Balancing the equation: CGIAR and Capacity Development in National AR4D Systems


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During the last week of October, 2013, capacity development focal points from the CGIAR Centers and Research Programmes (CRPs), the Consortium office and key partner organizations, met in Nairobi to begin to define guiding principles and elements of a CGIAR Capacity Development Strategy. The CGIAR group met for several days and partners were then invited to discuss the plans developed and present their perspectives on actions required by the Consortium.

Grasp more about the outcomes of CGIAR Consortium Workshop at:

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  • A fundamental need is to break down the institutional divides, the walls that prevent effective collaboration and partnership towards shared goals. Doing so will require:Development-centred thinking with the needs of poor farmers and consumers at the centre of the processInnovative knowledge access & transformation systemsStakeholders learning & innovating together, managing benefits & risksInstitutional reorientation & changed attitudes/valuesConvergence of R&D, education and business policies and resources
  • This means in effect that to reach desired development outcomes it is no longer good enough to think of a technology pipeline with ‘someone else’s job’ to turn innovations into field impacts and an outcome of take up by those with best advantages that can further disadvantage the poorest. We must consider how the complex actions and interactions that enable innovations to be generated, accessed and used can be brought together with the enabling environments and inputs required (credit, crop inputs etc) and with innovation policies that promote agricultural development for smallholders.
  • Determining what it will take to produce capacity builders who are fit for purpose in 21st century agricultural industry Identifying the building blocks of successful approaches and best practices in capacity strengthening from technical and vocational to tertiary educationEnumerating the resources that are required to; first assemble the pyramid so that Africa will have a truly functional capacity strengthening system that will be able to drive agricultural development effectively and sustainably and second to start the process of reckoning what it would take to build the pyramid to the size that Africa needs to be assured of having sufficient human and institutional capacity to achieve the African Vision for Agriculture, i.e., the 6% per annum growth in agricultural production that is far higher than the continent has ever achieved and yet is the minimum for meeting the needs of the expanding populations while making real inroads into relieving extreme poverty and hunger.
  • The Global Conference on Agricultural Research for Development , a process organized jointly by the Global Forum on Agricultural Research and the CGIAR, sets out to combine the processes of GFAR in catalyzing programmes and partnerships for action and the reform of the CGIAR towards an outcome-focused basis that requires partnership, consultation and shared accountability for outcomes. The GCARD establishes an outcome focused process and milestone conferences tor transforming and strengthening agricultural research for development around the world.
  • In last 2 years GFAR has catalyzed many actions delivering to the GCARD Roadmap principles CGIAR reform provides a change–enabling environment for collaboration and wider reformResearch is essential, but not itself sufficient to deliver impactAchieving impacts requires our continued efforts together and commitment to practical actionsNeed to foster greater coordination among and within sectors – farmer organizations, CSOs, small enterprises, cooperatives etcGCARD 2012 has set out commitments from all concernedThe time for action is NOW
  • Balancing the equation: CGIAR and Capacity Development in National AR4D Systems

    1. 1. Balancing the Equation: CGIAR and Capacity Development in National AR4D Systems Mark Holderness Global Forum on Agricultural Research
    2. 2. The Global Forum for All in Agricultural Innovation         CGIAR & International research FAO IFAD Farmers organizations Civil Society Organizations Private sector networks Advanced research - G20 MACS & BRICS Regional Fora – AARINENA, APAARI, CACAARI, EFARD, FARA, FORAGRO  Advisory Services - GFRAS  Education Institutions - GCHERA  Youth - YPARD
    3. 3. The Global Forum: Breaking down the sectoral walls • Farmer-centred thinking • Stakeholders learning & innovating together, managing benefits & risks • Mobilizing agricultural innovation systems, engaging all sectors • Institutional reorientation & changed attitudes/values Convergence of Research, Extension, Education and Enterprise, Policies & Resources joedale.typepad • Catalyzing collective actions
    4. 4. CGIAR Reform • CGIAR accountable for research outputs • Shared responsibility for development outcomes What is the underlying vision of success? To be an ever-expanding research business unit? Or To help enable countries to achieve self-capability in research to be able to address their own challenges?
