Pest control across the supply chain


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Protecting grain and silos from insect infection is an important factor to be aware of. “Clearly millers want high quality, consistent grain,” says Martin Savage, trade policy manager, National Association for British and Irish Millers (nabim), United Kingdom, but this is not always acknowledged by farmers.

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Pest control across the supply chain

  1. 1. Digital Re-print -May | June 2013Pest control across the supply & Feed MillingTechnology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom.All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis ofinformation published.©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd.All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced in any formor by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872
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  3. 3. Protecting grain and silos from insectinfection is an important factor tobe aware of. “Clearly millers wanthigh quality, consistent grain,” says MartinSavage, trade policy manager, NationalAssociation for British and Irish Millers(nabim), United Kingdom, but this is notalways acknowledged by farmers.“There are some perceptions amongstfarmers that millers carry out a degree ofphysical cleaning of the grain after it leaves thefarm. We do process it, by removing dust andforeign bodies, but the grain itself is basicallyin the same condition as when it arrives,”says Savage. Ken Black, national account man-ager for rural hygiene, Bayer, United Kingdom,advocates a pro-active, preventative approachwhen protecting grain. “This is nothing newand should be the case every year, howeverthe need is emphasised this year given thelateness of the agricultural calendar this spring.“Predictions are that 70-80 percent offarmers still won’t have done their fabric ofthe building treatment by June,” says Black.“For this reason, we are actively promotingthe benefits of ensuring treatments are madeup to two months prior to harvest, aheadof what could be another challenging year.”Good grain store practicesWith this in mind, Savage says that pro-moting good grain store practices amongstsuppliers is very important; a factor thatoffers pay back on a number of levels.“Primarily there’s the management of thePestcontrolacross the supply chainPest controlin storageFollowing last year’s poorharvest experiencein the UnitedKingdom, there’sa clear recognitionthat every graincounts. A plannedapproach isproving key inmaximising outputfrom the supplychain1Grain&feed millinG technoloGy32 | may - June 2013
  4. 4. Grain&feed millinG technoloGy may - June 2013 | 33• Large scale building and structural fumigation with ProFume• Dedicated, experienced and certified fumigation technicians• ProFume service exclusive to Rentokil Pest Control • Nationwide coverage allows rapid responseTo arrange a free survey of your premises,or to gain further information on ourFumigation services please contact us.0800 389 only theexperts will do!Pressure SwitchRotary Vibrating Rod Capacitance ProbeBIN LEVELSwithout climbing!Binmaster level •© 2013 BinMaster, Lincoln, Nebraska uSaaffordable. reliable. safe.Inventory management systemsand bin level indicatorssmartBob and eBob softwareVIGAN Engineering s.a. • Rue de l’Industrie, 16 • B-1400 Nivelles (Belgium)Phone : +32 67 89 50 41 • Fax : +32 67 89 50 60 • Web : • E-mail : info@vigan.comVIGAN manufactures dry agribulk materials handling systems:• Portable pneumatic conveyors or grain pumps (100 - 250 tph);• Pneumatic Continuous barge & Ship Unloaders (160 - 800 tph);• Mechanical Continuous Ship Unloaders (up to 1,500 tph);• Mechanical loaders (up to 1,200 tph).as well as complete storage systems in ports and the agricultural industries.From project design to complete turnkey bulk handling solutionsand port terminals with mechanical and/or pneumaticreliable and cost effective equipment.PYEONGTAEK PORTSouth Korea1 NIV 400 tphOn rails with cable reelsLATTAKIA PORTSyria2 Mobile T2002 x 250 tphSWINOUJSCIEPoland (BUNGE GROUP)1 Loader 600 tphAn affiliate company of VAN DE WIELE group.Latest referencesVisit our websitewww.vigan.comAnn A5 victam 0212.indd 1 21/02/12 15:37:04FEATURE
