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May | June 2014
High feedstuffs costs: Improving nutritional
value of swine diets by processing conditi...
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P
ig production costs have increased
more than 10 percent during
the last five years, primari-
ly due to higher feedstuff ...
by more than five percent, com-
pared to meal diets, as shown
both in nursery pigs and in grow-
ing-finishing pigs.
This e...
DDGs have variable effect on PDI,
depending on particle size, fiber and protein
content. Several authors (Feoli, 2008 and
...
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High feedstuffs costs: Improving nutritional value of swine diets by processing conditions

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Pig production costs have increased more than 10 percent during the last five years, primarily due to higher feedstuff prices.

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High feedstuffs costs: Improving nutritional value of swine diets by processing conditions

  1. 1. Digital Re-print - May | June 2014 High feedstuffs costs: Improving nutritional value of swine diets by processing conditions www.gfmt.co.uk Grain & Feed MillingTechnology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2014 Perendale Publishers Ltd.All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872
  2. 2. ELEVATOR BUCKETS - ELEVATOR BOLTS The color blue, when used in connection with elevator buckets, is a U.S. registered trademark owned by Tapco Inc. © 2014 Tapco Inc.® All rights reserved. Tel.: +1 314 739 9191 • Fax: +1 314 739 5880 • Email: info@tapcoinc.com • www.tapcoinc.com For over 40 years, and in more than 50 countries, Tapco has been solving the problem of bent & torn steel buckets. STYLE CC-HD (HEAVY DUTY) Polyethylene Elevator Bucket Also available in Polyurethane & Nylon ® Tapco nonmetallic buckets have the ability to absorb impact in the elevator leg and “give” or “yield” to bypass an obstruction – then return to their original shape and keep on working for you. Tapco buckets weigh less than their pressed steel counterparts, lack sharp edges and therefore are far safer and easier to handle when fitting an elevator. With 900,000 buckets in 93 sizes stocked throughout the world, Tapco has what you want, when you need it! Tapco also maintains over 15 million elevator bolts in imperial and metric threads in six styles. Tapco fanged elevator bolts have been specifically designed to work with nonmetallic buckets. Contact Tapco or visit www.tapcoinc.com today. Replace your steel buckets with Tapco – the buckets with the memory. FANGED HEAD Elevator Bolt Have You Experienced This In Your Elevator?
  3. 3. P ig production costs have increased more than 10 percent during the last five years, primari- ly due to higher feedstuff prices. Feed costs contribute more than 60 percent of total pig production costs (in the USA and Brazil even as high as 70-75 percent, respectively (LEI, 2013)). As feed milling affects the dietary nutri- tional value and feed efficiency of pigs, profit over feeds costs can be improved by optimising the feed milling process. The effects of processing of feed on its nutritional value are highly underestimated. Profit of animal production in the end is determined by both feed production costs and animal performance. Both should both be optimised to get the highest return on investment, as the highest feed mill through- put will probably not result in the best technical quality of the feed. On the other hand the best technical quality might not be needed for maximised nutritional value or optimal pig performance. Feed millers have a very large tool box to optimise technical quality of the feed. Here, attention is paid to grinding and compacting (or pelleting), which are the tools that have the higher impact on nutri- tional quality of feed, assuming that dosing and mixing will be done with the right accuracy. Grinding for optimal particle size In pigs it is consistently shown, oppo- sitely to broiler production, that reduction of dietary particle size improves daily gain and feed conversion rate (FCR). Goodband et al. (1993) reported that FCR improved by more than five per- cent when reducing feed particle size from 767µm to 634µm (dgw, dry sieving) of corn in meal diets and Rojas et al. (2013) dem- onstrated that reducing particle size of corn- based diets improves nutrient digestibility and energy value of feedstuffs by increasing surface area (see Figure 2). The type and intensity of grinding (roller mills verses hammer mills) has an impact not only on particle size distribution, but also on particle shape, bulk density and surface area. These are additional criteria to consider when evaluating the impact of grinding pro- cess on digestibility and animal performance. At this point, it is important to realize that, although optimal feed particle size