Condition Monitoring Solutions for Reciprocating Compressors

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A detailed Powerpoint Presentation on Maintenance and Condition Monitoring of Reciprocating Compressors

A detailed Powerpoint Presentation on Maintenance and Condition Monitoring of Reciprocating Compressors

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  • 1. GEEnergyCondition Monitoring Solutionsfor Reciprocating Compressors
  • 2. Why Monitor? As one of the oldest compressor designs, recips enjoy unique capabilities and are quite flexible with features such as broad capacity control ranges and the ability to compress gas regardless of mole weight or k value. Add mutiple stages and they can compress a gas to extremely high compression ratios. Consequently, they’re an ideal fit for selected applications—such as hydrogen compression in the de-sulfurization process of many refineries—and as part of the low-density polyethylene production process in chemical plants, to name just a few. However, reciprocating compressors suffer from one very serious drawback: high maintenance costs. In fact, compared to similarly sized centrifugals, recips can consume as much as five times the amount of maintenance dollars. That’s why a continuous monitoring system is so important. Specifically designed to meet the unique machinery protection and condition monitoring needs of recips, our solutions can help close the gap, bringing your recip maintenance costs closer to the levels associated with centrifugals while simultaneously improving reliability, availability, and safety. And, with patented* technology, comprehensive services, and over 25 years experience monitoring reciprocating compressors, no one is better equipped to help you. * United States Patents 4,987,774; 6,421,571; 6,826,490; 6,937,941; 6,934,696 Great Britain Patent 2,408,3381
  • 3. HYDROGEN RECYCLE COMPRESSOR Cumulative Unplanned Repair CostsMaintenance Dollars per HP 8 DOLLARS (IN MILLIONS) 7 6 5 4 3 Centrifugals Recips 2 Recips can consume five times as many 1 maintenance dollars as an equivalently sized centrifugal compressor! 1 2 3 4 YEARS Without monitoring With monitoring A monitoring system from GE will often more than pay for itself in the first year, and can save millions of dollars over the life of the compressor. 2
  • 4. Recip Monitoring In Detail. MULTI-EVENT WHEEL Frame Vibration PRIME 3500 Monitor: 3500/70M 4-Channel MOVER Increases in frame vibration can indicate problems Impulse/ Velocity monitor such as imbalance due to unusual pressure Transducer: 330500 Velomitor® differential or inertial unbalance, looseness in or 190501 Velomitor CT the foundation attachment (such as deteriorating Piezo-Velocity Transducer grout or shims), and high moments caused by excessive rod load. Piston Rod/Plunger Position X-Y proximity probes observing the piston rod 3500 Monitor: 3500/72M 4-Channel provide information on rod bow and rider band wear. Rod Position Monitor Continuous monitoring gives maximum magnitude Transducer: 3300XL Series and direction of rod movement along with the crank Proximity Transducer angle at which the maximum occurs. The source of movement can be identified, enabling the proactive scheduling of maintenance for rider band replacement or crosshead repair. Monitoring plunger position in hyper compressors provides protection against detoriating plungers. Suction/Discharge Valve Temperature 3500 Monitor: 3500/61 6-Channel or Suction and discharge valves are typically the 3500/65 16-Channel Temperature Monitor highest maintenance items on recips. Faulty Transducer: RTD or Thermocouple valves can significantly reduce the compressor’s efficiency as well as increase combined rod load. By recompressing the same gas, a leaky valve becomes hotter than normal, causing the valve cover plate temperature to increase. By monitoring both absolute valve temperature, and differential temperature between a group of valves, valve problems can be spotted early and repaired before efficiency losses mount. Main Bearing Temperature 3500 Monitor: 3500/61 6-Channel or This measurement indicates problems related to fluid- 3500/65 16-Channel Temperature Monitor film bearings, including overload, bearing fatigue, or insufficient lubrication. Transducer: RTD or Thermocouple 3500 Monitor: 