    5. 5. Research in Development Foresight & prioritization Societal demand Learning & Scale-out AR4D Demand The AR4D Cycle Partnership with Shared objectives Joint Commitments Evaluation Impact Immediate Outcomes Feed back Knowledge Transformation Access & Use Enabling factors Knowledge Generation
    6. 6. GCARD 2010: Knowledge & innovation are essential, but are not themselves sufficient for development Innovation pathways Desired development outcome Enabling environment & inputs Institutions & capacities supporting agricultural development & innovation
    7. 7. Building the Human Capacity Pyramid For policy makers, scientists, researchers- Providing opportunities to study in the wider contexts of economic dev’t, security, world trade, climate change, For entrepreneurs, traders, processors, wholesalers & those who interface with producers and business people - Improving agribusiness education in agribusiness For extension workers/change agents-Training in soft /personal mastery skills For rural technicians and artisansTechnical and vocational training For small-holders and farmers Empowering them with both opportunities for learning and information , i.e. Make them knowledge-able (I. Frempong, 2012)
    8. 8. Development is changing as economies grow As poverty reduces, the prime challenge will become the intractable problems of societal inequalities and civil conflicts: Agricultural production does not itself equal poverty reduction or access to nutrition: • India is self-sufficient in tonnage yet has up to 40% child stunting • China is moving 200 million people from smallholding farms into cities in the next decade to reduce rural poverty and ‘feed’ factories 22 Countries have been both food insecure and in protracted conflicts for over a decade: • 17 of these are in Sub-Saharan Africa • Iraq lost 2/3 of its AR4D capacity during the recent war • 5 years ago, NARIs of Eritrea and Liberia had one agricultural research PhD each Need to look beyond macro-production data alone, question inequities and engage civil society - needs new AR4D capacities
    9. 9. Re-imagining agriculture – Capacity development requires Smallholders to have a say in envisioning their own futures  Productivity gap – a constraint of technology, or of inputs vs returns and risk aversion in changing practices?  Rethinking agriculture from an engendered perspective… gender-blind technology is not gender-neutral…  Need greater PPP investment in labour & time saving in production & processing, in value addition & market access  Poverty reduction – future challenges will be in reaching the poorest sector – usually rural poor  Impacts of disrupted systems – e.g. protracted crises – what role for civil society and PPPs in protracted crisis countries?  Foresight – envisaging our desired agricultural futures and the innovation we need to get there – and its implications…
    10. 10. The changing face of capacity investment Global public investment has been growing (ASTI & GFAR, 2012)  Following a period of declining growth rates, global public spending on agricultural R&D grew by 22 percent during 2000–2008;  Long-term government commitment to agricultural R&D and supportive policies have fuelled increased agricultural productivity and overall economic growth  China and India together accounted for around half the global increase, other large middle-income countries - including Argentina, Brazil, Iran, Nigeria, and Russia also increased  ¾ of global AR4D investment is in G20 Nations  India now has 24,000 agricultural scientists, of whom 4,800 are in ICAR institutes  Private-sector involvement in agricultural R&D has increased, but mostly in agribusiness, rather than agricultural production
    11. 11. The Investment & Capacity Challenge  NEPAD target: at least 1 % of GDP to R&D  In 2008, Africa spent $0.61 for every $100 of AgGDP on agricultural R&D  Africa under-invests in agricultural R&D, still limited operational budgets & aid project dependency  What can the CGIAR do to help fund & leverage more?
