Energy doesn’t get any cheaper, raw material prices continue to climb and margins are squeezed. There is no doubt that pelleting improves efficiency and biosecurity but can it be made more cost effective?
FEATURE Pellet production to save energy, improve feed efficiency and safety by Murray Hyden C Biol, MSB, Director of Biosecurity, Kiotechagil, United KingdomE nergy doesn’t get any cheaper, raw subsequently less wastage. All these benefits nutrient utilisation reduces the volume of material prices continue to climb however depend on pellet quality after the excreta which benefits the environment, so and margins are squeezed. There cooler. we have less feed being used to improveis no doubt that pelleting improves If pellet quality is expensive to achieve growth rates and improve to the environ-efficiency and biosecurity but can it then costs increase and financial benefits ment.be made more cost effective? are lost and the selection of a low inclusion However, probably the best-known binder makes sense for so many reasons. indirect benefit of pelleting is biosecurity. Efficiency of the pelleting process is the Nutritionally, pelleted feeds are more Most of the common pathogens such askey to feed mill profitability. With 90 percent digestible as a result of starch pregelatinisa- Salmonella, Escherichia and Campylobacterof animal feed in Europe being pelleted, tion and protein denaturation. The finer are non-spore forming bacteria and areevery feed mill needs to optimise their pel- grist size used in pellets has been found to therefore sensitive to heat. The temperatureleting efficiency. increase digestibility in pigs. required is often not as high as expected In birds, weight gain and feed efficiency with S. typhimurium being killed after justPelleting positives are improved when the pellet quality is good. 10 seconds at 70°C but requiring 7 minutes Pelleting feed increases the bulk density Even when pelleted diets are re-ground to at 60°C.of the ration, allowing more tonnage to be the consistency of mash, the performancedelivered per truck, saving costs for the benefits are still found indicating direct ben- Binding benefitsfarmer and space in storage. Pelleted feeds efits from the pelleting process. None-the-less, pelleting is a very highare easy to use in either bulk or bags. Pellets Body weight improvements and mon- cost process (and is becoming more so withalso improve conveying by screw augers, and etary returns are inversely proportional to energy prices increasing). The use of highdischarge from feed bins due to reduced the level of fines in finisher diets. Birds need efficiency pellet binders can reduce energybridging. to use less energy to consume the same requirements in three ways: Pelleted feed is nutritionally consistent level of nutrients in pellets as those fed mash 1: Poor pellet quality results in higherfrom pellet to pellet with each pellet con- feeds; in fact birds fed pellets can ingest their fines levels and more returns which istaining the correct balance of amino acids, total energy requirements in four percent of energetically inefficient.minerals and vitamins. This means that there the day compared with 15 percent of the 2: Pellet binders help lubricate the dieis no opportunity for ingredient selection day for mash feeds. which reduces energy requirementsduring consumption by fussy feeders and In pig production, heat treatment dur- as well as increasing mill throughput. ing pelleting Lubricating dies minimises wear so they improves the should last for 25-30,000 tonnes with digestibility of just one refurbishment. Changing dies maize which can takes upwards of 2 hours during which result in a six to time the line cannot operate. eight percent 3: Pellet quality can be enhanced at lower improvement temperatures that still permit the in daily gain and biosecurity benefits but where starch feed conversion. gelatinisation may not be sufficient to Reduced fines contribute to pellet quality. This saves and improved energy and speeds up throughput. digestibility To achieve good pellets moisture is lead to further essential; typically 16 percent moisture con- improvements tent is required in the conditioner to hydro- that are often lyse the starches. Moisture content and overlooked. temperature are related because it is the Figure 1: The effect of temperature on viscosity of a gum For example, steam that provides both the heat and the and corn starch improved feed water for adequate pellet production. conversion and Temperature should ideally reach 80°C16 | September - october 2012 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy
FEATURE The 21st printed edition OUT NOW! www.internationalmilling.com Look for the NIR solution INFRANeO that best matches your needs y NIRT Analyser on whole grain and powdery products y Measure chemical composition as soon as you receive your raw materials. y Estimate technical values of flours, semolinas, grits, glutens, starches (and other powders products). y Moisture, protein, ash content, zeleny, hydration*. (* choose from over 60 calibrations available) wITh SIMPLe NO OPeRATOR COST SAvINg INFLUeNCe FAST ACCURATe20, avenue Marcellin Berthelot • 92396 Villeneuve-la-Garenne • FRANCETél. : + 33 1 41 47 50 48 • Fax : + 33 1 41 21 07 10 • Mail : firstname.lastname@example.org • www.chopin.frinfraneo_GB_190x132mm.indd 1 13/03/2012 11:21:14 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy September - october 2012 | 17
FEATURE FEATURE Disrupting bacteria start gut colonisation and invade host to between them. This new information opens communicationto ensure starch gelatinisation but this is not • Broiler – 1.5 bar / 20 psi to cause damage. cana result concept in the probiotic´s mode of succeed in host infection new in reduced pellet quality which isalways achieved. the direct gut bacteria modi- Apart from Consequently the starch in Recommended conditioning temperatures by because the main binding agent, starch, has In particular, different in vitro trials run action studies. fication and immune is effect,able to recentthe ration formulation not new con- Rubinum SA products are: for different in collaboration with CRESA, been Taking this to mind, the use of one probiotic removed in produce ethanol. Whilsttribute tohave demonstrated the effect aof studies pellet quality. By using gums in • Ruminant (fibrous) that B. cereus var. toyoi enzyme this ability may be helpful in some specific have demonstrated – 50/60°C with systems have been developed topellet binder a much faster to Bacillusuptaketo some bacteria belonging moisture spp. • Pigan 65/70°C has – effect against the gut colonisation by improve the –in those situations in which pellet situations digestibility of the DDGS, a we wantisdisrupt bacteria communication, to fact that achieved at lower temperatures a ensure • Pig creep (milk powder) – 45/50°C such as binder only to reduce theto achieve a suitable some potential gut enteropathogens, not is often required amount of these specifichigher viscosity in the conditioner of probiotics can explain some of the effects and better • Broiler – 80/85°C pellet quality from this high fibre ingredient. based on this bacterium.heat transfer into the grist. Pelleting larger fibrous materials for rumi- One other important factor of pellet IfItthe feed is very dry then not only is a has been described that there is nants requires a different approach to the binders is that they help maintain pellet qual-there insufficient between gut bacteria, called communication water for gum hydrolysis smaller broiler pellets where biosecurity is ity during seasonal changes in raw materialbut the feed is too dryallows bacteria to get a ‘quorum sensing’ that for the heat transfer paramount. use of one probiotic with The pelletability of may be "The quality. this ability freshly harvestednecessary to achieve starch intestinal environ- consensus on whether the gelatinisation. If The thermal processing during pelleting is cereals is often quite different to the last ment has been effectively colonised beforethis is the case it may be necessary to resort helpful in some specific situations –in those situations not the only cost consideration. It is gener- of the previous harvest grains. So it is likelyto spraying water directly in the mixer to making the energetic investment required ally accepted that using a roller mill is less that this year’s UK harvest, which has beenadd one initiation percent metabolic the mix for the to two of their water to response expensive that usingwe want not only to reduceabnormal weather pattern, in which a hammer mill mainly as subjected to an the amount ofto increase pellet temperature in the condi- to colonize or infect the host (by producing a result of lower maintenance costs. will be reflected in pellet quality.tioner and get better gum gelatinisation. toxins, adherence factors). these specific enteropathogens in the gut, but also Moist feed is generally more palatable and In particular, some gram-negative bac- Feed formulation issues Improving pellet qualitydigestible too.from the gastrointestinal tract teria typical However, too much water Feed formulation plays a major part in A low inclusion binder, like Kiotechagil’sincreases the risk of moulding so it may be to avoid the potential of these bacteria to invade final pellet quality and high protein cereals Mastercube, can really help overcome many (Yersinia, E. Coli, Salmonella) produce spe-necessary to check that (N-acyl-homoserine- cific kinds of molecules the pellets dry to such as wheat will contribute more to pellet of the problems associated with the feed for-12 – 