3500/77M 4-Channel Continuous Rod Load Cylinder Pressure Monitor Combined (inertia and gas) rod loads Crosshead Acceleration Discharge Gas Temperature Transducer: 165855 Cylinder calculated at the crosshead provides Crosshead-mounted accelerometers can detect 3500 Monitor: 3500/61 6-Channel or Continuous monitoring of discharge gas information about the lubrication condition 3500 Monitor: 3500/70M Pressure Transducer machinery problems due to impact-type events 3500/65 16-Channel Temperature Monitor temperature can give an indication of worn of the crosshead pin. Insufficient reversal or Transducer: 330400 or such as crosshead looseness, liquid ingestion Transducer: RTD or Thermocouple valves, unloaders, excessive compression ratio, excessive rod load can be identified and 330425 Accelerometer corrected before costly running gear into the cylinder, or excessive clearance in the or insufficient cooling water. wrist pin bushing. damage occurs.3
  • 5. Malfunction/Measurement In Detail. Multi-Event Keyphasor ® Signal See Note2 MALFUNCTION13500 Monitor: 3500/25 A proximity probe observing a multi-toothed wheel on Excessive Main Bearing TemperatureKeyphasor Module Excessive Clearance in Crosshead Faulty Cylinder Discharge Valves the crankshaft provides a precise reference timing signalTransducer: 3300XL Series (including reversal, excessive loading, etc.) Faulty Cylinder Suction Valves every 30 degrees of rotation in addition to a once-per-Proximity Transducer Pressure Packing Case Leaks turn reference point. This allows measurements such as rod position and cylinder pressure to be correlated Excessive Crankcase and Leaking Pressure Rings with a highly accurate crank angle measurement. Rod Mechanical Looseness Management Solution Excessive Crosshead position can be captured at the same point in the piston API-618 (Fourth Ed.) Protection Solution rod stroke, and cylinder volume can be computed Worn Rider Bands Cylinder Vibration (piston, liner, piston rod) Slipper Clearance Liquid Ingestion precisely at each point in the stroke for highly accurate Rod Load Faults (loss of lubrication) P-V curves. Bushing/Pin & Seizures3500 Monitor: 3500/61 6-Channel Crosshead Shoe Temperature Continuous monitoring of crosshead shoe (slipper)or 3500/65 16-Channel temperature provides useful information on developingTemperature Monitor Frame Vibration slipper problems such as overload, fatigue, andTransducer: RTD or Thermocouple insufficient lubrication. Main Bearing Temperature Crosshead Acceleration3500 Monitor: 3500/61 6-Channel Pressure Packing Case Temperature Continuous monitoring of pressure packingor 3500/65 16-Channel temperature provides useful information on Multi-Event-Per-Revolution Keyphasor® SignalTemperature MonitorTransducer: RTD or Thermocouple developing problems related to the packing, including excessive wear, insufficient cooling, Cylinder Pressure and inadequate lubrication. Combined Rod Load3 Cylinder Pressure Profile MEASUREMENT Piston Rod Position3500 Monitor: 3500/77M 4-Channel The single most effective way of determining theCylinder Pressure Monitor overall health of a reciprocating gas compressor is Hyper Plunger PositionTransducer: 165855 Cylinder by examining the cylinder pressure profile. OnlinePressure Transducer access to the internal pressure for each compressor Suction Valve Temperature cylinder enables continuous monitoring of cylinder pressures, compression ratios, peak rod loads, and rod reversal. This provides valuable information on the Discharge Valve Temperature condition of suction valves, discharge valves, piston rings, packing glands, and crosshead pin. And, Pressure Packing Case Temperature interfacing the 3500 System with System 1 ® software provides valuable diagnostic plots such as Pressure versus Volume (P-V), Log P versus Log V, and pressure Crosshead Shoe Temperature versus crank angle. Suction Gas Temperature Discharge Gas Temperature3500 Monitor: 3500/61 6-Channel Suction Gas Temperature Continuous monitoring of suction gas temperatureor 3500/65 16-Channel Online Gas Analyser Data Input provides a useful baseline against which to compareTemperature MonitorTransducer: RTD or Thermocouple suction valve temperature. Relative changes in the temperature between suction valves and suction gas Trending & Analysis Software can give an indication of the worn suction valves. In addition, suction gas temperature, combined with the integrated equation of state engine in System 1 ® 1 All of the measurements marked in each column are highly recommended to detect the malfunction. The red-marked I measurements are recommended for auto-shutdown machinery protection. software, provides the information necessary to 2 calculate capacity at suction conditions and cylinder flow balance numbers. 3 Combined rod load shares the sensors of cylinder pressure but is used for specific malfunction and protection functions. 4
