Feed enzymes in animal nutrition

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Enzyme technology is an integral tool for the brewing, baking and textile industries. In agriculture there is great potential for enzymes too but this is yet to be fully exploited. However, animal nutrition is one area in which the use of feed enzymes is becoming increasingly important.

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Feed enzymes in animal nutrition

  1. 1. Digital Re-print - January | February 2013 Feed enzymes in animal nutritionGrain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom.All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis ofinformation published.©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any formor by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872 www.gfmt.co.uk
  2. 2. FEATUREby Elizabeth Norton, nutritionist, Anpario plc, United KingdomE nzyme technology is an integral can be further divided into beta-glucans, issue was addressed. Now these enzymes tool for the brewing, baking and celluloses and pentosans. Indeed, many dif- are commonplace, certainly in Europe, textile industries. In agriculture ferent types of enzymes are secreted within where poultry diets are principally com-there is great potential for enzymes the digestive tract but there are cases where posed of wheat and barley.too but this is yet to be fully exploited. the enzymes that are necessary for completeHowever, animal nutrition is one area digestion are not produced by the animal Recent enzyme developmentsin which the use of feed enzymes is or are only present at very low levels. In More recently, positive effects in animalbecoming increasingly important. monogastric animals it is the enzymes that performance have also been noted with are required to breakdown the NSP fraction ‘non-viscous’ cereals such as maize and sor- There are three driving factors in animal of the diet that are missing. ghum (Choct, 2006). The digestive systemproduction that are leading to the develop- in pigs differs slightly from poultry and thement and adoption of feed enzyme technol- Increasing feed value through issue of increased viscosity from wheat andogy. First, the world’s growing population enzymes barley is not a problem in these species. Thehas meant global demand for food and in The NSP fraction of barley and oats con- addition of feed enzymes in pig diets hasparticular meat and meat products have tains beta-glucans which can hold significant also demonstrated positive effects (Dierickincreased substantially. In addition, produc- amounts of water causing high gut viscosity. and Decuypere, 1994) and it is recogniseders are also continually looking for novel Young pigs and poultry lack the required that beta-glucanases and xylanases are ablemethods of increasing their efficiency and beta-glucanase enzyme to break the link- to degrade plant cell wall which leads to aproductivity and the cost and availability of ages of the molecule and this is a problem release of nutrients from grain endospermraw materials for animal feed is the second because it has an anti-nutritionalfactor continuing price rises are a major con- effect by blocking the absorptionstraint to meeting demand. The third factor of nutrients. Increased viscosity also Table 1: Optimal temperature and pH properties from some fungal endoxylanases (adapted fromis concern over the environmental fragility of reduces the rate of passage thus Corral and Villanseñor-Ortega, 2006)the planet and the pressure on agricultural lowering feed intake with the endindustries to reduce their reliance on vital result being reduced growth rates, Optimum Optimumresources. feed conversion and the appar- SOURCE Temperature Ph ent metabolisable energy of the (Oc)Major ingredients in monogastric diet. Increased viscosity additionallyfeeds results in wet litter which in poultry Apergillus kawachii The major ingredients used in most leads to conditions such as necrotic A 60 5.5 B 55 4.5monogastric feeds are of vegetable origin enteritis, hock burns and breast C 50 2.0including ground cereals such as maize, blisters. Aspergillus nigerwheat and barley or vegetable by-products Similarly in wheat, a common XynA I 50 5.0such as wheat middlings and rice bran. It cereal choice in temperate climates, XyanA II 45-50 4.5also includes processed protein ingredients the NSP fraction contains a high Penicillium Capsulatumsuch as soybean, or rapeseed extractions level of arabinoxylans. Xylanase is XynA 48 4.0and unprocessed materials such as peas or the enzyme that pigs and poultry XynB 48 4.0beans. All these materials have a complex require in order to break these Talaromyces emersoniistructure of carbohydrates, protein and oil compounds down but they are Xyn I 75 4.7and the carbohydrates are further described also deficient in them and, it was Xyn II 77 4.3as sugars, starch and non-starch polysac- not until the development of beta- XynIII 73 4.2charides (NSP). glucanase and xylanase enzymes for Xyn IV 77 4.3 Digging deeper, the NSP components animal feed in the 1980s, that this Xyn V 80 4.218 | January - february 2013 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy
  3. 3. Innovative and provenyeast productsin aquaculture PR A complete range LES AF OD FR UC ED SP E G IN ECIF RO ICA of natural yeast-based additives: UP FA CT OR LLY IES PR SP ODU EC CE IFI B.I. LES C D AF IN ALLY FR FA CT E GRO B.I. OR IES UP Live yeast concentrate Organic selenium yeast Premium yeast cell wall Yeast extracts P.S. AQUA P.S. Yeast cell wall NSP enzymes 500 500 to get the most from feed and promoting optimal performance for aquatic animals. Please check if the products are registered and available in your country erforma nce Wellbeing, the source of p For more information: contactlfa@lesaffre.fr - www.yeast-science.com
  4. 4. available for use on open conveyor belts and or explosion FIAAP:ad 5/2/13 10:37 Page 1 for applications where light is likely to be are handled or FEATURE visible. Upon detection this system provides stored must be several options to manage the ignition risk: fully assessedand the aleurone layer cells and therefore reducing the envi- • An electrical signal generated by and protected.improves the energy value of the feed. ronmental impact. the sensor activates control circuits Employers However, it has typically used to operate an automatic must carry outReducing pathogenic bacteria in water-extinguishing curtain. Sparks become apparent risk assessments,the colon extinguished without stopping can be that further nutri- and take steps A third possible mechanism by which the tional benefits are production. to ensure they 8 – 10 April 2014 . Bangkok International Trade & Exhibition Centre (BITEC), Bangkok, Thailandnutritive value of feed is increased by feed achieved because • An automated shut down of the prevent orenzymes is through the release of oligosac- phytate has the process can prevent the feed ofcharides (Choct and Cadogan, 2001). These combustible material. adequately con- capacity to bind trol exposure. Asia’s foremost exhibition andcan be formed during the degradation of • Alarm and control systems can be other important It is important conferences for the ingredientsstorage and cell wall carbohydrates by sup- activated upon the detection of hotplemental enzymes and are able to resist minerals to include in such as calcium, zinc, and additives used in the particles for other control devices suchfurther degradation by digestive enzymes as diverter valves. the assessment manganese, iron foreseeable inci- production of animal feeds,and so able to reach the colon. Once in The system detectors and control unit and copper thus dents and main- aquafeeds and petfoodsthe colon these oligosaccharides are a nutri- reducing their are ATEX certified for use in a dusty work- tenance workent source for beneficial bacteria such as bioavailability in ing environment. This means there are no and plan forBifidobacterium and Lactobacillus spp which the digestive tract. expensive costs for additional wiring to run measures to besuppress the growth of pathogenic bacteria Additional from detectors to remote mounted control taken in thesesuch as Salmonella, Clostridium, Campylobacter research has also units and plant personnel have direct access circumstances.and Escherichia coli. It is well established that revealed that the to the status of the equipment. In the event ATEX is thereducing pathogenic bacteria in the colon inclusion of phytase of an alarm condition, the operator can see name com-improves weight gain and the feed conver- can improve both immediately which process is at risk. A web monly given tosion ratio in pigs and poultry. ileal amino acid based monitoring system, which allows plant Directive 94/9/ FIAAP Asia 2014 is the only dedicated trade show and conference organised specifically for feed ingredients, digestibility and additives and formulation within the dynamic and growing region of South and South East Asia. managers to receive system alarms and faults EC which pro-Cost saving feed formulation to their smart phones, as well as monitor- dietary avail- vides the techni- New for 2014 Supported by Regardless of the mechanism by which able metabolisable Now including the first The Thailand