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Assessing nutritional value with NIR


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A survey on the nutritional value of soybean and rapeseed meals and wheat and corn for monogastric feeds has been conducted by Adisseo. Results show great variations in the nutrient value depending on …

A survey on the nutritional value of soybean and rapeseed meals and wheat and corn for monogastric feeds has been conducted by Adisseo. Results show great variations in the nutrient value depending on year of harvest, cultivar, geographical origin, and processing conditions. The survey included analysis of the digestible amino acid and apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values using Adisseo’s NIR predictive equations which have been calculated in reference to in vivo digestibility tests.

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  • 1. Digital Re-print -May | June 2013Assessing nutritional value with & Feed MillingTechnology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom.All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis ofinformation published.©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd.All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced in any formor by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872
  • 2. Asurvey on the nutritional value ofsoybean and rapeseed meals andwheat and corn for monogastricfeeds has been conducted by Adisseo.Results show great variations in thenutrient value depending on year ofharvest, cultivar, geographical origin, andprocessing conditions. The survey includedanalysis of the digestible amino acid andapparent metabolizable energy (AME)values using Adisseo’s NIR predictiveequations which have been calculated inreference to in vivo digestibility tests.In 2012, Adisseo conducted a large sur-vey of the nutritional content of soybean andrapeseed meals in Europe over a 6-weekperiod. Great heterogeneity was observed,with variation coefficients ranging from 3percent to 8 percent for the main com-ponents: crude protein, total and digestiblelysine, total and phytic phosphorus and AME.Highest variations were observed for AMEof soybean meals, and digestible amino acidcontents of rapeseed meals (Table 1).An important influence of thecountry of originIn 170 samples of soybean meals collect-ed over a 6-week period from 13 countriesin Europe and America, crude protein con-tent ranged from 44 percent to 51 percentand total lysine from 2.54% to 3.01%. Thelysine to crude protein ratio depended onthe country of origin.Is this a botanical or cultural effect? Itis difficult to say without further investiga-tion, but observations are clear; for similarcrude protein contents, samples comingfrom Argentina had higher lysine levels thansamples coming from Brazil and the USA.Interestingly, lysine digestibility was higherin US samples, as reported by Mateos etal. (2010). Consequently regarding the totalcontent of digestible lysine, soybean mealsfrom Argentinacontained themost, followedby those from theUSA, then thosefrom Brazil andfinally, with theleast, those fromIndia (Figure 1).Are yousure aboutthe value ofyour soybeanmeal?Even for awell-characterisedproduct, greatvariations in nutri-tional contentwere observed.Soybean meal 48ProFat is supposedto contain 48 per-cent crude protein+ fat, with com-parable digestibleamino acid andenergy contents. Infact, the Adisseostudy showed thatcrude protein con-tent varied by 1-2percentage pointsand digestibleamino acid con-tent by 4-5 per-cent. The most variable nutrient was AMEwith variations between 80 to 120 kcal/kg.The oil content is not the main cause ofthe variation in AME. Crude fibre explains apart of it. Let’s explain why. To manufacturesoybean meal 48 ProFat, the crushers candecide to dehull the beans before extractingthe oil. They then add back the hulls to anextent they perceive is necessary to createa protein + fat content of 48 percent. Thehigher the initial protein content of the bean,the higher the amount of hulls to be added,and the higher the crude fibre content aswell. We achieve a paradox where betterseeds may result in meals of lower nutrientinterest.Figure 1: Digestible lysine contents of soybean meal dependon crude protein and country of originFigure 2: Apparent metabolisable energy content of soybeanmeal 48 ProFat is highly variableAssessing nutritionalvalue with NIRResults of a survey on the nutritionalvalue of soybean and rapeseed mealsand cereals for animal nutritionby Claire Relandeau, solutiondevelopment manager, Europe AfricaMiddle East Adisseo, FranceGrain&feed millinG technoloGy40 | may - June 2013FEATURE