  5. 5. store to keep moisture and temperaturelevels down; they themselves can damagethe grain, but they can also lead to otherproblems such as moulds and secondaryinsect infestation.”The process for controlling this starts ata very early stage and begins with thoroughstore cleaning and ensuring that any residuesof grain from the previous year are removedand treatments are applied where necessary.Black echoes Savage’s comments, notingthat in a late cereals season when there aremany other farm work pressures, there is arisk that good store hygiene will slip downthe priority list, yet it must not be forgotten.“An early application of a grain treatmentproduct to the fabric of the building willensure that the store is protected againstany previous insect infestations or re-infestations later on in the season,” saysBlack. “It offers the peace of mind thateverything is being done to protect theirvaluable stored crops.”Savage explains that working closely withfarmers to strongly advocate the cleaning ofthe store and the measures carried out to ridthem of any insects, prior to the grain beingintroduced at harvest is key. “The penaltiesat stake are really too high not to prioritisethese measures because our customers arevery sensitive about pesticide residues, so wereally encourage thorough store preparationin the first instance.”He appreciates that in order to fullyprotect the grain, a treatment will need to beapplied to the product once it’s in store andhe’s aware of customer concerns surround-ing this. That said, Savage acknowledgesthat if insecticide treatments are carriedout properly and in accordance with thelabels then it’s a reasonable and necessaryapproach.Thoroughly moderntreatmentsBlack explains that the MaximumResidue Level (MRL) for deltameth-rin - the active contained in Bayer’sgrain store treatment, K-Obiol® is2 mg/kg. “A significant advantageof K-Obiol® is that when either ofits formulations are applied at theirrecommended rate, the residuelevel is only 0.25 mg/kg - 8 timeslower than the MRL.“This is something we’re keento communicate to millers, becausewe understand the legitimate con-cerns they and their customershave regarding pesticide residues,which is why, K-Obiol® has beenformulated to have such a lowMRL,” says Black.K-Obiol® is formulated to con-trol a wide range of stored cropinsects, including grain weevils, flourbeetles, grain borers, saw-toothedgrain beetles, and flying insects too.It’s available in two modern pyre-throid formulations, both containingthe active ingredient, deltamethrin.K-Obiol® EC25 has been formu-lated to treat the fabric of grainsilos and storage facilities prior tothe introduction of grain. K-Obiol®EC25 can also be used as an admix-ture, post-harvest and will offer upto 12 months protection. The sec-ond formulation, K-Obiol® ULV6,is also designed to be used as anadmixture, post-harvest.Black explains that this treat-ment offers a number of key ben-efits. “As well as having an incrediblylow MRL, K-Obiol® also offers nowith-holding period. Other similartreatments commonly have a with-holding period of at least 90 days,meaning that the grain can’t beprocessed until three months afterthe application. Grain treated byK-Obiol® can be processed straight away.”K-Obiol’s other key advantage lieswithin its active ingredient deltamethrin.“Competitor products often contain activesfrom the organophospate chemical family,”says Black. “This is old chemistry now andhas been heavily used over the past years.Some strains of beetles and weevils are nowresistant to this and require a further applica-tion of a pyrethroid insecticide or fumiga-tion to achieve full control, heightening theamount of chemical applied to the grain andtherefore increasing the residue risk.”Peter Crowden is a specialist pest con-troller at Rutland Pest Control and sitson the NPTA (National Pest TechniciansAssociation) board. Peter specialises in pestcontrol on arable farms and explains thatK-Obiol® is his product of choice.“We’re confident in using both K-Obiol®EC25 as a treatment to the fabric of theImagecourtesyofAlphaFumigationServicesLtdGrain&feed millinG technoloGy34 | may - June 2013FEATURE
  6. 6. building and K-Obiol® ULV6 as a grainad-mixture,” says Crowden. “Deltamethrindoes not significantly penetrate the grain,therefore providing confidence that the MRLwill not be exceeded.”Financial implicationsWhile flour millers do hold some weightwhen advising on methods of best practice,Crowden believes that the biggest incentivefor growers to protect their grain is thefinancial implications associated with havingtheir wheat rejected due to insect infesta-tions. “The mere presence of insects atmills is unacceptable because they will makeit through the cleaning and sieving proc-esses and can turn up in the final products.Generally speaking, the presence of anyinsect leads to rejection.”Savage says that in the event of insectsbeing present, the grain is likely to bereturned to the farmer. Not only will he notget paid for that delivery, he’ll also have tocover the haulage cost. Failing that, it mightget used for animal feed and thereforeattract a far lower price.” Savage adds thatunderstandably, farmers are aware of this,and mills do make it very clear.