FEED FOCUS: Pelleted feed technology for dairy cows


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Pellet feed production technology was first introduced in China in the 1930s. Since then, pelleting has become one of the most common techniques in animal feed processing. Pellets had lots of advantages over crumbles, such as less dust, no grading, balanced animal nutrition, enhanced feed intake and easy storage and transportation.

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FEED FOCUS: Pelleted feed technology for dairy cows

  1. 1. Digital Re-print - July | August 2013 FEED FOCUS: Pelleted feed technology for dairy cows www.gfmt.co.uk Grain & Feed MillingTechnology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd.All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872
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  3. 3. Pelleted feed technology for dairy cows by Amanda Zhou, Allance Machinery, China P ellet feed production technology was first introduced in China in the 1930s. Since then, pelleting has become one of the most common techniques in animal feed processing. Pellets had lots of advantages over crumbles, such as less dust, no grading, balanced animal nutrition, enhanced feed intake and easy storage and transportation. The aim of dairy cow farming is to produce milk. Milk production and qual- ity directly depends on daily feed nutrition absorption. This means that dairy cow feed should be formulated based on a scien- tific ratio to ensure the animal gets enough nutrients for its healthy growth and milk production. Table 1 presents six types of preliminary nutrients which should be con- tained in a daily cow ration. According to this table, the availability of good pasture, sufficient feed and water are crucial for sustainable milk production. Cows are a typical ruminant and farmers should ensure that rumen are not only well-nourished but also that feed materials are adapted to metabolism and digestion. Therefore, a complete nutrition ratio should be mixed into cow feed. Feed types for dairy cows Dairy cow feed is mainly divided into roughage and concentrated feed. Roughages are characterized by a higher fibre content and contain a large amount of vegetative matter. Concentrated feed includes energy concentrated feed (such as corn, wheat, barley, oats, wheat bran, broken rice, grain powder, chaff, sweet potato) and protein concentrated feed which mainly refers to squeezed oil byproducts. Daily rations for dairy cows It is necessary to work out a reason- able daily ration according to cow breeding standards and meet the nutritional needs to guarantee sufficient feed absorption. The priorities of various nutrients are: fibre; energy; crude protein; non-degradable pro- tein; major minerals; micro ingredients and vitamins. Crude fibre should be above 17 percent. In production, crude protein and amino acid requirements could be satisfied by cotton meal, rapeseed meal, corn protein powder and so on. TMR feeding system A total mixed ration (TMR) is com- posed of forages, commodi- ties/byproducts (such as whole cottonseed), grains, protein supplement(s), minerals, and vitamins that have been mixed together to make a balanced ration in which the weight of each ingredient is known. This mixture is then offered to cows as their sole source of feed. In view of comprehen- sive and balanced nutrition, the proportion of coarse material is between 40-60 percent. It is an advanced breeding Feed focus CATTLE Table 1: Preliminary nutrients in a daily cow ration Ingredients included Function Water Free water, bound water Composing organism, solvent of nutrition Crude ash Major mineral elements, trace elements Bones composition, adjusting metabolization Crude protein Protein, non protein nitrogen content Cow organ composition, metabolization Crude fat Fat, lipid Energy storage Crude fibre Cellulose, semicellulose, lignin, pectin Energy source Nitrogen free extract Starch, monose, fructose Energy supply Active components Vitamins, enzymes Metabolization adjustment Grain&feed millinG technoloGy24 | July - august 2013
  4. 4. system of a mobile feedstuff mixer and free-roaming herds leisurely grazing. As for captive breeding dairy cows, all feedstocks need to be cut shortly, fully mixed and direct sent to manger. TMR is applied to large-scale dairy cow feeding, improving milk production, reducing labour requirements and decreasing feed costs. Pelleted feed as a concentrate supplement It is uneconomic for small-scale dairy farmer to adopt TMR. To ensure good health, high conception rates and optimum milk yields throughout the lactation period, an appropriate concentrate supplement avail- able in either a pellet or meal form is essen- tial. Pelleted feed is compounded with highly digestible fibrous feed ingredients and supplement- ed with mineral, vitamins and pro- tein. The protein and mineral com- ponents can be is pelleted for easy feeding and offers sufficient pro- tein, energy and mineral to cattle during