Convention ing the systems live on the internet, is also cal requirements ASEAN Feed Summit and Exhibition Bureauthe energy value of feed is increased, the energy (Ravindran available. to be applied Specialist conferences Co-located withfact that it occurs is of significant importance et al 2001). Phytate The exhibition will be supported VICTAM Asia 2014 In addition to this preventative sys- and the relevant by its own specialist conferences. www.victam.comfor producers and nutritionists. This allows is therefore con- They will include: tem, systems for protection are available, conformity The FIAAP Conference 2014 Contact detailsfor greater flexibility when formulating diets sidered as both an For visitor, exhibition stand should an explosion occur. A chemical assessment pro- Petfood Forum Asia 2014 space and conferencemeaning that alternative feed ingredients, indigestible nutri- Aquafeed Horizons Asia 2014 information please visit: isolation system isolates an explosion and cedures before The Thai Feed Conference 2014 www.fiaap.comwhich are traditionally of lower nutritive ent and an anti- prevents it from affecting interconnected placing equip-value, can be utilised in the formulation. This nutrient and inter-can result in significant savings in feed costs estingly, in the last Grain&feed millinG technoloGyfor producers where, for example, some of decade, research January - february 2013 | 11the wheat-based portion of the diet can be has demonstratedreplaced with cheaper barley, providing a that administering M N t ec LA ow hsuitable blend beta-glucanase and xylanase unconvention- Performance, w olo ith genzymes are incorporated into the diet. ally high doses or flexibility and stability n by ‘superdosing’ yPhytase development phytase in diets that The 1990s saw the development of the animal perform-next enzyme of significant importance in ani- ance can be sub-mal nutrition, phytase. Phosphorous is a very stantially improvedimportant and valuable mineral element in all (Cowieson et alspecies as it is crucial for bone development 2011).and metabolic processes. In plants, the majority of phosphorous is Challengesstored in the form of phytate. Monogastrics associatedare unable to utilise the phosphorous in withphytate so it is a major source of an enzymes use Raise your standards of performance withimportant nutrient that is normally wasted. One of the Econase ® XT and Mixer Liquid Application.Instead, producers have to supplement diets major challenges Looking for improved profitability in uncertain times?with inorganic phosphorous supplements with the cur- Econase ® XT Mixer Liquid Application technology optimisesalthough dependence on inorganic phos- rent use of feed production and feed efficiency, offering you significantphorous supplements is a challenge because enzymes is that cost savings.global reserves of rock phosphate are not producers face dif- The only liquid NSP enzyme stable enough to add prior to pelleting.renewable and the price has escalated. ficult decisions onFurthermore, producers have a tendency which varieties to • Improved FCR • Consistent in-feed homogeneityto over-supplement with inorganic phos- use and at what • Can reduce power consumption when pelletingphorous with the result that most of it is inclusion rates.excreted by the animal and becomes a Aside from the Econase ® XT from AB Vista – the leaders in enzyme innovation.major environmental pollutant. diet formulation Find out more: E: econasext@abvista.com and the ingredi- T: +44 (0)1672 517664 W: abvista.comPhytase benefits ents used, there When the development of phytase are a number ofenzymes began it was largely to reduce factors that can RAISING STANDARDSthe requirements for inorganic phospho- affect the efficacyrous thus saving money for producers and of feed enzymes.Grain &feed millinG technoloGy January - february 2013 | 19
  5. 5. FEATURECommercially enzymes are produced by sub- enzymes. It continues to be the fastest Referencesmerged culture fermentation using micro- growing animal food-producing sector and Choct, M. (2006) Enzymes for the feed industry:organisms grown on substrate. Individual is set to outpace human population growth. past, present and future. World’s Poultryenzymes which are produced by the same Omnivorous fish species such as tilapia and Science Journal 62, 5–16.microorganisms can be completely different carp can utilise plant-based diets and are Choct, M. and Cadogan, D.J. (2001) How effectiveand even those produced by the same micro- of increasing importance, therefore fibre- are supplemental enzymes in pig diets? In:organism, but on different substrates, may