“nabim and MAGB represent proces-sors on the boards of Red Tractor and theScottish Quality Crops (SQC) so we canensure that the standards focus on goodstore management and pest control. Ona practical level, mills receiving grain withinsect infestations would report the rejectionto either of those assurance schemes andthey would either carry out an immediateaudit or it would be flagged up for the nextannual audit.”New infestationsCrowden highlights another financialimplication related to insect infestation. “Inthe event of new insect infestations occur-ring in the stored grain, it will be necessaryto consider the use of ad-mixed insecticidesuch as, K-Obiol® EC25, or K-Obiol®ULV6. Another approach is aluminium phos-phide fumigation, but use of this methodis reliant on whether or not it is permittedby the end markets. Fumigation is a veryexpensive option, it can often cost anythingup to £5 per tonne. “In contrast, treatmentwith K-Obiol® EC25 is around 62-65 p pertonne and will provide up to 12 monthsprotection when used as an ad-mixture,”he says.From a pest controller’s point of view,Crowden is in agreement with Black andSavage. He warns that growers need to dealwith any pest issues before the 2013 cropis harvested, or face severe impairment tograin quality. “This will result in the loss ofgrain, lost quality premiums and the pos-sibility of a load being rejected due to insectinfestation.”Supply chain strategyWith this in mind, it would appear thatthe key for success in these challengingtimes is strategy. It begins with an early,proactive response to preparing the grainstore, well in advance of the harvest. Itthen continues into how farmers treat thegrain once it’s in the store. The strategythen extends into how the growers decideto market their product.In the United Kingdom, such a strate-gic marketing approach is advocated bythe cereals and oilseed rape levy board,the HGCA. “They encourage farmersto market their cereal proactively andaccording to a plan,” says Savage. “Thismay involve selling some of the grain earlyin the season, a further quantity mid-waythrough the year and some at the end ofthe season. Essentially this means produc-ers will be able to spread their price riskwhere they have the confidence that grainis protected for the full 12-month cycle.This is a win-win situation as, from a millingpoint of view, it helps to ensure a continu-ous supply of high-quality, insect free grainthroughout the season.More inforMation:Website: www.pestcontrol-expert.comGrain&feed millinG technoloGy may - June 2013 | 35grain silos hoppered silosOffices and Factory:Ctra. de Arenas km. 2,30013210 Villarta de San Juan • Ciudad Real- SpainT: +34 926 640 475 • F: +34 926 640 294Madrid Office:C/ Azcona, 37 • 28028 Madrid - SpainT: +34 91 726 43 04 • F: +34 91 361 15 94www.symaga.comsymaga@symaga.comFEATURE
  7. 7. We have around 100 years ofexperience in fumigatingto disinfest ships and theircargoes. These days the use of phosphinegas in bulk grain shipments, or consign-ments, is not unusual, and is often seenas an efficient use of the ship and time,arranging the fumigation to take placeduring a cargo’s voyage, using the vesselitself as a mobile, floating fumigationchamber. However, as with on-land bulkgrain fumigations, certain safety precautionsmust be observed to maintain a satisfacto-ry level of safety for all involved - the pestcontrol contractor (fumigator), the ship’screw during the voyage, and the staffinvolved in discharging the fumigated cargoat the final destination port. The legal andsafety requirements are detailed in severalofficial documents, which are available toeveryone involved in this process:FumigationHealth and safety guidance for employ-ers and technicians carrying out fumigationoperations, HSE’s document ISBN 978 07176 2999 2 - HSG251Recommendations on the safeuse of pesticides in shipsThe United Nations InternationalMaritime Organisation (IMO) Safety of Lifeat Sea (SOLAS) Convention places an obli-gation on all governments to ensure all ship-ping activities are carried out safely. The useof pesticides includes the fumigation of cargospaces and of cargo, in port, or in-transit, andany part of the ship so affected by their use, ascontained in the IMO’s Recommendations onthe Safe Use of Pesticides in Ships, Applicableto the Fumigation of Cargo HoldsWhat are the risks withphosphine fumigation?These two documents together areextensive and comprehensive. Everyoneinvolved in the fumigation of bulk grain andother cargoes, from the loading of the vesselto be fumigated, to the handling of the grain/commodity being discharged from the vesselafter in-transit fumigation, should be awareof their responsibilities to ensure it is