gestation and lactation. The recommended feed rate is 8-10 percent of the body weight of the animals. Pelleted feed is regarded as a concentrate sup- plement but not whole daily ration. For opti- mum perform- ance, the balance of the dry mat- ter requirement must be met by feeding rough- ages such as hay, cut grass or leaves like palm fronds. Grain&feed millinG technoloGy July - august 2013 | 25 www.hydronix.com enquiries@hydronix.com Hydronix sensors are: • Suitable for chutes, silos, mixers or conveyors • Not affected by dust or colour • Temperature stable Hydro-Mix VII Our sensors are successfully used in many applications to ensure product quality, maximise yield and save energy. Typical uses include: • Controlling the moisture in the grain drying process to save energy and ensure quality • Optimising the efficiency of expensive additives such as mould inhibitors • Controlling moisture content during the pelleting process Hydro-Probe XT Hydronix digital, microwave moisture sensors provide accurate and cost effective moisture measurement n feed meals and pellets, grain, cereal and pulses. Hydronix Moisture Sensors Save You Money GFMT half page vertical 90 x 270 plus 3mm bleed not left.indd 1 30/11/2012 13:44:07 CATTLE
  5. 5. Pellet quality and productivity Calves, breeding cattle and lactating cows have different nutritional requirements and will need different feed formulations. Raw materials have great effect on milk quality; for instance, rapeseed dregs, worse slag, fish- meal, and silkworm chrysalis powder should be strictly limited. Otherwise, it may make the milk with a peculiar smell. Conditioning is a key factor in pelleting for starch pasting and sterilization, improving the quality of grain, grain hardness and durability including material moisture content, retention time, and the temperature. Feed additives have an obvious effect on improve milk yield and milk composition and reduced milk production stress, but should be strict control of the dosage. Table 3 lists common additives for dairy cows. Conclusion Since cattle eat primarily for- age, cow pellets are a concen- trate. Feeding pellets to dairy cows gives the ability to package minerals, buffers, rumen modifiers and other ingredients required in small quantities in a homog- enous way. There is nothing inherently special about cow feed pelleting technology but particle size, mixing time, conditioning degree, feed additives dosage should all be considered. Table 3: Common additives for dairy cows Cow feed additives Dosage (per day) Suitable growth period Anionic salts 200 g Prenatal 3 weeks (calves) Bentonite 300-500 g Lactating dairy cow Baking soda 110-225 g Lactating dairy cow Magnesium oxide 50-90 g Lactating dairy cow Isomeric acids 50-80 g Lactating dairy cow Choline 30 g Lactating dairy cow Monensin 50-200 mg Dairy heifer, young cows Methionine Hydroxy Analogue 30 g Lactating dairy cow Niacin 6-12 g Prenatal 2 weeks, postnatal 16 weeks Yeast culture 10-120 g Prenatal 2 weeks, postnatal 8 weeks Biogen 10-50 g Lactating dairy cow Zinc methionine 5 g Lactating dairy cow Propylene glycol 0.25-0.5 kg Prenatal 1 week, postnatal 2 weeks Table 2: Roughage and concentrated feed Cow Feed Main Species Properties Nutrition Feeding Value Roughage Grass, hay, crop straw, alfalfa, chaff species Good palatability, easy digestible, large volume, high water content. Rich in crude protein, carotene, vitamin D, inorganic salts Low Concentrate Corn, cottonseed meal, wheat bran, etc. High quality, low fibre, easy to store and transport Abundant in digestible energy and protein High More InforMatIon: Email: info@pellet-machine.net Website: www.pellet-machine.net Grain&feed millinG technoloGy26 | July - august 2013
  6. 6. www.gfmt.co.uk LINKS • See the full issue • Visit the GFMT website • Contact the GFMT Team • Subscribe to GFMT A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891 INCORPORATING PORTS, DISTRIBUTION AND FORMULATION In this issue: • Pig feed pelletizing technology • Feed focus Cattle • Exploring the challenge of single versus multi- enzyme dosing comparisons July-August2013 • Improving poultry health and production efficiency with probiotics • Aflatoxins in Europe: a new risk in maize production? • Sweeping changes to OSHA’s sweep auger enforcement first published in 1891 This digital Re-print is part of the July | August 2013 edition of Grain & Feed Milling Technology magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edi- tion please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link adove. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE Article reprints All Grain & Feed Milling Tecchnology feature articles can be re-printed as a 4 or 8 page booklets (these have been used as point of sale materials, promotional materials for shows and exhibitions etc). If you are interested in getting this article re-printed please contact the GFMT team for more informa- tion on - Tel: +44 1242 267707 - Email: jamest@gfmt.co.uk or visit www.gfmt.co.uk/reprints