have degrading enzymes such as xylanase and Cranwell, P.D. (ed.) Manipulating Pig Production VIII.different actions engendering their specificity. It beta-glucanase may be beneficial. University of South Australia,is the optimal temperature and pH at which The reliance of fishmeal for carnivorous Adelaide, Australia, pp. 240–247.these enzymes are most active that is most fish species is having a negative impact on Corral, O.L. and Villanseñor-Ortega, F. 2006affected by the different sources (Table 1). the environment and is also highly expensive, Xylanases. In: Guevara-González, R.G. and Torres- This clearly has implications on how effec- so identifying alternative protein sources for Pacheco, eds. Advances in Agricultural and Foodtively enzymes will function in the digestive tract. these species is of vital importance. At present Biotechnology Research Signpost 305-322.Generally the digestive tract of monogastric very little research on feed enzymes in aqua- Cowieson, A.J., Wilcock, P. and Bedford, M.R. (2011)species such as pigs and poultry is amenable to culture has been documented although some Super-dosing effects of phytase in poultry and otherexogenous enzymes but the reasons for this initial studies have reported improvements in monogastrics. World Poultry Science 67, 225- 235can differ depending on the species. In pigs, for phosphorous availability in diets through the Dierick, N.A. and Decuypere, J.A. (1994) Enzymesexample, the stomach can store a large quantity addition of phytase in fish feeds (Jackson et and growth in pigs. In: Cole, D.J.S.,of feed increasing the pH and the feed is also al, 1996; Hughes and Soares, 1998) and the Wiseman, J. and Varley, M.J. (eds) Principles of Pigretained in the small intestine longer which development of enzymes that can withstand Science. Nottingham Universityis favourable for optimal exogenous enzyme processing pressure during fish feed manufac- Press, Nottingham, UK, pp. 169–195.activity. However, superior and more consistent ture is clearly an important factor too. Hughes, K.P. and Soares, Jr (1998) Efficacy of phytaseresults are often seen in poultry which may be on phosphorous utilization in practical diets feddue to the lower moisture content in poultry Enzymes and energy production to striped bass Morone saxatilis. Aquaculturedigesta (Svihus 2010) and also, certain ingredi- Finally, the need to reduce reliance on Nutrition, 4, 133-140.ents used in diets may affect the pH in the tract fossil fuels and utilise renewable fuel sources Jackson, L.S., Li, M.H. and Robinson, E.H. 1996. Use ofand the natural variations in nutritional value of such as bioethanol presents further opportu- microbial phytase in Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatuscereal grains can render enzymes ineffective. nities for the use of feed enzymes in animal diets to improve utilization of phytate phosphorous. The current enzymes available have taken nutrition. Production of ethanol by the enzy- Journal of World Aquaculture 27, 3, 309-313.years to develop and have proven effi- matic breakdown of starch and sugars, fol- Morgavi, D.P., Beauchemin, K.A., Nsereko, V.L., Rode,cacy in pigs and poultry as demonstrated by lowed by yeast-driven fermentation creates L.M., McAllister, T.A. and Wang, Y.numerous in vivo trials. Nonetheless, greater a number of waste-products that could be (2004) Trichoderma enzymes promote Fibrobacterunderstanding of the sources of variation that utilised as animal feed ingredients. The main succinogenes S85 adhesion to, andcontribute to mitigating or accentuating the waste-product available is distillers’ dried degradation of, complex substrates but not pureeffect of feed enzymes will enable nutritionists grains with solubles (DDGS). There is some cellulose. Journal of the Science of Foodand producers to figure out optimal inclusions current debate over the nutritional value of and Agriculture 84, 1083–1090.for specific enzymes in diet formulations. DDGS as this can be affected by the initial Péron, A. and Partridge, P.P., 2010. Other enzyme Another area that has been a major grain used for the bioethanol production. applications relevant to the animal feed industry In:focus of research is the development of Arabinoxlans and phytate content has also Bedford, M.R. and Partridge, G.G eds. Enzymes intypes of enzyme that can withstand the reported to be higher in DDGS than those farm animal nutrition. CAB International, 231-248.extreme conditions during feed manufacture. found in feedstock cereals grains (Zijlstra and Ravindran, V., Selle, P.H., Ravindran, G., Morel, P.C.H.,Thermostability is of particular