as safean activity as possible. Responsibilities varywith the activity during the fumigation pro-cedure, but everyone must take the subjectand their part in it seriously. Perhaps becausephosphine has been in use for severaldecades, and in general is a less equipment-heavy application method, many peopleinvolved tend to take it for granted andassume that safety is built-in to the activity.It is worth reminding everyone involved inphosphine fumigation, of the lethal potentialof these ‘easy-to-use little tablets’ and theother formulations:Phosphine gas (PH3) is never kept underpressure in cylinders, as methyl bromideused to be, because it will explode. It is gen-erated on-site by water vapour reacting withthe solid metal phosphides. So you will seetablets similar in size to Alka Selzer. This isthe only similarity to the effervescent antacid,which we all know because PH3 is a deadlypoisonous gas.This is a major problem. When methylbromide was in use, everyone knew itwas a deadly gas, with lots of stories ofworkers being off work with foot or chestproblems when the gas seeped into bootsand wellingtons, or it was breathed in,undetected, damaging and sometimes lethallung problems.With methyl bromide, we were neverallowed to sail a vessel ‘under gas’. Thefumigation was completed at the quayside,with all but a few vital crew, on-shore inlocal hotels. But times have changed (notnecessarily for the better). I suspect it is dueto considerable pressure from all ends ofthe grain trade, but we now regularly seegrain cargoes travelling the oceans underphosphine fumigation. This situation wouldbe OK if everyone involved understoodand followed all the safety rules. But this isclearly not the case, as several mistakes andaccidents have shown in recent months.Government safey servicesOver recent years the Health & SafetyExecutive (HSE) has greatly reduced itsinterest in and involvement with inland fumi-gations. During the annual BPCA FumigationDiploma Course, HSE always explained thestandards and expectations in fumigation.This has gradually ceased coinciding with thephasing out of methyl bromide. The normalgrain trade has not seen any problemsin fumigating grain stocks in silos and flatstorages across the land, but we no longersee an HSE overview, or any HSE presenceat all, realising finally last year that HSE nolonger has a single specialist to advise onfumigations issues. They have, in associationwith the BPCA, produced and revised theirGuidance Notes, and this is now available asa downloadable free publication (ISBN 978 0by Mike Kelly, Acheta,United KingdomImage 2: Hatch cover resting where it landedPest controlin transitGrains on the move arenot immune frompest problems.Transportation timecan be effectivelyused to solve thisissue, but doescome with its ownset of challenges2Grain&feed millinG technoloGy36 | may - June 2013FEATURE
  8. 8. 7176 2999 2 - HSG251), very useful, but thephysical staff are no longer there – retiredand not replaced.The recent accident in NorthernIreland, involving the vessel ArklowMeadow, occurred when some phosphine‘sleeves’ were mishandled, by being lefton the wet deck still generating phos-phine gas that resulted in a large-scalehospitalisation of those who inhaled thephosphine. The investigation and briefreport, was by the Marine AccidentInvestigation Branch of Southampton (seethe accident overview).A few years ago HSE would have beenthe major safety service to be involved insituations of this nature, but in recent yearsthey have lost their fumigation specialiststhrough retirements. But what is the rel-evance of these changes? Is fumigation at seaany different in 2013 to what was the casein 2005? The answer unfortunately is yes, lesssafe, and why is as follows:Changes in perceptionWith the phasing out of methyl bro-mide, there is also a reduced level ofunderstanding of the risks and hazards ofcargo fumigations. The relevant legislationis still in place, and the strongly-wordedadvisory documents covering the activi-ties involving fumigation at sea remain,but somehow grain handlers, silo opera-tors, shippers and exporters/importersand other traders seem to have forgottenthe main issues. Fumigation is the use ofa potentially deadly gas, which is usuallysignificantly more dangerous to humansthan to insects.Let me explain this last statement sothere is no confusion;Methyl bromide would kill insects andhumans easily, within a space of a few hours;the legal human safe limit was always 5 partsper million (ppm) for an exposure of a normalworking day, and exceptionally 15 ppm for upto 15 minutes. This was for a gas everyoneknew and understood to be dangerous, andwhich was to be treated with great care andcaution. Cargoes to be fumigated with methylbromide were