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Danube floodrisk i
 

Danube floodrisk i

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This is the first part of a work describing the Hazard Mapping Guidelines written for the Danube Flood Risk Project

This is the first part of a work describing the Hazard Mapping Guidelines written for the Danube Flood Risk Project

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    Danube floodrisk i Danube floodrisk i Presentation Transcript

    • Experiences in the definition of guidelines for Hazard Mapping in Trentino Riccardo Rigon Segantini - Mezzogiorno sulle Alpi Danube FloodRisk Project, Trento, October 4, 2011Monday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Outline •What is a guide line ? •Hazard and Risk •Liquid and solid hazards •Return period (is dead ?) •Scale of analysis •Processes •Fit it in three colors •Models (the experience of USDA) •Interaction and participation •Who does it ? 2 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 guideline |ˈgīdˌlīn| noun a general rule, principle, or piece of advice. ... for solving a problem In this case the problem is to prevent natural hazards, and, a a consequence, something that is crucial to prioritizing what to do where in river catchments what is related to civil protection issuing alarms to population, urban and regional planning, plan and design defense work, allocate public resources, and producing sensible laws and regulations 3 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 EU projects Are full of guidelines that nobody really read, except, maybe those who prepared them. Why ? 4 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 One problem is that the where is also important. Once you have design the method, you realize that using it requires itself resources. Therefore someone has to say where to apply the method in the region first Prioritizing and financial investment is needed also for the studies, and not only for the final outcomes 5 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 While it is proven that each euro invested in these studies is worthwhile. This become evident usually after a disaster has occurred, and if the disaster is avoided is usually not evident to many. This is paradoxical and causes an endemic low financial support to this kind of initiatives and studies, especially at the very local scale where the danger is usually not particularly felt. 6 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Lesson learned Guidelines remains unread because there is not the correct information and perception of what natural hazards can do in a given place. And because to apply them require resources. Guidelines need to become part of a participative process of learning about the environment which involve institutions and people 7 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Prioritizing the studies require to cope with the perception of risk, beside hazard, even if risk depends directly on hazards. Guidelines for hazard prevention require a criterion for getting a first guess of hazard and risk 8 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 This is why we gave to the province of Trento guidelines for hazard mapping “a scalar structure”, and different level of analysis. First, large scale, coarse grained, rules are used to choose where to study and hazards are mapped in large, law resolution maps, using qualitative, historic, and soft information Land use is crossed with these maps for a first guess of the risk, and hazards studies are made on these zone. 9 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Nothing excludes that other methods for making this choice should be applicable For instance: • urban expansion plans should include hazard assessment • citizens and/or association could request the studies •norms and laws could require it in certain conditions • legal conflicts 10 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 But we must be very realistic As a few convener told No money, no party: there is, in this economic recession phase a great need to fully justify any single euro used in this field. 11 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Back to the Physics 12 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Prologo Flood in plans The River Berounka, Czech Republic, 2002 Da Wikipedia Water (with mud) 13 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Flood in mountain Torrente Chieppena, Villa, 4 November1966 Cortesia, Prof. A. Armanini Water, sediments, and debris 14 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Flood in mountain Torrente Chieppena, Villa, 4 November1966 Cortesia, Prof. A. Armanini Water, sediments, and debris 14 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Flood in mountain Cortesia, Prof. A. Armanini Water and (a lot of) mud 15 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 The physics Precipitations Triggering Hydraulics Type of Quantity of Runoff production Propagation Sequence of Sediment delivery Inundation Statistics of 16 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Triggering Geology 1 1 1 Hydrology Geomechanics stresses in terrain rainfall statistics resistence in terrain runoff 1 1 subsurface flows 17 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 The medium Geology soilCover&Use Geophysics type of cover Soil depth type of use Water content weight of cover How much soil/debris ? 