importance Beltranena, 2009) and the quality of protein Kies, A.K. and Bryden, W.L. (2001)and this can be achieved through either and amino acid availability in DDGS is also Microbial phytase improves performance, apparentgenetic manipulation or protective coatings questionable (Péron and Partridge, 2010). metabolizable energy and ileal aminoand these products are now widely available. However, due to the apparent availability acid digestibility of broilers fed a lysine-defi cient diet. of this as a feed source used in conjunction Poultry Science 80, 338–344.Enzymes and ruminants with exogenous enzymes, DDGS has poten- Svihus, B. 2010 Effect of digestive tract conditions, feed Research has also demonstrated that feed tial and research in this area is increasing. processing and ingredients on response to NSP enzymes.enzymes can be very effective for improv- In: Bedford, M.R. and Partridge, G.G eds. Enzymes in farming performance in ruminant species too, The growing importance of animal nutrition. CAB International, 129-159.although there are many challenges that enzymes Zijlstra, R.T. and Beltranena, E. (2009) Variability ofneed to be addressed before they are made In conclusion, feed enzymes are an increas- quality in biofuel co-products. In:commercially available. The complexity of the ingly important tool in animal nutrition. This Garnsworthy, P.C. and Wiseman, J. (eds) Recentrumen microbial ecosystem and the proc- article has attempted to demonstrate how Advances in Animal Nutritioness of fibre digestion means that the mode enzymes can alleviate pressures relating to the 2008. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK,of action of ruminant enzymes is not well increase in demand for global meat produc- pp. 313–326understood. Further information regarding tion, constraints on raw material availability andthe synergy between feed enzyme additives calls for reducing the environmental impact of About the author:and the rumen enzymes produced by the animal production. The application of fibre- Elizabeth Norton is a nutritionist at Anparioexisting microflora is also needed. Some degrading and phytase enzymes in pig and providing technical support across the com-research has however found evidence of poultry diets is widely available and has proven pany’s brands. She is responsible for providingcooperation between the two but it has also beneficial effects. Feed enzyme manufacturers nutritional advice and diet formulations for cus-been noted that feed enzymes compete with continue to improve existing enzymes building tomers. Elizabeth has a First Class BSc (Hons)fibrolytic bacteria in the rumen for available on the knowledge that has been developed Animal Science at the University of Plymouth.binding sites on feed (Morgavi et al., 2004). over the last two decades. Developing varieties for other species such as cattle and fish andEnzymes and aquaculture new feed ingredients like DDGS offer further More InforMatIon: Aquaculture is another industry that potential for the use of feed enzymes in animal Website: www.anpario.comcould benefit from the application of feed nutrition in the years ahead.20 | January - february 2013 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy
  6. 6. Milling Technology magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full LINKS This digital Re-print is part of the January | February 2013 edition of Grain & Feed online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. January - February 2013 first published in 1891 • See the full issue • Controlling the explosion risks within hammer mills • Visit the GFMT website • • Contact the GFMT Team Recycling surplus factory food In this issue: into quality animal feeds • Efficient barge unloading technology • Use of computer • Feed • Subscribe to GFMT programming enzymes in animal diet in animal formulation nutrition INCORPORATING PORTS, DISTRIBUTION AND FORMULATION A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891 To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edi- tion please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link adove. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE Article reprints All Grain & Feed Milling Tecchnology feature articles can be re-printed as a 4 or 8 page booklets (these have been used as point of sale materials, promotional materials for shows and exhibitions etc). If you are interested in getting this article re-printed please contact the GFMT team for more informa- tion on - Tel: +44 1242 267707 - Email: jamest@gfmt.co.uk or visit www.gfmt.co.uk/reprints www.gfmt.co.uk

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