done either on land beforeloading, or in a ship with the crew taken off toa nearby hotel. No questions and no objec-tions, and safety was paramount, with theImage 1: Bulk grain loadingGrain&feed millinG technoloGy may - June 2013 | 37The K-Obiol®range protects the fabricof your grain storage building andequipment, as well as your stored grain.K-Obiol®ULV6 and K-Obiol®EC25 areliquid pyrethroid formulations. No withholding period after treatment Up to 12 months control K-Obiol®ULV6 is for use as an admixture K-Obiol®EC25 is for use on the fabric ofthe building, the equipment (pre-harvest)and as an admixtureUSE PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS SAFELY. ALWAYS READ THE LABEL. Accepted for use by BRI, NABIM and TASCC. K-Obiol®EC25 (MAPP 13573. PCS 03641.) contains deltamethrin 25g/L and piperonyl butoxide 225g/L.K-Obiol®UVL6 (MAPP 13572. PCS 03642) contains deltamethrin 6g/L and piperonyl butoxide 54g/L. K-Obiol®is a registered trade mark of Bayer CropScience. © Copyright of Bayer 2013.Bayer CropScience Ltd, 230 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0WB Tel: 00800 1214 9451 www.pestcontrol-expert.comGrain weevilsFlour beetlesGrain borersSaw-toothedgrain beetlesMothsAssuredProtectionfrom insect attack.A complete solution for yourstored grain protectionwww.pestcontrol-expert.comFEATURE
  9. 9. HSE, IMO and Coastguard Agency all workingto the same standard and expectation.Methyl bromide requires about 24 hoursto work, occasionally up to 48 hours, thenthe cargo can be ventilated and off-loadedor otherwise handled.Phosphine is a much slower-acting fumi-gant, not just in its generation from solidmetal phosphides, but also in its action onthe target pests, particularly insects andmites. Despite the much higher concentra-tions in most cargo fumigations, insectsand mites take days to succumb. To workeffectively the fumigation usually extends atleast 5-10 days. This is not just to make lifemore difficult for the grain trade, but it is abiological fact of insect life. Insects can oftensurvive more than a week at concentrationswhich would kill humans in minutes.So methyl bromide works quickly,destroys the ozone layer, has never had aproblem of resistance, and is ‘safe’ up to 5ppm, and was done in-port.Phosphine takes days, sometimes weeksdepending on species and temperature, hasquite a range of species showing seriousresistance, and is ‘safe’ only up to 0.1 ppm(or 0.2 ppm for 15 minutes) and is usuallydone at-sea.Remember: Methyl bromide shouldnever be used for fumigation in-transit (IMORecommendations, Annex 1D).Weighing up the dangersIt is very easy to look at this and say thathere is money talking. It is far too costly tohold a vessel in port whilst the fumigation isconducted and completed, over maybe 15days with all crew safe on shore, than toallow the ship to sail with a much morehazardous gas in use, but utilizing thevoyage time as an important componentto get the best fumigation done at thesame time.Through most of the world, we havealmost or actually, lost methyl bromidefor sound environmental reasons, butthe simple tablet or sachet or plategenerating phosphine gas is generatinga gas more lethal to humans than manypeople realise. Not quite completedfumigation sleeves left on a wet deckcould easily kill people. Working in ahold before all gas has been vented anda genuine clearance certificate issued bya technically knowledgeable fumigator,could be the last work a person does.Phosphine really is a more danger-ous gas thanmethyl bromidewas, thoughall fumigantsare hazardousto man. Thehuman safelimit of 0.1 ppmcompared to 5ppm tells it all,and is not justa silly over-reac-tion. It is agreedthroughout thewestern world,and the UnitedStates that thisvery low levelis the only safelevel to work to.My concernis to see work-ers not taking thetablets, sachetsand sleeves andplates seriously,just because theylook innocuous.We don’t need alot of scientific detail,about the differencesbetween these formulations - they all pro-duce Phosphine - sometimes quicker, some-times slower, but it is always a toxic hazardto man, and correct actions are needed tokeep everyone involved safe.Gas detecting and measuring equipmentmust be available on board, and those whoneed to use it must have received suitabletraining. Gas testing must take place duringthe voyage to ensure that areas where crewmembers will work or sleep are free fromdangerous levels of the gas. The ventilationsystem and procedures must provide a safeto handle cargo at the port of discharge,and usually this is managed by the profes-sional fumigator contracted to service thefumigated cargo.Just before I close, please also remem-ber that phosphine gas can self-ignite athigher concentrations, another