14 percent MC after the cooler only lactones). These molecules are not to quality than maize, oats or barley. therefore animal body" overcome some gut epithelium and Dietary mulation and can also helpminimise the but of moulding. produced risk also recognised by these fat is known to have an inverse relationship of the engineering shortfalls such as short bacteria,pressure to them the to be drierto High giving steam tends possibility with pellet quality, hence the use of post conditioners or poor steam quality.and does not achieve such high tempera- know when the population has reached pellet fat spraying for certain rations. When Mastercube is both a binder and a hard-tures optimal population conditioner, there- the or moisture in the level to start animal fat is incorporated into the spp by destroying ener and it uses onlythe gut, but alsoingre- Yersinia and Salmonella feed the added enteropathogens in EU approved to avoidfore different feedWhen will bethreshold level host infection. types this more difficult fat coats starch substances cited above. the chemical granules, and prevents water dients. potential of these bacteria to invade gut the The primary binder is a gum thatto pellet than enteropathogens start inducing is reached, others if the pellet binders and uptake, seems therefore that probioticstrans- gelatinises at much lower temperatures than It which in turn impairs the heat are not epithelium and therefore animal body.starches do not activate specific genes that the expression of some fer necessary for gelatinisation. gut specific bac- traditional starches (Figure 1) and provides only able to directly modify Recommended pressures for different express for invasion and infective factors. teria populations anddietary fat are immune higher viscosity and improved lubrication at When high levels of profile host used,products are: In this way, bacteria belonging to this orresponse, but also they can interruptin the theMore inforMation: throughput and when maize is the primary cereal the way die. The result is faster group, guarantee the -most suitablepsi • Ruminant (fibrous) 3.5 bar / 50 time to ration formulation, traditionalto communicate lower fines. www.rubinum.es used by enteropathogens binders such Website: • Pig - 2.5 bar / 35 psi as thixotropic bentonite clays or lignosulpho- As the pellet cools the hardener in nates (the waste Mastercube, a high quality calcium sulphate, product from the which is approved as a nutrient, has a dual wood pulping function as a calcium source and a hardener. Bredol ® process to man- Pellet breakage during transport and storage for effective ufacture paper) due to soft or badly formed pellets is also have been used wasteful. The hardener increases pellet dura- feed production to improve pellet bility to enable pellets to be blown, augured quality. However, and transported without being crushed. and nutritional neither of these The selection of a low inclusion binder performance binders provides has the advantage that it minimises the any substantial impact of nutrient density so feed costs can nutritional value be maintained. to the diet. In A feed mill operating efficiently and dust- WELCOME TO THE TWENTY FIRST EDITION fact, both these free is a pleasant place to work. It is safe for OF THE INTERNATIONAL MILLING DIRECTORY ingredients are the operators and easier to keep clean. incorporated at From a biosecurity viewpoint, fines, set- The premier resource for the global feed and ﬂ our milling industries high inclusion tling as dust on floors and equipment, will rates and actually soon pick up moisture and will become a dilute the nutri- habitat for enteropathogens. The require- ent content of ment today must be for pellet binders the feed resulting that do not compromise nutrient density, in more expen- throughput or biosecurity. sive raw material Genetic selection of meat producing usage to com- animals that maximise feed intake ensures pensate. emulsifierthat the response to pelleted diets much Bredol® technology opens up a multitude of technical With cereal more significant than was reported just opportunities bringing values in feed prices ever as on the farm. production as well twenty or thirty years ago. www.bredol.com increasing in price Using an effective pellet binder is cost the temptation effective in so many ways and can be a to use more co- real benefit in terms of digestibility, biose- products such curity and mill throughput thus making a as DDGS from quality pellet binder pay for itself many bioethanol pro- times over. duction is much greater. However, More inforMation: DDGS inclusion Website: www.kiotechagil.com &18 | September - october 2012 Grain feed millinG technoloGy Grain &feed millinG october 2012 | 21 September - technoloGy
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