

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Super chilled grains

  1. 1. Digital Re-print - March | April 2013 Super chilled grainsGrain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom.All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis ofinformation published.©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any formor by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872
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  3. 3. FEATURESuperchilledgrains by Joan Rius, managing director Conserfrio, Spain P roducts such as grains, seeds, oilseeds, nuts, and similar are still Table 1: Weight loss of grain during its storage alive when stored after harvest. Their vital activity consumes their own mass and Case: oxygen, generating carbon dioxide, water Product: corn Weight and heat. This can create a multitude of Amount: 1.000 MT Grain loss, well-known troubles such as stored product Moisture: 15% temp ºC MT weight loss and quality decrease. Storage time: 3 months Insect infestation is a particular problem in poorly stored grains. Insects eat and infect Chilled grain 10 ºC 0.5 the stored product, which is also reheated Temperate grain 20 ºC 6 due to their vital activity. Insects start their presence from 13ºC, although the real Non-chilled grain 30 ºC 9 insect infestation occurs from 18ºC with a Non-chilled grain 40 ºC 30 peak between 30ºC and 40 ºC for most insect species. Mould presence and subsequently danger- tions of temperature and water content. Graph 1: Adequate conditions for ous toxins, some of them carcinogenic, may From the graph it is evident that a high grain storage enter into the food chain. Unfortunately, not product temperature or moisture, or both, all micro-flora presence is avoided by chilling will damage the grain irreversibly. the grain, since some species can survive Table 1 shows the weight loss that occur below zero degrees centigrade. However, during any grain storage depending on dif- for the most part, micro-flora growth stays ferent grain conditions. In just three months, under control since most micro-flora species the weight loss may be the 3 percent of all develop at temperatures between 20ºC and storage. Quality loss occurs also although is 40ºC. not accounted in the table. In addition, water condensation inside silos and warehouses, can make grains stick Solving storage issues to the silo/warehouse wall and rot. Traditional methods to try and solve In the case of grains with a high oil or fat these issues include natural aeration. Under content, their quality decreases quickly due cold weather, ambient aeration is an excel- to the fat oxidation. Heat speeds up this lent practice. It must however be expertly unwanted process. used since the different ambient air condi- Graph 2: Silo chilling sketch Some products change colour under tions between day and nights may create inadequate storage conditions. For example uncontrolled dryings or re-wettings of the rice changes colour from white to yellowish, stored product. and later to orange. The colour change is a Under hot or hot and humid weather clear indication of product damage during conditions, aeration is not applicable since storing, and its price drops a lot. the air does not have the right conditions to be blown into the stored product. If The evidence air is blown into the product under such Graph 1 shows different effects of storing conditions, there is a high risk of product Graph 3: Sketch of grain chilling in a a product (in this case the graph is suitable reheating and product rewetting that will warehouse for wheat and corn) under different condi- damage it soon.36 | march - april 2013 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy
  4. 4. FEATURE Grain chilling in a flat- Warehouse grain Refrigeration of a Grain chilling in a bottom metal silo chilling hopper silo concrete silo To reduce insect infestation, a common All of these benefits give a very quick and grain storage facilities can all benefit ofpractice is the use of fumigation. The chemi- payback of the capital investment in the our products used have to expertly and care- chillers, typically achieved in one or two Consergra is pioneer in the applica-fully managed, for safety reasons. And do not years. tion of chilled aeration in many products.decrease grain temperature. Our system is suitable to be used in silos Throughout the years, we have gained (made of metal or concrete, flat bottom or lots of experience in the bulk preserva-The Conserfrio system® conical bottom) and warehouses, not need- tion of products such as paddy rice in all The Conserfrio ® system can be used ing additional civil works. The cooling units its varieties and lengths, cargo rice, milled need only electrical energy. rice, maize, wheat, barley, sunflower seeds, The chiller replaces the fan. The chilled, cotton seeds, beans, soybeans and green dry air is introduced into the silo through coffee beans to name but a few. existing ducts. In benefit of the human and animal health In warehouses, the chilled air may be and of the environment as well, grains and introduced through ducts placed under or seeds must be responsibly treated as food. over floor. In both cases a ducting system must be previously installed. More inforMation: Website: Conclusion The system has demon- strated to be the most natural A low temperature is key point and cost-effec- for a good storage tive to preserve grains, seeds and perishableindependently of ambient weather con- granulates dur-ditions. Even under rain or fog there’s ing storage. Ano risk of rewetting the grain. Our low storing tem-system is based on the making of con- perature notstant conditions under which the grain only reducesstorage is easy, natural, safe and profit the product vitalearning. metabolic activ- Practices like turning the grain to cool it ity but also mosthave weak success and waste lots of energy, of the troublesalso breaking some percentage of grains. of a storing There are many direct savings and ben- without control.efits related to a correct chilled conservation. Typical usersThe most important are: of chilled aera- • Avoiding fumigation means cost savings tion are from • Less weight loss, in other words higher small farms with product output at the end of storage as little as 100 time ton storage up • Higher product quality means a higher to large plants selling price with storing • Higher head grains after the milling capacities of process. This point is especially around 100,000, important in the rice industry 500,000 or even • Energy savings in the drying process. It 1,000,000 mt. is possible and safe to store product Rice mills, with a higher moisture content if grain flour mills, feed temperature is low. A drying-cooling mills, malting combination achieves relevant energy plants, oilseed savings. crushing plantsGrain &feed millinG technoloGy march - april 2013 | 37
  5. 5. This digital Re-print is part of the March | April 2013 edition of Grain & Feed Milling Technology magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full LINKS online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on March - April 2013 first published in 1891 • See the full issue In this issue: • Additives for flour standardisation Part I: Enzymes • Measures for increasing the energy • Visit the GFMT website efficiency of UFA feed mills in Switzerland • • Contact the GFMT Team Fine grinding and BS3 Xylanase • Importance improve of trace productivity in minerals weaners for nutrient stability in feed • Super • Managing mill • Subscribe to GFMT chilled maintenance grains - Maintenance options and challenges INCORPORATING PORTS, DISTRIBUTION AND FORMULATION A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891 To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edi- tion please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link adove. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE Article reprints All Grain & Feed Milling Tecchnology feature articles can be re-printed as a 4 or 8 page booklets (these have been used as point of sale materials, promotional materials for shows and exhibitions etc). If you are interested in getting this article re-printed please contact the GFMT team for more informa- tion on - Tel: +44 1242 267707 - Email: or visit