  • 3. Energy value is somewhat correlatedwith fibre content, but the linear regressionfrom fibre to energy content is not preciseenough to be used in formulation: with 5percent crude fibre content, a soybean mealcan contain 2300 or 2450 kcal AME/ Kg(Figure 2). This 150 Kcal difference, pickedup by PNE, Adisseo NIRs Service, wouldcorrespond to a soybean meal shadow pricedifference of 45 €/ T.In practice, excluding high crude fibrecontents for monogas-trics should be the firstreflex, but privilegingthe raw materials withthe lowest levels offibre is not a guaran-tee of high nutritionalvalue.Aurélie Preynat,enzyme researchmanager, Adisseoand author of severalreports on the effi-cacy of multi enzymeRovabio in soybeanmeal, says, “Indeedfibres do not act onlyas nutrient diluent.Their complex con-stituents, such as man-nans, pectins, xylans,and cellulose, alsospecifically decreaseenergy and amino acid digestibility. OurNIRs service is an efficient tool to rapidlyand efficiently monitor the nutrients reallyavailable to the poultry.”“The commercial nomination 48 ProFatis not sufficient for precise nutrition andoptimised feed production. More effi-cient characterisation and selection ofthe ingredients, based on their nutritionalvalues, can result in savings as high as 10€/t of feed,” calculates Elisabeth Bourgueil,technical manager France, Iberia and Italy,Adisseo.Rapeseed meal quality affectedby crushing processRapeseed meal quality also depends onthe country of production and crushingplants.In this 2012 survey, rapeseed meals pro-duced in Germany appeared to have highernon-phytic to phytic phosphorus ratios thanthose produced in France, suggesting higheravailable phosphorus values. On average,digestible lysine contents are also higher.Differences within a country are howeveras high as between countries. Repeated sam-pling of six French rapeseed meal factoriesover a one-month period showed for exam-ple that lysine digestibility ranges between72 and 80 percent and is very plant specific(Figure 3).This analysis shows an important effectof suppliers, especially for digestible aminoacid contents. The method using regressionsto predict digestible amino acid contentbased on crude protein content is unableto reflect these differences. Introducing NIRcalibrations for digestible amino acids inquality control plans at raw material recep-tion is therefore a step forward to optimiseingredient purchases and proper use in feedformulations.Table 1: variations in nutrient values of oilseed meals*Min < Mean < Max Soybean meals(n=170)Rapeseed meals(n=118)Chemical componentsCrude protein (%) 44 < 48 < 51 31 < 35 < 39Total lysine (%) 2.54 < 2.83 < 3.01 1.53 < 1.81 < 2.03Total phosphorus (%) 0.48 < 0.64 < 0.73 0.97 < 1.03 < 1.11Phytic phosphorus (%) 0.31 < 0.42 < 0.51 0.77 < 0.85 < 0.93Non phytic phosphorus (%) 0.14 < 0.22 < 0.30 0.08 < 0.18 < 0.23NutrientsLysine digestibility (%) 85 < 88 < 91 72 < 75 < 80Digestible lysine (%) 2.24 < 2.49 < 2.66 1.10 < 1.36 < 1.59Metabolisable energy (kcal/kg) 2055 < 2363 < 2517 n.d.* All analyses performed with NIRGrain&feed millinG technoloGy may - June 2013 | 41Westeel: Global Campaign 2013Storage decisions can affect your operation for decades. That’s why so many companies around the world trust Westeel with their storageneeds. Not only do we supply some of the most advanced storage products available, we support our products with the expert project leadershipand sound engineering advice necessary to ensure that the decisions you make today continue to serve your company well for years to |Canada (Home Office) +1-204-233-7133 |United States +1-701-280-2467 |Spain +34 91 216 14 97The right storage solution starts with the right advice.MF22565-031322565 Westeel Global Campaign 2013 GFMT March.indd 1 2013-03-25 3:02 PMFEATURE