  • 6. At the heart of our Recip Monitoring Solution is the Bently Nevada™ 3500 Series Machinery Protection System... Integrated Machinery All monitor modules are New capabilities for assessing 6- or 16-channel temperature mon Protection and totally software configurable piston rod vibration and position variety of RTDs or thermocouples. via the 3500’s Rack Interface at precisely defined crank angles differential alarming capabilities allo Machinery Management Module—key lockable to for repeatable, useful information to be used for valve temperatures, prevent unauthorized on rider band wear, rod bow, process temperatures, bearing tem Our powerful 3500/22M TDI Rack Interface • Fully compliant with the requirements of tampering. and other conditions. Also crosshead shoe (slipper) temperatu Module eliminates the need for bulky external American Petroleum Institute (API) Standard applicable to hypercompressors packing case temperatures, and a using plungers instead of other machinery or process tempe data acquisition hardware or special interface 670 for Machinery Protection Systems and conventional pistons. measurements. modules between the monitor rack and Standard 618 for Reciprocating Compressors. software. Simply plug an Ethernet cable • Available in 19” 14-slot EIA rack or space- into the 3500/22M and you’re ready to Keyphasor® module accepts saving 12” 7-slot mini-rack. multi-event-per-turn signals for communicate with our powerful System 1® greater accuracy—required software for advanced diagnostics, condition • Available with a variety of high-quality display for reciprocating compressor options ranging from self-configuring VGA applications where crank angle monitoring, and other plant asset management must be precisely determined. functionality. The result is a zero-footprint touch screens to remote workstations to LCD solution requiring absolutely no additional panels that mount directly on the rack face. rack or cabinet space when augmenting • Monitor modules available with 4-20 mA Highly reliable power supplies your basic machinery protection system recorder output signals for interfacing with accept worldwide AC/DC with System 1® connectivity. voltages/frequencies and can strip chart recorders and other analog based be ordered as fully redundant control and automation equipment. to assure uninterrupted And, the enhanced data collection technology performance. of our 3500/22M TDI allows earlier and improved diagnosis of previously difficult-to- ascertain transient events (such as cylinder liquid ingestion). Single-cable Ethernet connectivity to our System 1® software for advanced diagnostics and condition monitoring functionality. Powerful cylinder pressure A variety of relay modules are avai measurements now available for actuation upon user-configura for the most complete picture alarm and status events. Relays are of reciprocating compressor reliable and intended for connectin health. Dynamic P-V curves, monitoring system to external annun rod reversal measurements, and machinery control systems fo and much more. auto-shutdown.5
  • 7. Cylinder Pressure Where the Action Is. The single most important measurement for condition monitoring of reciprocating compressorsnitors accept a Special-purpose 4-channel vibration modules are is cylinder pressure. Armed with accurate cylinder pressure at each point in the piston’s stroke, a Absolute and designed to address the casing vibration and w the monitors crosshead acceleration measurement requirements Pressure-Volume (PV) curve can be constructed that provides indispensable information on your gas or other unique to reciprocating compressors by providing machine’s health.mperatures, reliable machinery protection without false