Weaverfielddayziegler20120810 121108100726-phpapp01
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Weaverfielddayziegler20120810 121108100726-phpapp01

on

  • 51 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
51
Views on SlideShare
51
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • This is some data from this year. As in years past the Rye has the most biomass, but if you notice the RV combo is less than 2010 2011. We are not sure why that is but it will be interesting to see what that means for this year. <br />

Weaverfielddayziegler20120810 121108100726-phpapp01 Weaverfielddayziegler20120810 121108100726-phpapp01 Presentation Transcript

  • Impacts of Plastic and Cover Crop Mulches on Weeds, Soil Quality, Yields and Season Length for Tomatoes Christine Ziegler Ulsh Research Agroecologist and Science Editor ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • Vegetable Research at Rodale 1980’s – Research on amaranth, wild triga, and many other vegetable trials 1990’s-2000’s – Focus on larger scale grain production 2010’s – Renewed interest in vegetable production in balance with grain crops ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • Research Goals Make farming more sustainable and profitable by developing and improving organic practices that: • • • • • Maintain and improve yields Reduce or eliminate external inputs Manage weeds Reduce/redirect labor INCREASE SOIL HEALTH How? • • • • Cover crops Compost Rotation Reduce tillage ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • What is Organic No-Till? Three Basic Steps 1. Grow a fall-planted winter annual cover crop, such as rye or hairy vetch 2. Let the cover crop grow in the spring until it reaches at least 50% flowering (mid-late May for rye, late-May or early-June for vetch) 3. Kill the cover crop by rolling it down with a front-mounted roller and planting with a rear-mounted no-till planter in one pass. ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • The No-Till Roller in Action Rolling Rye Rolling Hairy Vetch ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • A Brief History of Organic No-Till 1988 -1994 - First tried in the Low-Input Reduced Tillage (LIRT) Trial Late 1990s - Attempts to stalk-chop cover crops not very successful 2002 - Roller designed and built by Jeff Moyer and John Brubaker with NE SARE funding Fall 2004 – Received NRCS Conservation Innovation Grant for no-till received Spring 2006 – Received SARE No-Till Grant Fall 2008 – Received OREI IOP No-Till Grant, led by Iowa State University Spring 2011 – Received SARE No-Till Vegetable Production Grant ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • Benefits and Challenges of Organic No-Till Benefits • Reduces number of tractor passes over the field (saves time, fuel, and money) • Keeps the soil covered to reduce erosion and weed growth at vulnerable times • Retains moisture and cools soil in mid-summer • Eliminates herbicide use Challenges • Can keep soil too cool in the spring • Can allow weed growth if the cover crop stand is poor • May provide habitat for plant-damaging pests • Requires later planting, and well-timed rolling ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • The importance of timing in cover crop termination Rye, rolled at the soft dough stage, lays down well and dies quickly. Vetch, when rolled before it reaches at least 50% flowering, doesn’t die and will continue to grow and compete with the crop plants. ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • Other cover crops that can be used… Fall-Planted Spring Oats (die and lie down on their own at frost) Crimson Clover (flowers early) Austrian Winter Peas (flowers early) Or any grain – wheat, barley, triticale, mature oats, etc. ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • Equipment modifications to make it work Additional Weight 130 lb per row Cast Iron Closing Wheels ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • Ron Morse’s No-Till Vegetable Transplanter ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • No-till pumpkins ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • No-till peanuts ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • No-till eggplant ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • No-till tomatoes ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • Cover Crop Mulches for Small-Scale Production? Yes!!! Cover crops can be crimped by hand, scythed or mowed. Timing is still key. Kill is most successful when the cover crop is at bloom or anthesis, but mowing can provide greater flexibility. ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • Rodale Institute’s Current Vegetable Work Project title: Reducing Plastic Mulch Use by Expanding Adoption of Cover Crop-Based No-Till Systems for Vegetable Producers Project goals: • Identify four effective cover crops/combinations for weed suppression and N contribution in vegetable production; • Measure efficiency of cover crop termination techniques, economic returns, and soil health impacts; ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • The Basic Experimental Design… 3 cover crop mixtures X 3 cover crop kill methods 9 treatments X 4 replications 36 plots Field 6 - 2012 SARE No Till Veggie Tomatoes Block 1 10' 50' 10Cover 111 V Block 2 35' Buffer 112 232 RV Block 3 35' Buffer 231 321 R 322 Block 4 35' Buffer 422 R 421 113 323 423 133 RV 233 221 313 432 131 30' R 223 90' V 311 RV 433 132 312 431 121 R 222 213 331 412 V 123 212 RV 211 122 First Digit Second Digit 1) Vetch 1) Black plastic 2) 2nd Replicate 2) Rye 2) Roll 3) 3rd Replicate 3) Rye + Vetch 332 Third Digit 1) 1st Replicate 333 3) Mow 4) 4th Replicate ©2010 Rodale Institute V 411 413
  • RI’s 2010 trial 3 cover crop treatments: 1. Vetch 2. Rye 3. Rye-vetch mix 3 termination methods: 1. Black plastic 2. Mowed 3. Rolled 3 tomato varieties: 1. Black Prince 2. Bellstar 3. Glacier 1 pole bean variety (KY Wonder) ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • Changes to the RI Field for 2011 SIMPLIFY! • • • • No beans Only one variety of tomato (Glacier) One row per plot for all treatments Separate weeds only into perennial and annual categories (not by species) Field 9/10 2011 No Till Veggie SARE Tomatoes 30' 170' 800' ©2010 Rodale Institute Block 4 411 413 423 Vetch 40' buffer 421 422 Rye 40' buffer 431 433 432 313 R+V 40' buffer 311 312 321 Vetch 40' buffer 322 323 Rye 40' buffer 332 333 331 211 R+V 40' buffer 213 231 40' buffer 232 233 221 Vetch 412 Block 3 R+V 40' buffer 223 222 123 Rye 40' buffer 121 122 132 Rye 40' buffer 133 131 113 Block 2 R+V 40' buffer 112 50' covercrop planting width 111 Vetch 212 Block 1
  • The 2011 Tomato Field Throughout the Year ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • Cover Crop Biomass and N Content 2010 2011 14,000 14000 14000 14,000 June 10th May 27th June 10th 10000 lb/ac Dry Weight lb/acre dry matter 10000 8000 6000 4000 8000 May 13th May 13th 6000 May 13th June 10th June 10th 4000 2000 2000 0 0 plastic rolled/mowed plastic VETCH rolled/mowed plastic RYE black plastic rolled/mowed roll mow black plastic VETCH ALONE RYE/VETCH roll mow RYE ALONE black plastic roll mow RYE/VETCH MIX Nitrogen Content of Cover Crops at Termination 2010 Cover Crop Nitrogen Content 250 250 200 200 Cover Crop Nitrogen (lb/ac) 250 250 150 lb/ac 150 lb/ac lb/ac Cover crop N content June 10th 12000 12000 lb/ac Dry Weight lb/ac Cover crop biomass 2010 Cover Crop Biomass 100 50 50 0 100 0 plastic rolled/mowed VETCH plastic rolled/mowed RYE plastic rolled/mowed RYE/VETCH ©2010 Rodale Institute Black Plastic Roll VETCH ALONE Mow Black Plastic Roll RYE ALONE Mow Black Plastic Roll RYE/VETCH Mow
  • 2010 2011 Weed Biomass at 4- 6 weeks 2010 4-Week Weed Biomass 80008000 8000 8000 7000 7000 6000 lb/ac Dry Weight Lbs/acre dry weight 6000 lb/ac Dry Weight lb/acre dry weight 4-6 weeks after planting Weed Biomass at 4 and 8 Weeks 5000 4000 3000 2000 4000 3000 2000 1000 1000 0 5000 0 plastic roll mow plastic VETCH roll mow RYE plastic roll mow Black Plastic RYE/VETCH Rolled Mowed Black Plastic 2010 8-Week Weed Biomass Rolled Mowed Black Plastic RYE Rolled Mowed RYE/VETCH Weed Biomass at 8- 10 weeks 8000 8000 8000 8000 7000 6000 6000 lb/ac Drydry weight Lbs/acre Weight 7000 lb/aclbs/acre dry weight Dry Weight 8-10 weeks after planting VETCH 5000 4000 3000 2000 4000 3000 2000 1000 1000 0 5000 plastic roll VETCH mow plastic roll RYE mow plastic roll mow RYE/VETCH 0 Black Plastic Rolled VETCH ©2010 Rodale Institute Mowed Black Plastic Rolled RYE Mowed Black Plastic Rolled RYE/VETCH Mowed
  • Soil Moisture and Temperature 2010 2011 3535 30 30 black plastic roll mow black plastic roll 25 mow 25 black plastic 20 vetch plastic vetch rolled vetch mowed rye plastic rye rolled rye mowed rye/vetch plastic rye/vetch rolled rye/vetch mowed 15 10 5 % moisture % moisture roll 15 5 0 May 7th June 1st May June 24th June July 2010 Average and Maximum Soil Temperature by Treatment July 20th June 14th August July 18th June Aug 17th July Sept 14th August September 2011 Average and Maximum Soil Temperature By Treatment 35 35 35 35 30 30 25 % temperature (C) moisture 25 % moisture temperature (C) mow 20 10 0 Avg and Max Temperature 2011 Soil Moisture Through The Season 35 35 % moisture % moisture Soil Moisture by Date 2010 Soil Moisture Through the Season 20 15 20 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 plastic roll vetch mow plastic roll rye mow plastic roll mow rye/vetch ©2010 Rodale Institute plastic roll vetch mow plastic roll rye mow plastic roll rye/vetch mow
