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Digital Re-print -
July | August 2013
Aflatoxins in Europe: a new risk in maize
production?
www.gfmt.co.uk
Grain & Feed Mi...
T
he European Commissions’
Rapid Alert System for Food
and Feed (RASFF) has reported
ten notifications of aflatoxin B1 fou...
metabolite of aflatoxin B1, is found in milk
and dairy products.
A high incidence of aflatoxins can be
found in following ...
Innovations for a better world.
Built by feed millers for feed millers. Equipped with the industry‘s most efficient
drive ...
per billion or µg/kg) and the maximum 204
ppb in Serbian maize – 10 times above the
maximum level for feed. The EU regula-...
Grain&feed millinG technoloGy July - august 2013 | 15
GLOBAL MILLING
CONFERENCE 2nd
B
ANGALORE, IND
IA
23-24 April 2014
Jo...
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LINKS
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•	 Visit the GFMT website
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Aflatoxins in Europe: a new risk in maize production?
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Aflatoxins in Europe: a new risk in maize production?

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The European Commissions’ Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) has reported ten notifications of aflatoxin B1 found in maize of European origin since the last maize harvest in autumn 2012. That is more than in the prior harvest seasons between 2001 and 2011, where a total of nine cases of aflatoxins were reported in maize.

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Transcript of "Aflatoxins in Europe: a new risk in maize production?"

  1. 1. Digital Re-print - July | August 2013 Aflatoxins in Europe: a new risk in maize production? www.gfmt.co.uk Grain & Feed MillingTechnology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd.All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872
  2. 2. T he European Commissions’ Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) has reported ten notifications of aflatoxin B1 found in maize of European origin since the last maize harvest in autumn 2012. That is more than in the prior harvest seasons between 2001 and 2011, where a total of nine cases of aflatox- ins were reported in maize. Optimum growth conditions for Aspergillus, which produces aflatox- ins, are tropical to subtropical climate and humid storage conditions. This has meant that aflatoxins have been mainly an ‘import problem’ up to now. However, global warming is increas- ingly affecting the mycotoxin map in Europe, producing ‘tropical toxins’ with- in Europe’s borders. Structure and occurrence Aflatoxins are a group of mycotoxins produced by some Aspergillus species such as A. flavus or A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 and the hydroxylated metabolite M1 are of primary interest, with aflatoxin B1 the most frequently occurring of these. Aflatoxins can be found on a wide range of commodities including cereals, nuts, spices, figs and dried fruit. Aflatoxin M1, the Aflatoxins in Europe: a new risk in maize production? by Vera Traar, product manager mycotoxins, Romer Labs, Austria Table 1: Aflatoxins in Food (EC regulation 1881/2006 and amending EC regulation EC 165/2010) Commodity Maximum Level B1 Total M1 Groundnuts to be subjected to sorting or other physical treatment, before human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs. 8 ppb 15 ppb - Nuts and dried fruit to be subjected to sorting or other physical treatment, before human consumption or as an ingredient in foodstuffs. 5 ppb 10 ppb - Groundnuts, nuts, dried fruit and processed products thereof, intended for direct human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs. 2 ppb 4 ppb - Oilseed intended for direct human consumption. 2 ppb 4 ppb - Oilseed for processing. 8 ppb 15 ppb - Maize to be subjected to sorting or other physical treatment, before human consumption or use as an ingredient in foodstuffs. 