orures, pressure missed alarms. Filtering, alarm delay, full-scale variety of range, transducer input type, and a host of other That’s why we’ve given particular attention to this vital measurement. With a robust sensor, rature options are fully software configurable on a advanced signal processing functionality in our 3500/77M Recip Cylinder Pressure Monitor, and a per-channel basis. suite of graphical plots in System 1® software specifically for analyzing cylinder conditions, there’s simply no better way to get inside your cylinders—where the action is. Generic 4-channel vibration modules Historically, measuring these conditions meant temporarily attaching transducers to indicator accept velocity, acceleration, and valves on each cylinder. Although cumbersome, this practice was necessary because pressure proximity transducers. Filtering, alarm delay, full-scale range, transducer transducers simply couldn’t survive under long-term exposure to the harsh environment of cylinder input type, and a host of other options chambers. We knew that the key to reliable and effective assessment of machinery health—not are fully software configurable on a per-channel basis. Used for a variety to mention convenience—was to design a sensor that could endure 24/7 exposure to such an of measurements on the recip’s environment, eliminating the burden of constantly connecting and disconnecting every time you prime mover. wanted data. With our all-new Bently NevadaTM 165855 Cylinder Pressure Transducer, we’ve done just that. It provides continuous static and dynamic pressure data and is specifically designed for use with our 3500/77M Recip Cylinder Pressure Monitor. Innovative materials and construction techniques† allow it to deliver reliable measurements in the extreme temperatures, pressure cycling, and harsh chemical environments (such as H2S) inherent in reciprocating compressor cylinder applications. Available in a variety of pressure ranges from 100 psia to 10,000 psia, the 165855 has undergone extensive testing. In fact, we’re so confident of its performance that we offer something unique to ilable the industry: a 3-year warranty. Fully digital communications of all monitoredable parameters and statuses using a variety of highly industry-standard protocols—ideal forng the connection to process and machine controlnciators systems rather than using analog (4-20or mA) outputs. Supports time-stamping of alarms and clock synchronization. † U.S. Patent 6,955,090 6
  • 8. Pressure Versus (not orbit or polar plot) UP Rod Position Plots Displaced Volume 10 TDC 500 Rod position plots display the total movement of Plotting indicated and ideal cylinder pressure the plunger or piston rod at the pressure packing POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH GAUGE 0 400 versus displaced volume enables detection of case. Effects of changes inmechanical clearances, LOG PRESSURE 20 psig/div malfunctioning seals (rings, valves and unloaders). such as plunger to guide bearing, crosshead to 300 Use of log-log scales permits earlier detection of -10 crosshead guide, etc., and changes in average leaks. For cylinders with stepless unloaders a position, such as the thermal growth of a piston 200 0 20 40 5 %/div 60 Displaced Volume 80 100 Log Volume patented algorithm detects the valve closure -20 rod at cold conditions (red curve) and operating 0 10 20 30 conditions (blue curve) can be seen in this format. 0 360 AMPLITUDE: 2 mil/div Crank Angle :0 point and adjusts the ideal curves. Y Versus Crank Angle TDC TDC 4 Rod Load Plots TDC TDC GS (ACCELERATION OF GRAVITY) <--COMPRESSION FORCE TENSION--> 1500 100 Leveraging the 3500 architecture, which 2 Plotting gas and combined rod load (shown in 0.5 g/div 4 20k lbf/div 0 0 simultaneously captures data across multiple -2 the top left pane) with other measurements such 2 -100 -4 1000 channels, this plot format enables users to as crosshead acceleration and rod position GS (ACCELERATION OF GRAVITY) POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH GAUGE 0 100 200 300 0 100 200 300 correlate events across different measurements provides the ability to detect problems such as 20 Degrees/div 20 Degrees/div 0.5 g/div Crank Angle IMPULSE ACCEL OUTLINE Crank Angle 0 100 psig/div TDC TDC 1.0 and to correlate events with piston position 20 mechanical