    12. 12. Impact of the CGIAR Reform Achieving a more open and inclusive system…? Year 2004 14 2005 16 2006 14 2007 15 2008 16 2011 16 2012 • • • • % of CGIAR funds to partners 17 CGIAR receives 2/3 of all donor support to AR4D in Africa (EIARD, 2011) Transparency on funds scored lowest in 2012 CGIAR partnership survey Overall funding has greatly increased due to the reform, 5-25% to partners Yet for Challenge programs 35% went to partners in 2007 & 2008
    13. 13. Re-imagining the value chain Rapidly changing roles and perceptions of the agricultural private sector in development:  Private sector encompasses all areas for which services are paid for by the client, rather than being paid for from public funds.  Balanced by social and environmental considerations: agriculture and entrepreneurship are products of cultures and societies. Roles include: • Input service provision, • Enabling environment – credits, insurance etc • Markets for produce and processed foods, fibers, fuels etc. • Smallholder farmer & cooperative enterprise • Farmers as entrepreneurs, economic growth is a basic driver for change • But the poorest remain largely excluded - govt safety nets ?
    14. 14. The International private input sector is changing fast: What does this mean for the CGIAR’s role in countries? Iowa State Univ. 2012 •Top 5 seed companies 9.4% market share in 1995, 45.9% in 2011 •Driven by research costs & scale of returns, economies of scale and regulatory procedures & costs
    15. 15. Delivering advanced research products through seed, with IP protection has led to very rapid takeovers & consolidation in the seed industry: The Global Forum
    16. 16. Some PPP Challenges  Private and public partners must truly understand and share the same objectives from the outset  How can PPPs reach the poorest, where there is least commercial imperative?  What can we learn from producer & market self-investment in innovation e.g. commodity crops, into the public sector?  How to identify, understand and empower the customers in these processes?  What policy and investment environment is required to ensure benefit to small farmers?  How can famers be empowered & supported to grow their own livelihoods? – information access, market awareness, collective actions, support systems, innovation brokers, business mentors & incubators, risk management…
    17. 17. Some key capacity challenges need to be resolved by policy changes and investment  Lack of productivity and market gain, high cost of inputs and transportation costs, exploitation by middle men.  Public- private sector dialogue on investment in agricultural infrastructure: irrigation, transportation, warehouses...  Opportunities for Business Development Services, market sourcing, financing of early stage agribusinesses  Enabling business environment & platforms for PPP interaction along value chains e.g. Kenya Agribusiness and Agro-industry Alliance (KAAA)  More participation of youth, women and poor in agribusiness in financial, labour, service & goods markets  Small farmers and traders are underrepresented and vulnerable.
    18. 18. Create ‘instant’ capacities through Information Open Access, Transformation & Use in direct farmer support New Technologies: Information and Communication, Bio-Technology and others applied individually and together Bringing new opportunities in agricultural services, agro-industries and agribusiness Using Open Access Data and Networked Local Weather Stations with Forecasting Models for Risk Aversion and Management e.g. In Kenya for Crop, Disease and Pest and Insurance in Smallholder Tea and Coffee Plots Role of CGIAR Open Access Policy?
    19. 19. Re-inspiring the Youth, the entrepreneurs of tomorrow: e.g. Earth Univ., Wageningen Univ.  Earth University ethical entrepreneurship: Social and environmental awareness and commitment, capacity to generate positive change.  Student loans to start a business venture during their first three years study,  Gain a comprehensive understanding of what it takes to start a business  No more parrots! Dynamic and participatory, facilitated learning:  Students explore real challenges and become active participants in generating knowledge, not passive receivers of information.