01 terrainAnalysis Earth Observation elevation photo interpretation slope curvature exposed rock statigraphy drainage vegetation quaternary contributing areas human settlements Analizza i rapporti metrici Shape recognition What is upon the terrain ? Is there soil 01 1 18 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 The outcome Hydraulics Propagation (liquid and solid) Inundation (liquid and solid) How much - Where -with which velocity 19 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 The outcome Hydraulics Propagation (liquid and solid) Inundation (liquid and solid) How much - Where -with which velocity With which uncertainty 19 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Low 20 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Preliminary Analisys Low 20 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Preliminary Analisys High Low Potential Risk In the average Low 20 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Preliminary Analisys High Low Potential Risk In the average Further Assessment considering uncertainties High Low 20 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Low Indicative analysis 21 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 High Medium-Low Low Detailed analysis Simplified analysis Geological Analysis Geological Analysis Hydrological analysis Hydrological analysis Indicative analysis Simplified Hydraulic Hydraulic analysis analysis 21 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 High Medium-Low Low Detailed analysis Simplified analysis Geological Analysis Geological Analysis Hydrological analysis Hydrological analysis Indicative analysis Simplified Hydraulic Hydraulic analysis analysis Comparison with other hazard maps 21 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 The lesson we learnt •Even from the technical point of view there is the necessity of many interacting competences •Assumed that the choice of the right models has been done (which is not easy), there is a data requirement to be fulfilled, even for a minimal result •Data when NOT available need to be produced. Institutions need standards (to which you can give a price) procedures to get them •Data when available are usually in strange formats. Nobody knows what INSPIRE is. 22 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Drawingdelthe map Si riporta come esempio in Figura 8.3 una carta pericolo totale. Figura 8.3 – Esempio di Carta della Pericolosità ottenibile utilizzando la metodologia spiegata nelle Linee Guida. 23 8.1.5 Valutazioni finali Riccardo Rigon carta della pericolosità, prodotta sulla base delle intensità e delle probabilità di accadimento, LaMonday, October 1, 12 deve essere sottoposta ad alcune considerazioni e valutazioni prima della realizzazione della mappa
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 The risk map •Required the definition of degree of hazard which is, somewhat arbitrary Intensity High Medium Low High Medium Low Probability 24 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 The risk map •Required the definition of degree of hazard which is, somewhat arbitrary Intensity High These levels depend on Medium the phenomena but threshold are given by law Low High Medium Low Probability 25 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 The risk map •Required the definition of degree of hazard which is, somewhat arbitrary Intensity High Medium Low These depends Probability on laws High Medium Low 26 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 For instance 1.0 Tr = 10 anni 0.8 0.6 1h 3h P[h] 6h 12h 0.4 24h 0.2 h1 h3 h6 h12 h24 0.0 0 50 100 150 Precipitazione [mm] 27 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 For instance Tr = 100 anni 1.0 Tr = 10 anni 0.8 0.6 1h 3h P[h] 6h 12h 0.4 24h 0.2 h1 h3 h6 h12 h24 0.0 0 50 100 150 Precipitazione [mm] 28 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Where do 500 years of return period is ? •How much reliable is it ? •How much is the uncertainty produced in models ? 29 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Where do 500 years of return period is ? •How much reliable is it ? •How much is the uncertainty produced in models ? BTW •Usually people do not understand the concept of return period, which is interpreted literally, and not statistically, over a certain area of interest •Some colleague declared that return period is dead 29 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Going back to models •There should be freedom to use the best models. •But there is the need to have standards •And beyond standards, the need to rely on some concept of responsibility for who makes the maps 30 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Going back to models •Standard model should be available for free, as a concept of democracy, and control. While usually many services rely on proprietary software, whose scientific basis cannot be verified by inspection of the code. 31 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Therefore •We proposed, at least for the hydrological part of the guidelines, free software to support independent investigations of the problems. Knowing that •Many technical issues are actually under scrutiny by the scientific community, and should not given for granted. 