looseness, excessive loading and GS (ACCELERATION OF GRAVITY) MILS/THOUSANDTHS OF AN INCH 500 0.5 -2 10 inside the cylinder. For example, the large inadequate reversal. For example, the impulse 0.1 g/div 2 mil/div 0.0 0 -4 acceleration impulse event at top dead center -0.5 -10 event in the acceleration and rod position 0 -20 0 100 20 Degrees/div Crank Angle 200 300 0 100 20 Degrees/div Crank Angle 200 300 (TDC) indicates liquid or debris ingestion. IMPULSE ACCEL OUTLINE -1.0 0 100 20 Degrees/div 200 300 0 100 20 Degrees/div Crank Angle 200 300 waveforms corrlates with the gas load reversal Crank Angle point and indicates a loose piston. Performance Variables Crank Angle Waterfall Plots at a Glance 19 Apr 18:50:12 19 Apr 18:33:52 19 Apr 18:32:58 339 360 360 19 Apr 18:50:12 19 Apr 18:33:52 19 Apr 18:32:58 339 360 360 A waterfall plot allows the user to see how one POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH GAUGE: 80 psi /div POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH GAUGE: 80 psi /div 19 Apr 18:31:58 359 19 Apr 18:31:58 359 19 Apr 18:23:30 359 19 Apr 18:23:30 359 cycle of compression compares with other cycles Right click on a pressure curve to bring up this handy 19 Apr 18:10:18 19 Apr 18:09:28 19 Apr 18:08:28 359 360 360 19 Apr 18:10:18 19 Apr 18:09:28 19 Apr 18:08:28 359 360 360 19 Apr 17:52:26 19 Apr 17:22:58 359 360 19 Apr 17:52:26 19 Apr 17:22:58 359 360 over a long period of time. This enables the user software variable reference box that displays the 19 Apr 17:22:03 19 Apr 17:21:13 19 Apr 17:20:13 359 359 360 19 Apr 17:22:03 19 Apr 17:21:13 19 Apr 17:20:13 359 359 360 to quickly changing parts of the cycle. The plot on 19 Apr 17:07:22 359 19 Apr 17:07:22 359 performance variables for each chamber in the 19 Apr 17:06:30 19 Apr 17:05:30 19 Apr 16:57:59 360 359 360 19 Apr 17:06:30 19 Apr 17:05:30 19 Apr 16:57:59 360 359 360 the left shows the closing point of the stepless 19 Apr 16:56:58 359 19 Apr 16:56:58 359 cylinder. Changes in these performance variables, 19 Apr 16:56:05 19 Apr 16:55:05 19 Apr 16:53:14 360 360 359 19 Apr 16:56:05 19 Apr 16:55:05 19 Apr 16:53:14 360 360 359 unloader changing rapidly over a 2minute period 19 Apr 16:52:15 360 19 Apr 16:52:15 360 such as cylinder flow balance, can confirm 19 Apr 16:51:16 19 Apr 16:50:23 19 Apr 15:48:20 359 359 360 19 Apr 16:51:16 19 Apr 16:50:23 19 Apr 15:48:20 359 359 360 of operation. This indicates poor process control 19 Apr 12:42:06 359 rpm 19 Apr 12:42:06 359 rpm diagnosis of valve, piston ring or pressure packing 0 50 100 200 10 degrees/div 300 0 50 100 200 10 degrees/div 300 or incomplete control loop tuning. failures. These values can be collected and trended to identify long-term degradation.7
  • 9. Crank Angle Overlay System 1® Leveraging the 3500 architecture, which simultaneously captures data across multiple channels, this plot format Optimization and Diagnostic Software enables users to correlate events across different measurements within a single plot pane. The plot Don’t just protect your recips, proactively manage them with the enhanced condition monitoring format incorporates graphics optimization algorithms to enhance data presentation quality. This helps user and Decision SupportSM capabilities of System 1®, our most advanced software ever. more quickly and accurately correlate events across multiple meausurements. System 1® is a platform for managing every asset in your plant. It brings together a variety of condition monitoring technologies, maintenance management applications, reliability tools, process control and historian data specifically for addressing the unique needs of reciprocating compressors. The result is a total reciprocating compressor solution, capable of providing:Decision SupportSM • Discharge pressureA Powerful Difference • Suction pressureIn addition to System 1®’s powerful plotting, trending, and manual data analysis capabilities, • Minimum/Maximum pressure for eachyou’ll find something unique: Decision Support functionality. Decision Support is System 1®’s crankshaft revolutionability to automatically audit its collected data against user-embedded rules and knowledge, • Compression ratiodetect mechanical or thermodynamic problems, and generate informative advisories that • Peak rod load for both compression and tensionwe call