  • 2011 Tomato Yields (total and marketable) 2010 2011 2010 Tomato Yields 120,000 120,000 120,000 120,000 total yield = darker bar (left) marketable yield = lighter bar (right) e e de 100,000 100,000 E lbs/acre fresh weight lbs/ac fresh weight lbs/ac fresh weight lb/acre E 80,000 60,000 40,000 DE cd 80,000 c CD C 60,000 b b B B 40,000 ab AB a A 20,000 20,000 0 plastic roll VETCH mow plastic roll RYE mow plastic roll mow RYE/VETCH ~ 4000 lbs of tomatoes harvested from late July to early October 0 Black Plastic Rolled VETCH Mowed Black Plastic Rolled RYE Mowed Black Plastic Rolled RYE/VETCH ~ 6500 lbs of tomatoes harvested from late August to mid October ©2010 Rodale Institute Mowed
  • Comparison of Outcomes from 2010 to 2011 2010 2011 • Rolled Vetch was weediest (replanted=not enough biomass?). • Mowed Rye/Vetch had the fewest weeds, compared to black plastic. • Rye and Rye/Vetch kept weed biomass under 1500 kg/ha. • Rolled and Mowed Rye and Rye/Vetch were comparable to Black Plastic treatment in yields. • Most rolled and mowed cover crops were equally weedy at 10 weeks • Rolled Rye/Vetch had the fewest weeds, compared to black plastic. • All non-plastic treatments had weed biomass over 3000 lbs/ac (up to 6000 lb/ac). • Black Plastic out-yielded all the other treatments. • Rolled and Mowed Rye/Vetch out-yielded the Vetch and the Rye, and both termination techniques yielded equally. This is why we do multi-year agricultural research projects! ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • Spring 2012 Cover Crop Biomass 14,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 kg/ha kg/ha 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 plastic roll mow plastic roll mow Vetch Vetch Vetch Rye Rye Rye ©2010 Rodale Institute plastic roll mow Rye/Vetch Rye/Vetch Rye/Vetch
  • We also performed research at four collaborating farms in 2011 The Farmer Team: Mike Baki – Genesis Farm CSA, Blairstown, NJ James Weaver – Meadow View Farm, Bowers, PA John & Aimee Good – Quiet Creek Farm CSA, Kutztown, PA Elizabeth & Douglas Randolph – Swallow Hill Farm, Cochranville, PA Doug Randolph planting his cover crops ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • Plot Lay-Out at Each Collaborating Farm Weaver 2012 Cabbage Baki 2010 Tomatoes roll Block 2 std. roll std Baki Block 3 roll * * std std. roll std. Weaver 2012 Tomatoes roll 11 22 21 G# G# G# Block 1 Block 1 std. roll Block 2 roll Block 3 std std. roll G# 32 31 42 41 G# Block 2 G# G# G# Block 3 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 10' 10' 10' 10' Goods 2010 Tomatoes (or squash?) G# 7' Blue flag Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 ^Corner of field 5 ft 5 ft 3ft 5 ft 5 ft 39 Feet wide Grass Buffer Road roll: rolled cover crop, rye 70#/A and vetch 25#/A. std: standard practice - spaded cover crop with BioTelo biodegradable plastic mulch 1st Digit: Block 2nd Digit: Practice (1= roll, 2=std practice) 3 ft G# Blue flag Row 2 5 ft G# Blue flag Blue flag * * Row 1 5 ft 33' power line row G# 100' 3 Markers installed here at ~33 ft 3 ft Weaver roll North South G# 12 Grass Buffer Road 32 100 ft long 31 G# G# 22 std. Yellow flag Yellow flag Yellow flag G# 21 roll Tomatoes and Cabbage, using a raised bed roller Yellow flag 3 Markers installed here at ~66 ft 12 std. 63' Tomatoes, Melons, and Summer Squash 11 9' Drive lane Block 1 Block 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 10' 10' 10' 10' Road 32 feet 10 ft. { R1 roll 11 Orange flag 55 feet R 12 R2 Yellow flag std 12 Clover Rye R 11 R3 12 11 21 22 32 roll 21 31 Orange flag R 10 350 feet R4 Yellow flag std 22 Clover Rye R9 R5 Yellow flag std 32 Clover Rye R8 R6 Good Acorn Squash Randolph Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 roll: rolled cover crop, rye 70#/A and vetch 25#/A. std: standard practice 1st Digit: Block 2nd Digit: Practice (1= roll, 2=std practice) ©2010 Rodale Institute Acorn Squash roll 31 Orange flag R7 roll: rolled cover crop, rye 100#/A and clover 25#/A. std: standard practice - pre-emergence burn down } 10 ft.