32 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 There are many experiences in this3direction in the next future Possibly the most ramarkable is the Object JGrass - GEOFRAME in the World. Modeling System v3 pursued by the US Department of Agriculture. JGrass 3/ OMS 3 After David et al., 2009 33 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 OMS v3 The Object Modeling System OMS is a modular modeling framework that uses an open source software approach to enable all members of the scientific community to address collaboratively the many complex issues associated with the design, development, and application of distributed hydrological and environmental models. OMS OMS3 can be found at: http://www.javaforge.com/project/omslib 34 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Conclusion Even if the process of hazard mapping is very technical, its acceptance to the community must be the consequence of an integrated process of discussion and acceptance. Otherwise, the technical results either are not understood (i.e. technologists must explain what they did e why), or simply considered in an alternative among others, and not applied. In turn, the identification of an hazard, does not automatically individuate the solution but usually, a set of solutions, which, again require discussion and acceptance to be transformed in policies. Not the same solution is valid everywhere. 35 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Hazard information, Protection, Warning Sense of danger: As Vladimiro Dorigo wrote, (Una Laguna di chiacchere, 1972), the idea of how Nature is strong must be recovered, and we need to be respectful of it. Sense of change: climate is changing, and what is assessed for now could not be for the future. Sense of vulnerability: what was acceptable times ago in term of risk is not anymore acceptable. 36 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Grazie per l’attenzione ! 25-28 0ttobre 2011 L’analisi idrologica per la redazione di carte del pericolo derivante dal franamento e dalle piene con JGrass (CUDAM e HYDROLOGIS) 7-10 febbraio 2012 Progettazione e gestione delle reti idrauliche (CUDAM, HYDROLOGIS e HYDROMATES) http://events.unitn.it/migg2011-2012Monday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 The Vigata Case It begins with a storm …They were rolls, waves that finished in a puff: known noises, village things. (L. Meneghello, Libera nos a Malo) 50 40 Precipitazione [mm] 30 20 10 0 01/10:16 01/10:17 01/10:18 01/10:19 01/10:20 01/10:21 01/10:22 01/10:23 02/10:00 02/10:01 02/10:02 02/10:03 02/10:04 tempo [giorno/ora] 38 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 The Vigata Case The downpours were onto the courtyards here around, the thunder up here above the roofs; I could recognize by ear, a little further up, the place of the usual God that made storms when we were children, He too a village character. (L. Meneghello, Libera nos a Malo) 50 8 idrogramma da evento reale precipitazione misurata Montelusa 40 6 Pioggia [mm/h] Portata [mc/s] 30 4 20 2 10 0 0 01/10:16 01/10:18 01/10:20 01/10:22 02/10:00 02/10:02 02/10:04 02/10:06 02/10:08 tempo [giorno/ora] 39 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 The Vigata Case 1000 TR 300 anni h=88.386 x d^0.1822 TR 200 anni h=84.039 x d^0.1830 TR 100 anni h=76.596 x d^0.1843 500 TR 50 anni h=69.125 x d^0.1860 TR 30 anni h=63.585 x d^0.1875 TR 20 anni h=59.152 x d^0.1889 TR 10 anni h=51.443 x d^0.1919 9h 200 evento: cumulata 9H ● evento: cumulate 3H ● ● ● ● evento: cumulate 1H ● ● ● h [mm] ● ● ● ● ● 100 ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 50 ● 3h 20 1h 10 0.1 0.5 1.0 5.0 10.0 50.0 100.0 durate [ore] 40 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 The Vigata Case 1000 TR 300 anni h=88.386 x d^0.1822 TR 200 anni h=84.039 x d^0.1830 TR 100 anni h=76.596 x d^0.1843 500 TR 50 anni h=69.125 x d^0.1860 TR 30 anni h=63.585 x d^0.1875 TR 20 anni h=59.152 x d^0.1889 TR 10 anni h=51.443 x d^0.1919 9h 200 evento: cumulata 9H ● evento: cumulate 3H ● ● ● ● evento: cumulate 1H ● ● ● h [mm] ● ● ● ● ● 100 ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 50 ● 3h 20 1h 10 0.1 0.5 1.0 5.0 10.0 50.0 100.0 durate [ore] 40 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 The Vigata Case 1000 TR 300 anni h=88.386 x d^0.1822 TR 200 anni h=84.039 x d^0.1830 TR 100 anni h=76.596 x d^0.1843 500 TR 50 anni h=69.125 x d^0.1860 TR 30 anni h=63.585 x d^0.1875 TR 20 anni h=59.152 x d^0.1889 TR 10 anni h=51.443 x d^0.1919 9h 200 evento: cumulata 9H ● evento: cumulate 3H ● ● ● ● evento: cumulate 1H ● ● ● h [mm] ● ● ● ● ● 100 ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 50 ● 3h 20 1h 10 0.1 0.5 1.0 5.0 10.0 50.0 100.0 durate [ore] 40 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 The Vigata Case 1000 TR 300 anni h=88.386 x d^0.1822 TR 200 anni h=84.039 x d^0.1830 TR 100 anni h=76.596 x d^0.1843 500 TR 50 anni h=69.125 x d^0.1860 TR 30 anni h=63.585 x d^0.1875 TR 20 anni h=59.152 x