5 ppb 10 ppb - Cereals (including buckwheat, Fagopyrim spp.) and processed products there of intended for direct human consumption or as an ingredient in foodstuffs 2 pbb 4 ppb - Cereals (including buckwheat, Fagopyrim spp.), with the exception of maize, to be subjected to sorting, or other physical treatment, before human consumption 2 ppb 4 ppb - Rice, including brown rice (intended for milling) 5 pbb 10 ppb - Rice, including brown rice (intended for direct human consumption) 2 ppb 4 ppb - Following species of spices: 5 ppb 10 ppb - Capsicum spp. (dried fruits thereof, whole or ground, including chilies, chili powder, cayenne and paprika) - Piper spp. (fruits thereof, including white and black pepper) - Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) - Zingiber officinale (ginger) - Curcuma longa (turmeric) - Milk (raw milk, milk for the manufacturer of milk-based products and heat-treated milk) - - 0.05 ppb Baby foods and processed cereal, cereal-based foods for infants and young children 0.1 ppb - - Infant formulae and follow-on formulae, including infant milk and follow-on milk - - 0.025 ppb Dietary foods for special medical purposes intended specifically for infants 0.1 ppb - 0.025 ppb Grain&feed millinG technoloGy12 | July - august 2013 FEATURE
  3. 3. metabolite of aflatoxin B1, is found in milk and dairy products. A high incidence of aflatoxins can be found in following regions: • Southern United States (U.S. Corn Belt) • Southern China • Southeast Asia • Africa • South America • Southeastern Europe (since the last harvest season) Toxicity Aflatoxins have an impact on both human and animal health. Aflatoxin B1 is one of the most potent hepato-carcinogens known and thus, levels of aflatoxins in the diet are an important consideration for human health. Acute aflatoxicosis in humans is usually associated with highly contaminated crops such as corn and often leads to symptoms like jaundice, low-grade fever, depression, diarrhea, fatty degenerative changes in the liver and many more. Chronic aflatoxicosis in humans is usually associated with hepatocel- lular carcinoma. Acute symptoms in cattle are decreased feed consumption, lower milk production, weight loss, liver damage, increased liver weight and/or increased kidney weight. Another characteristic of aflatoxin expo- sure in dairy cattle is the conversion of aflatoxin B1 to the hydroxylated metabo- lite, aflatoxin M1, which is excreted in milk and can be harmful to humans consuming the milk, too. Regulations Most coun- tries have estab- lished regulatory limits for afla- toxin B1 or for total aflatoxins, or both, which includes the total of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2, as well as regulatory lim- its for aflatoxin M1. Very often regulations also include detailed sampling proce- dures, as this is one of the most crucial steps in ensuring reliable results. The origins of contaminated maize reported by the RASFF were mainly southeastern Europe, including Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Serbia and Italy. The average level of aflatoxin B1 was 59.28 ppb (parts Grain&feed millinG technoloGy July - august 2013 | 13 INNOVATION THROUGH THE POWER OF NATURE www.olmix.com - mmis@olmix.com Power Inside ..SS Am I well protected? Mycotoxins 1st IN MicrogranulE Improve protection Improve performance Meet us at SPACE 2013, Rennes, France, from 10 to 13 September Hall 9 - Booth C49 FEATURE
  4. 4. Innovations for a better world. Built by feed millers for feed millers. Equipped with the industry‘s most efficient drive system, the new Bühler pellet mill Kubex™ T saves up to 30% of energy – while boosting line capacity to up to 80 tons per hour. With the Kubex™ T you save costs, reduce the release of CO2 and make your operation even more productive. Gaining competitive advantages has never been easier. For more information please visit www.buhlergroup.com/kubex-t Bühler AG, Feed & Biomass, CH-9240 Uzwil, Switzerland, T +41 71 955 11 11, F +41 71 955 28 96 fu.buz@buhlergroup.com, www.buhlergroup.com Kubex™ T pellet mill. Developed in close cooperation with leading feed millers. Direct drive concept. Saves up to 30% of energy compared to conventional drive systems. Variable die speed. Formulation- specific optimization of production process and pellet quality. Up to 585 kW motor power. Boosts line capacity to up to 80 t/h. Belt- and gearless drive system. For minimum maintenance and ultimate machine availability. ABS control for press rolls. Prevents roll slippage and protects machine against blockages. 360° accessibility. Wide-opening sliding doors on both sides. The world’s most compact design. Fits anywhere and everywhere. Almost double capacity with same footprint as conventional pellet mills.