  • The Raised Bed Roller ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • What we’ve learned from the farmers’ fields…. ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • Spring Cover Crop Biomass Spring Cover Crop Biomass Nothing here 14000 tb May 23 12000 June 2 biomass (lb/ac) 10000 May 23 tb tb June 1 nd May 26 May 10 tb tb May 25 8000 tb 6000 May 6 tb 4000 2000 0 Plastic Rolled Baki Plowed Rolled Rolled and Herbicide Good Randolph rye/clover ©2010 Rodale Institute Rolled Black Plastic Rolled Weaver
  • Nitrogen Inputs from the Cover Crops Nitrogen nothing Inputs from Cover Crops Spring Cover Crop Biomass 14000 tb tb May 23 12000 250 May 23 tb June 1 nd June 2 10000 May 23rd tb May 26 biomass (lb/ac) tb May 10 tb May 25 8000 6000 tb May 6 4000 200 2000 0 Plastic Rolled Plowed Baki Rolled Good Rolled and Herbicide Rolled Randolph Black Plastic May 23rd Rolled June 1st Weaver rye/clover May 25th 150 lbs/ac June 2nd May 10th May 26th May 6th 100 50 0 Black plastic Rolled Baki Plowed Rolled Rolled and herbicided Good ©2010 Rodale Institute Rolled Randolph Black plastic Weaver Rolled
  • Carbon Inputs from the Cover Crops Spring Cover Crop Biomass 14000 tb May 23 12000 June 2 biomass (lb/ac) 10000 6000 tb May 23 June 1 nd tb Cover nothing Crop Carbon Inputs May 26 tb May 10 tb May 25 8000 tb 6000 May 6 tb 4000 May 23rd 2000 May 26th 0 Plastic Rolled Plowed Baki Rolled Good 5000 Rolled and Herbicide Rolled Randolph Black Plastic Rolled May 23rd Weaver rye/clover June 2nd June 1st May 10th 4000 lbs/ac May 25th 3000 May 6th 2000 1000 0 Black plastic Rolled Baki Plowed Rolled Rolled and herbicided Good Randolph ©2010 Rodale Institute Rolled Black plastic Weaver Rolled
  • Weed Biomass at 4 and 8 Weeks Weeds at 4-6 Weeks SARE Veggie collaborating farmers 4- 6 week weed biomass 7000 6000 4000 July 28 th 3000 July 19 th 2000 July 20 th July 28 th 1000 Weeds at 8-10 Weeks 0 Plastic Rolled Plowed Baki Rolled Rolled and Herbicide Good Rolled Black Plastic On-Farm 8- 10 Week Weed Biomass Rolled 7000 Randolph th Weaver Aug 29 (tom) Sept th 14 (cab) 6000 th Aug 17 5000 Aug 16 Spring Cover Crop Biomass th tb May 23 12000 June 2 10000 May 23 tb tb June 1 nd May 26 tb tb May 10 tb May 25 8000 6000 May 6 biomass (kg/ha) 14000 biomass (lb/ac) biomass (kg/ha) 5000 4000 Aug 29 th 3000 2000 tb 4000 1000 2000 0 Plastic Rolled Baki Plowed Rolled Good Rolled and Herbicide Rolled Randolph Black Plastic Rolled Weaver 0 Plastic rye/clover Rolled Baki ©2010 Rodale Institute Plowed Rolled Good Rolled and Herbicide Randolph Rolled Black Plastic Weaver Rolled
  • Yields 45,000 tomatoes 40,000 35,000 30,000 yield lb/ac tomatoes 25,000 squash squash 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 Plastic Rolled Baki Plowed Rolled Rolled and Herbicide Good Randolph ©2010 Rodale Institute Rolled Black Plastic Weaver Rolled
  • How do we explain these results? • Wet spring led to low vetch biomass and N input? • Gaps in cover rolled with the raised bed roller? • Thistle in one rolled plot at the Randolph’s? • NO WEEDING? Stay tuned for answers in the 2012 growing season! ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • Changes for 2012 LET THEM WEED!!! • Collaborating farmers will be allowed to weed after the 46 week weed biomass cut • The farmers will track the equipment and amount of time spent weeding, to include in the economic analysis • RI-site plots will also be weeded after the 4-week biomass cut, tracking labor ©2010 Rodale Institute
  • Stay tuned for project updates… Christine Ziegler christine.ziegler@rodaleinstitute.org (610) 683-1415 www.rodaleinstitute.org Thank you! ©2010 Rodale Institute