d^0.1889 TR 10 anni h=51.443 x d^0.1919 9h 200 evento: cumulata 9H ● evento: cumulate 3H ● ● ● ● evento: cumulate 1H ● ● ● h [mm] ● ● ● ● ● 100 ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 50 ● 3h 20 1h 10 0.1 0.5 1.0 5.0 10.0 50.0 100.0 durate [ore] 40 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 The Vigata Case 50 8 evento reale evento intensità cost d=9H 40 da LSPP, TR=300, d=9H 6 Pioggia [mm/h] Portata [mc/s] precipitazione misurata Montelusa 30 4 20 2 10 0 0 01/10:16 01/10:18 01/10:20 01/10:22 02/10:00 02/10:02 02/10:04 02/10:06 02/10:08 tempo [giorno/ora] 41 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 The Vigata Case 50 8 evento reale evento intensità cost d=9H 40 da LSPP, TR=300, d=9H 6 Pioggia [mm/h] Portata [mc/s] evento intensità cost d=7H da LSPP, TR=300, d=7H 30 precipitazione misurata Montelusa 4 20 2 10 0 0 01/10:16 01/10:18 01/10:20 01/10:22 02/10:00 02/10:02 02/10:04 02/10:06 02/10:08 tempo [giorno/ora] 42 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 The Vigata Case In this basin, the maxima discharge are those which have short duration. 10 12 14Portata [mc/s] evento simulato da ietogramma 8 LSPP, TR=300 LSPP, TR=100 6 LSPP, TR=50 4 2 0 01/10:16 01/10:18 01/10:20 01/10:22 02/10:00 02/10:02 02/10:04 02/10:06 tempo [giorno/ora] 43 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Oihbo’ Rainfall data are at hourly time step. We need sub-hourly Rainfall has actually been measure elsewhere, at Montelusa a few chilometers from Vigata. 44 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Oihbo’ Rainfall data are at hourly time step. We need sub-hourly Rainfall has actually been measure elsewhere, at Montelusa a few chilometers from Vigata. Moral These data could not be appropriate to do any diagnostic 44 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Oihbo’ Rainfall data are at hourly time step. We need sub-hourly Rainfall has actually been measure elsewhere, at Montelusa a few chilometers from Vigata. Moral These data could not be appropriate to do any diagnostic In future Maybe having data from high resolution meteorological models -less that 1 km2 44 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 The Vigata Case BTW if the hydrologists have used the usual practice. Would have they contained the flood ? Yes, they would 10 12 14 Portata [mc/s] evento simulato da ietogramma 8 LSPP, TR=300 LSPP, TR=100 6 LSPP, TR=50 4 2 0 01/10:16 01/10:18 01/10:20 01/10:22 02/10:00 02/10:02 02/10:04 02/10:06 tempo [giorno/ora] 45 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Il caso di Vigata BTW if the hydraulic work have been made following the usual practice. Would have they contained the flood ? 90-100 mc/s No, if they would not have accounted for the debris 10 12 14 Portata [mc/s] evento simulato da ietogramma 8 LSPP, TR=300 LSPP, TR=100 6 LSPP, TR=50 4 2 0 01/10:16 01/10:18 01/10:20 01/10:22 02/10:00 02/10:02 02/10:04 02/10:06 tempo [giorno/ora] 46 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 ... you know what Im craving? A little perspective. Thats it. ... Anton Egò Investing resources to save resources 47 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 In this case Control from satellites Meteorological model at high resolution (radar, ground networks, Ground measure and experiments satellites) Rainfall-Runoff- Propagation Models Fully distributed hydrological models 48 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Forecasting courtesy CISMA (www.cisma.bz.it) 49 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Forecasting courtesy CISMA (www.cisma.bz.it) 50 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Forecasting 300 12 courtesy Mountain-eering (www.mountain-eering.com) 820010 SWglob Iprec 0 0 2 50 4 100 6 01/10 15/10 29/10 12/11 26/11 10/12 24/12 07/01 21/01 04/02 18/02 04/03 18/03 01/04 15/04 29/04 01/10 15/10 29/10 12/11 26/11 10/12 24/12 07/01 21/01 04/02 18/02 04/03 18/03 01/04 15/04 29/04 time (day/month) time (day/month) 10 850 0 840 AirT AirP −10 830 −20 820 01/10 15/10 29/10 12/11 26/11 10/12 24/12 07/01 21/01 04/02 18/02 04/03 18/03 01/04 15/04 29/04 01/10 15/10 29/10 12/11 26/11 10/12 24/12 07/01 21/01 04/02 18/02 04/03 18/03 01/04 15/04 29/04 time (day/month) time (day/month) 51 350 100 Riccardo Rigon 50Monday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Forecasting courtesy Mountain-eering (www.mountain-eering.com) 52 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Forecasting courtesy Prof. E. Farabegoli, Univ. Bologna 53 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Forecasting courtesy Mountain-eering (www.mountain-eering.com) 54 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Forecasting courtesy Mountain-eering (www.mountain-eering.com) 55 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Forecasting courtesy Mountain-eering (www.mountain-eering.com) 56 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 What you cannot forecast, you can prevent Courtesy del Prof. Aronne Armanini- Check dam withDebris Flow Breaker 57 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12
    • Danube Flood Risk Conference - Trento 3-4 October 2011 Thank you for your attention G.Ulrici - 2000 ? 58 Riccardo RigonMonday, October 1, 12