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Unit V: Principals of education and teaching learning process.
Domains of objectives and formulation of general and specific objectives.
Introduction: Education is a process, the chief goal of which is to bring about change in human behavior. Every individual should have access to a type of education that permits maximum development of his potential and capabilities. Every task is done for particular purpose, it becomes easy to achieve it when we know its objectives or goal as well. In any educational programme to be effective the purposes and objectives are to be clearly stated
So that it is easy to select the right subject matter, the clinical experience and the right method to be evaluate the student's performance and the teaching learning process. Entire society, philosophy, values, circumstances under which students are going to perform should be taken into account comprehensively before planning educational objectives. Thus the objectives are desirable outcomes of intended actions through the mode of education.
The educational objectives are expressions of what a teacher hopes his/her students can accomplish as a result of his/her teaching.
Educational objectives are policy statements of direction and provides foundation of the entire educative structure. These are the statement, which express specifically and in measurable terms, an attitude that will be developed cognitive or psychomotor skills that the students would be able to do as a result of prescribed treatment method or mode of instruction.
Institutional/ general objective: A set of statements identifying the major skills that all the graduates of the program should posses at the completion of their studies.
Departmental objectives: A set of statements identifying the skills to be acquired by all students who are taught within a particular school/ department/division, of a nursing college. These skills must be consistent with the institutional objective.
A Taxonomy is a hierarchical classification in a given field. It provide a classification of various instructional objectives at suitable levels and in given spheres.
A systematic organization of objectives into three domains to help the teachers in precise formulation and evaluates the result of a system of education, helps students to prepare for examinations to obtain the desired end results.
Knowledge: The remembering of previously learned material. Recall of specifics and universals and of methods and processes, remembering of a pattern structure or setting, memorization of facts, principles etc. Includes Recall, Recognize.
Comprehension: Grasping communication accurately, able to put it in different form of presentation, reorganizing material in summary with the central meaning and points. Includes Translation, interpretation, extrapolation, see relationship, cite example, discriminate, classify, interest, verify, generalize.
Application: The ability to use learned material in new situation, it may be general ideas, principals or methods. Includes, reason, formulate, establish, inference, predict.
Analysis: The ability to breakdown material into its component parts so that its organizational structure. Requires an understanding of both the content and the structural form of the material.
Synthesis: It is the ability to put together to form a new whole learning outcomes in the area and stress to creates behavior, with major emphasis on the formulation of new patterns or structures. E.g. preparing codes, developing nursing process, derive abstract relations.
Conative or psychomotor skills or domain or practical skill
This deals with the routine actions carried out by the student, able to perform practical with high degree of precision and efficiency having effective control over the practical skill.
Imitation: The student exposed to an observable action makes an attempt to copy it step by step, guided by an impulse to imitate, needs a model.
Control: The student is able to demonstrate a skill according to instructions and not merely on the basis of observation. Begins to differentiate between one set of skills and another and to be able to choose one required, starts to adapt at handling instruments.
Domain of attitude or affective domain (communication skill)
Behavior representative of feelings or conviction. An objective dealings with emotions or feelings indicated by words, e.g. interest, appreciation, enthusiasm, motivation and attitudes. These are reflective of the values.
A persistent disposition to act either positively or negatively towards a person, group, object, value or situation. It refers to interpersonal relations. Three levels are identified:
Organization: The level at which the learner constructs a value system which guides his/ her behavior. E.g. conceptualization of a value, organization of value system.
Characterization by a value or value complex? internalization: The values have a place in the persons value hierarchy and organized. E.g. generalized set, characterization.
Internalization: Perception of phenomenon affecting values. This enables you to adapt your attitude to the other person as if you were experiencing the same phenomenon yourself. e.g. attitude shown to grieving family gives impact of being concern and care towards them and readiness to help them to get over it.