ranges from 500-700µm, there is no single optimum value as the optimum depends on type of raw material (for example, type of cereals, soybean meal, DDGS), feed form (mash verses pellet), age of the animal (piglet, growing/finishing pig, sow) and health status. Despite the linear increase in feeding value by reduced feed particle size (see Figure 2), too small particles are disadvanta- geous as they might cause gastric ulcers. In addition, fine grinding requires high energy inputs. Effects of cereal type and feed form on pig performance were studied by Gidley et al. (2012). They showed that particle size, especially the coarser fractions, had larger impact than feed form in barley and sorghum diets (see Figure 3). From grinding to pelleting Grinding and pelleting are tools that interact: At one side grinding affects pel- let quality and on the other side pelleting reduces particle size further. The effects of grinding on pellet quality are discussed at end of this paper. The pelleting step is considered a “sec- ondary grinding”. It has been shown that the percentage of coarse fraction (> 1.4mm) is reduced by 15 percent in coarse meal diets after pelleting, and the fine fraction (<0.4mm) is increased by more than 5 per- cent (Wolf et al. (2010) after pellet analyses with wet sieving method. In order to assess the grinding effect of pelleting , wet sieving of mash before pelleting and pellets is the recommended method Pelleting improves pig performance Pelleting improves feed efficiency in pigs High feedstuffs costs: Improving nutritional value of swine diets by processing conditions by Ester Vinyeta, Animal Nutrition Manager, Bühler AG, Feed & Biomass Figure 1: Feed mill plant, a tool box to optimise feed value 42 | May - June 2014 GRAIN&FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGYF
  4. 4. by more than five percent, com- pared to meal diets, as shown both in nursery pigs and in grow- ing-finishing pigs. This effect, however, is dependent on the conditioning time and temperature and shear forces during pelleting. There is little consensus about the reason for increased per- formance in pigs fed pelleted diets. Some argue it is because of increased bulk density and palatability, which is not in agree- ment with decreased feed intake observed in some cases. Others claim that a higher growth is due to higher nutrient digestibility due to starch gelatinisation and pro- tein denaturation. Crumbled pellets, conditioned at 90°C improved feed efficiency by 5.2 percent compared to meal diets in five weeks-slaughter pigs fed wheat-barley-corn based diets, whereas expandate feed (120°C) resulted in lower benefit over mash and crumbled pellet (Millet et al., 2012). In nursery pigs, total tract digestibility of protein and energy improves when feeds are condi- tioned and pelleted or extruded. Lundblad et al. (2011) showed that there was no additional ben- efit of expanding over steam pel- leting at 47°C or 90°C on feed efficiency. However, extrusion in spite of having reduced feed intake, probably caused by low bulk density, resulted in increased piglets performance, due to higher nutrient digestibilities. Pellet quality (PDI) has a large impact on production per- formance of pigs. When percent fines exceeds more than 20 percent at feeder, benefits of pelleting will be much smaller. Main fac- tors affecting PDI and their rel- evance are indicated in Figure 5. Formulation-size- specification Diet formulation: Experienced nutritionists and feed millers know that wheat-based diets result in better PDI compared to corn-based diets; increasing protein content improves PDI, and specific protein sources, such as soybean isolates have larger effect (Briggs et al., 1999). Different fiber can have opposite results: adding five percent of cellulose may have positive effect, whereas lignin at same amount has detrimen- tal effect (Buchanan & Moritz, 2009). Figure 2: The metabolise energy (Kcal ME/kg DM) increase by reduction of particle size in corn-based diets fed as meal in barrows (29kg BW) (Source: Modified from Rojas et al., 2013) Figure 3: Effect of grain type, feed particle size (regrinding of particles with size >1.8mm or >0.9mm in barley and sorghum respectively) and feed form (mash verses pellet) on FCR in growing pigs May - June 2014 | 43GRAIN&FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY F