  5. 5. per billion or µg/kg) and the maximum 204 ppb in Serbian maize – 10 times above the maximum level for feed. The EU regula- tory limit for aflatoxin B1 in feedstuff is 20 ppb, whereas in food it is 2-5 ppb (Table 1,2). Current technology Testing for aflatoxins requires sophisti- cated sampling methods that need to be carried out at the very beginning of the supply chain to deal with the heterogenic distribution of this contaminant. Testing methods have to be very sensitive as limits are between 2 and 20 parts per billion (ppb) and 0.1 ppb for baby food. At the reception point, testing can be done with lateral flow devices such as the Romer Labs AgraStrip® Aflatoxin, or Fluorometric methods like the FluoroQuant® Afla. The AgraQuant® ELISA kits deliver quantitative results within 10 to 20 minutes. An ELISA reader, such as the StatFax® or Chromate reader® is applied to quantify the test kit’s results. The reference method of choice in laboratories is LC-MS/MS nowadays, which is a technology that can detect all major mycotoxins, including aflatoxins, simultane- ously. Expert statements Austria Prof Rudolk Krska is an international mycotoxin expert from the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU) in Vienna, Austria. Prof Krska says, “Due to climate change, conditions in Europe, especially in Southern Europe, are very favorable for the growth of Aspergillus. This means that Europe will have more homemade aflatoxin cases in its crops in the future. “The food and feed industry has to adapt its risk management to cope with this new threat and minimize aflatoxin exposure in Europe.” Italy GLM - Gruppo Lavoro Micotossine - is a working group of Italian technicians and researchers interested in food and feed contamination, who pay particular attention to mycotoxins and their consequences on human and animal health. “The main health problem in 2012 was aflatoxin-contaminated corn. There were some problems with aflatoxins in 2003 and 2005 too, but with lower levels and in limited areas,” says the GLM working group. “All industries were suffering from the elevated aflatoxin levels, from the farmer with reduced production to the processor, who had difficulties to source ‘healthy’ goods and had to increase analytical controls.” For analytical purposes, the GLM explains, “Rapid tests are used by drying and storage facilities and food/feed processors. They also use ELISA tests. The method of choice for laboratories is HPLC analysis.” “The health and surveillance authorities issued many decrees and gave directions on possible actions to be taken. Moreover, controls on milk were increased tightly and many industry operators purchased state-of- the-art technology equipment to deal with the aflatoxin problem.” “The issues related to mycotoxins are increasing and climate changes play a role, too. In future, there will also be problems with mycotoxins, but the operators now have good experience and will know how to deal with emergencies.” United Kingdom Prof Naresh Magan is an international mycology expert from the Cranfield University in Bedford, UK. “The EU green paper identified the Mediterranean regions as the hotspots for climate change impacts”, says Prof Magan. “Thus, the incidences in Northern Italy in maize and along the belt stretching east and perhaps west into South France, Spain and Portugal may become more prevalent for aflatoxin. For example, in north Italy big impacts are being seen on milk production for the cheese industry.” “The high quality cheese industries will be predominantly affected by contaminated milk. Feed will have to be treated appropriately to minimize aflatoxin contamination in milk.” “The affected European countries are beginning to realise that an effective myco- toxin management plan is needed. But still, there needs to be a significant improvement in awareness of aflatoxins in feed and the metabolite aflatoxin M1 in milk. Further, farm- ers/coops need more education. The food and feed companies will start seeing impacts from last year and this year and sourcing good quality raw commodities will be more difficult.” Speaking about aflatoxins as a problem in future harvest periods, Prof Magan does not think that the issue was a one-time event, but more a periodic, common problem from now onwards, mostly because of the extreme wet and dry conditions. The