Actionable Information®. • Number of degrees of rod reversal • Suction volumetric efficiencyActionable Information advisories are configured by you, to reflect your specific operating • Discharge volumetric efficiencypractices and procedures. When a specific malfunction or condition is detected, System 1® • Indicated horsepowertells plant personnel what the problem is, how severe it is, and what to do about it—in real • Capacity at suction conditionstime. Cell phone, pager, PDA, e-mail, desktop and process control system pop-up windows— • Capacity at discharge conditionseven conventional annunciator panels—they’re all supported as ways to communicate • Suction power lossesActionable Information advisories to the right people at the right time. • Discharge power lossesYou can employ powerful built-in rules with our Recip RulePaks, ready-to-run collections • Adiabatic clearance volumeof intelligent rules just for recips, and/or you can build your own rules with our extraordinarily • Flow balance of suction to dischargeeasy-to-use RuleDesk features—just drag and drop logical and mathematical operators • Adiabatic median capacity between suction and discharge capacityinto any sequence of conditions that correspond to a particular malfunction. The choice • Adiabatic flow balance between theoretical discharge andis yours through a totally flexible system that lets you design rules specific to your process suction flowand machinery, automate the data analysis function, and communicate required actions • Power to median capacity ratioand urgencies instantly to the right people—whether across the hall or across the globe. • Displaced volume • Adiabatic discharge temperature 8
  • 10. Comprehensive Condition Moni Services. Retrofits We make retrofits of our instrumentation systems simple by managing the entire project. We handle everything, from drilling and tapping holes in the machine to accommodate our transducers, to packaging and configuring our monitoring systems into enclosures suitable for your plant’s environment, to pulling field wiring, to integrating our software into your plant’s IT infrastructure, to documenting every detail. Training We train customers on not just the use and care of our products, but also on the fundamentals of machinery—how to diagnose and prevent compressor problems, how to balance and align compressors and their prime movers, and how to proactively manage assets with the right combination of technology, people, and processes. Machinery Diagnostics Our field engineers provide unbiased, third-party start-up and commissioning assistance by collecting data from your machinery and confirming that it is running within established mechanical acceptance limits. We can also diagnose mechanical and thermodynamic problems with your reciprocating compressors, encompassing cylinders, frame, bearings, valves, foundation, piping, and many other components.9
  • 11. toring Risk Assessment We can audit selected assets, or your entire plant, and provide benchmarking data on which assets present the highest business interruption and other risks, which technologies and methodologies to use to mitigate risk, and the expected ROI of investments in our solutions. Balancing & Alignment We balance and align virtually every type of rotating machinery found in industrial plants, with special capabilities to address the needs of reciprocating machines, such as cylinder alignment and foundation/footing problems. Program Management For customers that prefer to outsource all or part of their asset management activities, we can assist. Whether your needs are focused on a specific category of assets (such as reciprocating compressors), a specific condition monitoring technology (such as lubricant analysis), or a broader scope encompassing maintenance management, reliability, condition monitoring, and other asset management functions, we have the people, and experience, to deliver the results you’re seeking. 10
  • 12. 1631 Bently Parkway SouthMinden, Nevada USA 89423+1 ©2007, General Electric Company. All rights reserved. Bently Nevada, Actionable Information, Decision Support, System 1, Keyphasor and Velomitor are trademarks, registered trademarks, or service marks of General Electric Company in the United States and other countries. GEA-14927 rev. NC (08/07)