  • 4. Apparent Metabolisable Energy“Digestible lysine content is a keymarker of quality of rapeseed meals. Wehave similar findings in DDGS, the byproducts of ethanol production, and thisobservation may be applied to a largerrange of processed feedstuffs”, says CécileGady, Adisseo NIRs and feedstuff man-ager, Adisseo.400 equations provide precisevaluesThis large-scale study illustrates that clas-sical laboratory analyses and knowledge ofthe origin of the raw material are a firststeps in feedstuff characterisations, but theyare not sufficient to get a good predictionof nutritional contents. Precise NutritionEvaluation (PNE), the Adisseo NIR service,gives the possibility to go one step further,with the measurement of the real digestibleamino acid and AME values.For 15 years, Adisseo has been work-ing on the correlations existing betweenfeedstuff NIR spectra and in vivo data,obtained in vivo digestibility trials con-ducted at their research facility CERN inFrance.The outcome? 400 equations provid-ing the most precise values on totaland digestible amino acids, AME, totaland phytic phosphorus and the possibil-ity to estimate, on a routine basis, thosemost costly nutrients in monogastric diets(Figure 4).These NIRs analyses are useful to ensurethat diets provide the expected nutrients atthe lowest cost. Knowing one’s raw materialsshould be a concern shared by all func-tions: quality manager, nutritionist and buyer.Especially when feedstuffs are so expensive,it is important to ensure you are purchasingthe right feedstuff for the right objective atthe right price.PNE for wheat and cornNutritionists also need Precise NutritionEvaluation for wheat and corn. In 2009 and2010, Adisseo also carried out a largesurvey of 300 samples of wheat and corncollected from 19 countries from Europeand Africa. The aim was to measure thenutritional profile of cereals according toharvest and country. All samples wereanalysed for their nutrient content, digest-ible amino acid concentrations and AMEusing NIR.The concentrations of digestiblelysine in wheats ranged from 0.23 to0.32 g/100 g, with a significant effect ofgeographical origin. For AME, Easterncountries exhibited the lowest content(from 2,786 to 2,860 Kcal/kg) whereasthe highest concentrations were found inthe northern countries (2,880 to 2,923Kcal/kg).Amino acids and AME contents of cornshowed a similar level of variability, with asignificant country effect. AME ranged from3367 Kcal/ kg in Romania and Spain to 3,441Kcal/kg in Germany and Argentina. Thisobservation may be due to the interactionof many factors, including grain growing anddrying conditions.More inforMation:Website: www.adisseo.comFigure 3: Rapeseed meal digestibility is pretty much affected by themanufacturing process. Different symbols represent rapeseed meals fromcrushing plants (29 samples from 6 crushing plants)Figure 4: NIR analysis as shortcuts for in vivonutrient value measurementsGrain&feed millinG technoloGy42 | may - June 2013FEATURE
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  • 6.• See the full issue• Visit the GFMT website• Contact the GFMT Team• Subscribe to GFMTA subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891INCORPORATING PORTS, DISTRIBUTION AND FORMULATIONIn this issue:• Additivesfor flourstandardisationPart II:Additives other thanenzymes• High efficiencyelevatorbuckets:modern vstraditionaldesign• Feed focusPoultry• Assessingnutritional valuewith NIRMay-June2013• ‘Kill step’validation oflow-moistureextrusion• Adding value tofeed millingwith profit-oriented feedformulation• Pest controlacross the supplychainfirst published in 1891This digital Re-print is part of the May | June 2013 edition of Grain & FeedMilling Technology magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a fullonline magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features onthe docstoc website.Please click here to view our other publications on purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edi-tion please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the linkadove. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HEREArticle reprintsAll Grain & Feed Milling Tecchnology feature articles can be re-printed as a 4 or 8 page booklets (thesehave been used as point of sale materials, promotional materials for shows and exhibitions etc).If you are interested in getting this article re-printed please contact the GFMT team for more informa-tion on - Tel: +44 1242 267707 - Email: or visit