    20. 20. Women as entrepreneurs Almost 50% of farmers are women, yet receive 10% of income and 5% of technical assistance in agriculture, often not even considered as farmers Women farmers, given equal access to inputs, are as productive as men farmers Research and innovation often totally miss women’s needs: needs e.g. Niger • Men want input technologies, production and returns • Women want labour & time saving, value addition and household nutrition
    21. 21. Addressing CD in the GFAR Medium Term Plan Working through Action Partnerships to achieve real change  CGIAR is a key actor within the Global Forum  Strengthening International: National linkages and common purpose across diverse sectors  Driven by national & farmer-centred needs  Challenging norms and assumptions from diverse perspectives  Building Collective commitments to change  Delivered through the GFAR stakeholders themselves
    22. 22. Outcome 3 Transformative investments stimulated to provide tangible opportunities for the world’s poor  3.1: Smallholder producer entrepreneurship & new forms of publicprivate investments explored for new income and market opportunities from agricultural innovation (ESFIM+)  3.2: Investments and returns in national AR4D systems better determined through global monitoring system (ASTI+) among key actors  3.3: New funding mechanisms fostered in national systems , directly empowering end-users to shape agricultural research & innovation processes (DURAS & Prolinnova+)
    23. 23. Outcome 4 Collective initiatives fostered to improve Capacity in Agricultural Innovation  4.1: Contribute to more coherent global action (TAP) to strengthen capacities of innovation systems  4.2: Transformative changes facilitated in function, relevance and entrepreneurial curricula of formal agricultural education and informal learning (GCHERA)  4.3: Advocate & facilitate processes for opening of access to information systems (CIARD) for sharing, transforming and using agricultural knowledge among national systems  4.4: Fostering of a global mechanism (GFRAS) to reform & strengthen processes in the advisory service & extension sector through capacity development & collective learning
    24. 24. Outcome 5 Agricultural research and knowledge is embedded into rural development agendas  5.1: Coordination and management support to establishment of the Gender in Agriculture Partnership (GAP) , innovative collective, self-driven global movement for greater gender equity  5.2: Self-reliant youth platform (YPARD) enabled to increase in size and scope, enabling young people to take active part in shaping global AR4D reforms  5.3: Action network (Kigali Movement, CFS) on knowledge management and innovation for growing out of protracted crises, multi-stakeholder support mechanisms and transfer of expertise
    25. 25. Outcome 6 Accountability, transformational change & development impacts in AR4D systems increased through more effective governance & greater stakeholder involvement  6.1: Mutual public accountability and learning on transformative processes fostered & tracked among AR4D stakeholders via GCARD processes.  6.2: More effective governance of agricultural research for development priority setting and implementation through enabling multi-stakeholder participation in fora in each region and Globally  6.3: GFAR roles in supporting International policy processes and strengthening coordination of bilateral and multilateral systems FAO SO1-6
    26. 26. The Global Conference on Agricultural Research for Development – a process for change GFAR – Catalyzing partnerships & programmes for action among all those generating, accessing, adapting & using agricultural knowledge & technologies CGIAR – Reform & new Strategy of International agricultural research system requires partnership, consultation & accountability GCARD - Outcome-focused process & milestone metaconferences for transforming and strengthening agricultural innovation systems around the world
    27. 27. Where we are now  In last 4 years, GFAR has catalyzed many stakeholder actions delivering to the GCARD Roadmap principles  GCARD 2012 has set out commitments from all concerned, GCARD3 tracks processes of change and learns via meta-event  Reforms of CGIAR & FAO provide important change–enabling environment for collaboration and wider reform  Need to leverage from CGIAR investments into national capacities and investments  Achieving impacts requires our combined efforts, equitable processes and commitment to practical actions  Need to foster greater coordination with and within users: farmer organizations, CSOs, small enterprises, cooperatives etc  Resourcing is a collective responsibility, requires still greater
    28. 28. Implications for CGIAR & national innovation systems  Technological options are choices determined by societies  Farmer is the client – not just the taxpayer  International role in leveraging national support & assistance  Requires effective accountability & feedback mechanisms  Empower farmers (her!) with innovation investments, credit, land & input access & skills  Transform education with new skills ,approaches & mentoring  Share knowledge and learning via multi-stakeholder platforms  Develop support systems for collective enterprise
    29. 29. Thank You