future? Aflatoxin B1 is one of the most carcinogen- ic substances on the planet, 100 times more toxic than pesticides, for instance. Previously, they were mainly problems in tropical regions, but now need to be seen as an issue in Europe, especially in Southeastern regions. European countries are also being affected by aflatoxins because of extreme weather conditions and the food and feed industry needs to be aware of that. Major maize exporting nations such as Argentina, Brazil and the USA have developed risk-management systems over recent decades to handle the aflatoxin risk. Europe needs to look at these examples to adapt their systems to this new reality, where aflatoxins are now on the agenda. Table 2: Aflatoxins in Feed (EC regulation 100/2003) Commodity Maximum Level B1 All feed materials 20 ppb Complementary and complete feed with the exception of: 10 ppb compound feed for dairy cattle and calves, dairy sheep and lambs, dairy goats and kids, piglets and young poultry animals 5 ppb compound feed for cattle (except dairy cattle and calves), sheep (except dairy sheep and lambs), goats (except dairy goats and kids), pigs (except piglets) and poultry (except young animals) 20 ppb More InforMatIon: Website: www.romerlabs.com Grain&feed millinG technoloGy14 | July - august 2013 FEATURE
  6. 6. Grain&feed millinG technoloGy July - august 2013 | 15 GLOBAL MILLING CONFERENCE 2nd B ANGALORE, IND IA 23-24 April 2014 Jointly organised by Assocom and Grain & Feed Milling Technology magazine 23-24 April 2014 Hotel Le Meridien Bangalore, India assocom-india.com/gmc Food & feed security “Feeding 9 billion by 2050” Milling developments “Minimising energy usage in the mill” Storage & transportation “Quality in quality out” New technologies “What’s new in feed and food milling?” Feed & food heat treatments “Maintaining hygienic standards” The way ahead “Adopting quality control programs & regulations” Indiathe world’s second largest market CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION FEATURE ous nts nt- ral, ro- ein m- e is asy ers ro- and ttle ion The -10 the of eed s a up- but ole on. pti- m- nce at- ent by gh- as or alm July - august 2013 | 25 www.hydronix.com enquiries@hydronix.com Hydronix sensors are: • Suitable for chutes, silos, mixers or conveyors • Not affected by dust or colour • Temperature stable Hydro-Mix VII Our sensors are successfully used in many applications to ensure product quality, maximise yield and save energy. Typical uses include: • Controlling the moisture in the grain drying process to save energy and ensure quality • Optimising the efficiency of expensive additives such as mould inhibitors • Controlling moisture content during the pelleting process Hydro-Probe XT Hydronix digital, microwave moisture sensors provide accurate and cost effective moisture measurement n feed meals and pellets, grain, cereal and pulses. Hydronix Moisture Sensors Save You Money GFMT half page vertical 90 x 270 plus 3mm bleed not left.indd 1 30/11/2012 13:44:07 CATTLE
  7. 7. www.gfmt.co.uk LINKS • See the full issue • Visit the GFMT website • Contact the GFMT Team • Subscribe to GFMT A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891 INCORPORATING PORTS, DISTRIBUTION AND FORMULATION In this issue: • Pig feed pelletizing technology • Feed focus Cattle • Exploring the challenge of single versus multi- enzyme dosing comparisons July-August2013 • Improving poultry health and production efficiency with probiotics • Aflatoxins in Europe: a new risk in maize production? • Sweeping changes to OSHA’s sweep auger enforcement first published in 1891 This digital Re-print is part of the July | August 2013 edition of Grain & Feed Milling Technology magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edi- tion please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link adove. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE Article reprints All Grain & Feed Milling Tecchnology feature articles can be re-printed as a 4 or 8 page booklets (these have been used as point of sale materials, promotional materials for shows and exhibitions etc). If you are interested in getting this article re-printed please contact the GFMT team for more informa- tion on - Tel: +44 1242 267707 - Email: jamest@gfmt.co.uk or visit www.gfmt.co.uk/reprints

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