  5. 5. DDGs have variable effect on PDI, depending on particle size, fiber and protein content. Several authors (Feoli, 2008 and Knauer et al., 2013) found that adding 30 percent DDGs increased PDI, whereas other studies show a decreased pellet durability when increasing inclusion level in the diets (Fahrenholz et al., 2013, Loar et al., 2010). Particle size: Reduction of particle size improves pellet quality (PDI) as has been shown in some studies: in corn-soy diets, reduction from 1000µm to 400µm improved PDI from 79 to 86 percent/m (Wondra et al., 1995) and from 543µm to 233µm the PDI improvement was up to 99 percent (Stark, 1994). Similar results were found by Knauer et al. (2013) when reducing particle size of soybean meal to 450µm. In the case of DDGS, it has not been shown clear improvement of PDI by reduc- ing particle size whereas it seems there is a benefit of when DDGS have been previ- ously pelleted in origin and re-grinded in the feedmill. Conditioning and die specifications: con- sidering a range of particle size of the mash between 500-700µm, the conditioning tem- perature should range between 60°C to 80°C to achieve good PDI (fines ≤10 percent). In general, pig diets are pelleted at 4mm, but hole length varies considerably among regions and feedmillers, from 4x40 up to 4x60/70. The selection of the die (diameter and active hole lengths) is upon diet formula- tion and target PDI. It seems obvious that when hole length is increased, PDI is improved but production (tonne/hour) is decreased and energy consumption increased. The economical optimum at feed mill may not fit with the optimum for animal production. Take home messages - Profit over feeds costs can be improved by optimising the feed milling process. Optimising nutrient utilisation by the animal has a tremendous impact in pig production costs - The optimal feed particle size ranges between 500-700µm (dgw), but depends on type of raw material, feed form, age of the animal and health status - Particle size and feed form affect feed intake and feed efficiency. Bulk density and percent fines or PDI should be accounted for to optimise animal performance - Pelleting improves feed efficiency by more than five percent compared to meal diets, providing a good pellet quality The benefit of more intense thermal treatment, such as expansion is not clear. Extrusion process may increase digestibil- ity of nutrients in nursery pigs but attention to feed intake should be paid. Figure 4: Effect of feed structure on performance of growing-finishing (five weeks-slaughter) pigs fed wheat-barley-maize-soya diets. 44 | May - June 2014 GRAIN&FEED MILLING TECHNOLOGY Turning ideas into opportunities. PROGRESSIVE AQUAFEED PROCESSING Imagine the possibilities wenger.com BElGIUm TAIwAN BRASIl ChINA TURkEy INDIA Leave it to Wenger to redefine aquatic feed production via twin screw extrusion. Based on the proven Wenger Magnum twin-screw series, the new TX-3000 features barrel geometries that allow greater capacities than any other extruder in its class. The combined features allow increased production capacity of up to 30 percent compared to previous and competitive aquatic machines — totally redefining cost/benefit. The TX-3000 can be equipped with either the High Intensity Preconditioner (HIP) or the High-Shear Conditioner (HSC) to match specific process and capacity requirements, making it ideal for processing a full range of aquatic feed products. Contact us now. With new concepts and visionary leadership, we’re ready to help you select the right tools for your extrusion and drying needs. Our business in life is not to get ahead of others, but to get ahead of ourselves. —Stewart B. Johnson, Dutch Artist TX-3000 RAISES ThE BAR ON AQUATIC FEED PRODUCTION Wenger14.TX3000.Ad.210x147.indd 1 4/9/14 7:34 AM F
  6. 6. VIGAN Engineering s.a. Rue de l’Industrie, 16 • 1400 Nivelles (Belgium) Tél.: +32 67 89 50 41 • Fax : +32 67 89 50 60 • www.vigan.com • info@vigan.com A win-win solution between customer expertise and VigAn know-how Pneumatic or Mechanical Ship Loaders & Unloaders Port Equipment - Turnkey Projects NIV: up to 800 tons/hour Average efficiency 75%-80% All types of gra in
  7. 7. www.gfmt.co.uk LINKS • See the full issue • Visit the GFMT website • Contact the GFMT Team • Subscribe to GFMT A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891 INCORPORATING PORTS, DISTRIBUTION AND FORMULATION In this issue: • Role of extruders in Halal food production • Fortification Fortification in rice and flour • IAOM 118th Annual Conference & Expo May-June2014 • GM soybeans The on-farm facts • Harvest conditions: wheat quality and addressing issues • The Mills Archive GFMT becomes a patron first published in 1891 This digital Re-print is part of the May | June 2014 edition of Grain & Feed Milling Technology magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edi- tion please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link adove. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE Article reprints All Grain & Feed Milling Tecchnology feature articles can be re-printed as a 4 or 8 page booklets (these have been used as point of sale materials, promotional materials for shows and exhibitions etc). If you are interested in getting this article re-printed please contact the GFMT team for more informa- tion on - Tel: +44 1242 267707 - Email: jamest@gfmt.co.uk or visit www.gfmt.co.uk/reprints

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