reason tohandle it with care and technical under-standing. A cargo of bulk wheat loadedin the south of France for Iran, when thecargo was very warm and the ambienthumidity was high, blew the 20-tonnehatch covers off by exploding and break-ing the cleats. Only the derricks stoppedthe hatch falling into the sea, which wasfortunately calm so no more damage wasincurred and the vessel could return to aport for repairs (Images 2, 3, 4).Accident overviewRelease of phosphine gasalongside Warrenpoint,Northern IrelandOn December 5, 2012, the general cargovessel Arklow Meadow was dischargingher cargo of maize alongside the timberberth at Warrenpoint, Northern Ireland.Fumigation retainers (socks) had beenplaced on top of her cargo before thevessel had sailed from Nikatera, Ukraine.Although the vessel had been certified tocommence cargo operations by a shore-side tank inspector after he had testedthe atmosphere in the upper parts of theholds, the fumigant retainers were notremoved from the holds when dischargeoperations commenced.As a result, some of the fumigant retainerswere removed by the crew and somewere shipped into the shore hoppers. Theretainers removed by the crew startedto smoke profusely, and a retainer burst,spilling its contents when it was removedfrom the hopper. The smoking retainerstriggered a major emergency responsesituation within the port and nine peoplewere taken to hospital for treatment forthe exposure to ‘poison’.Provided by MAIB March2013More Information:Website: 4: Lightly toasted wheat!’ afterexplosion and surface flame in the holdImage 3: Testing forgas, after the eventFumigation specialist on vesselArklow Meadow during theemergencyGrain&feed millinG technoloGy38 | may - June 2013FEATURE
  10. 10. Grain&feed millinG technoloGy may - June 2013 | 39CIMBRIA.COMCONVEYING | DRYING | SEED PROCESSING | ELECTRONIC SORTING | STORAGE | TURNKEYA/S CIMBRIAFaartoftvej 22 | 7700 ThistedDENMARK | Phone: +45 96 17 90 00holding@cimbria.comSTORAGE SOLUTIONSUTMOST CONTROLAND CARE ENSURESOPTIMAL STORAGEAt Cimbria, we think of treatment and technology for every part anddetail. We possess valuable knowhow and experience gained throughmore than 60 years of global activities. And together with our thoroughknowledge of crop handling and processes, this contributes to a suc-cessful storage solution.2Flour Milling TrainingTo enrol or find out more, contact:nabim 21 Arlington Street London SW1A 1RN UK Tel: +44 (0)20 7493 2521 Fax: +44 (0)20 7493 6785 email:● Internationally recognised distance learning programme● Developed for millers by industry professionals● Studied every year by hundreds of millers worldwideAn indispensable tool for developing the knowledge andcompetence of flour millers and their colleagues.A clear presentation of the industry and process,in 7 modules.Dedicated tutor support given to every student, providingprofessional guidance throughout the course year.2013 Course Guideis available for download on the www.nabimtraining.comwebsite. Enrolments in 2013-14 course session should besubmitted – online or by email, fax or post – by August.Seven steps to successSafety, Health and HygieneWheat and the ScreenroomMill Processes and PerformanceProduct Handling,Storage and DistributionFlourPower and AutomationFlour Milling ManagementFEATURE
  11. 11.• See the full issue• Visit the GFMT website• Contact the GFMT Team• Subscribe to GFMTA subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891INCORPORATING PORTS, DISTRIBUTION AND FORMULATIONIn this issue:• Additivesfor flourstandardisationPart II:Additives other thanenzymes• High efficiencyelevatorbuckets:modern vstraditionaldesign• Feed focusPoultry• Assessingnutritional valuewith NIRMay-June2013• ‘Kill step’validation oflow-moistureextrusion• Adding value tofeed millingwith profit-oriented feedformulation• Pest controlacross the supplychainfirst published in 1891This digital Re-print is part of the May | June 2013 edition of Grain & FeedMilling Technology magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a fullonline magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features onthe docstoc website.Please click here to view our other publications on purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edi-tion please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the linkadove. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HEREArticle reprintsAll Grain & Feed Milling Tecchnology feature articles can be re-printed as a 4 or 8 page booklets (thesehave been used as point of sale materials, promotional materials for shows and exhibitions etc).If you are interested in getting this article re-printed please contact the GFMT team for more informa-tion on - Tel: +44 1242 267707 - Email: or visit