Literature Reviews
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Literature Reviews

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Modified from Sean McCandless ppt @ UCD Writing Center

Modified from Sean McCandless ppt @ UCD Writing Center

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Literature Reviews Literature Reviews Presentation Transcript

  • Literature ReviewsLiterature Reviews Glenn E. Malone. Ed.D.Glenn E. Malone. Ed.D. WSU PuyallupWSU Puyallup Modified from Sean McCandless ppt UCD Writing Center
  • What is aWhat is a Literature Review?Literature Review? • When hearing this for the first time, manyWhen hearing this for the first time, many wonder,wonder, ““okay, what is this?okay, what is this?”” • While the name may be unfamiliar, weWhile the name may be unfamiliar, we actually do papers like literature reviewsactually do papers like literature reviews often.often. • It is not a discussion of creative literatureIt is not a discussion of creative literature like that from Shakespeare, Poe, and J.K.like that from Shakespeare, Poe, and J.K. Rowling.Rowling. • Simply put:Simply put: • A Literature Review surveys, summarizes, and linksA Literature Review surveys, summarizes, and links together research (a.k.a., literature) in a given field.together research (a.k.a., literature) in a given field.
  • AnnotatedAnnotated BibliographyBibliography • Please note that a Literature Review is NOTPlease note that a Literature Review is NOT an annotated bibliography.an annotated bibliography. • An annotated bibliography is the following:An annotated bibliography is the following: • 1) The full References/Bibliography/Works Cited1) The full References/Bibliography/Works Cited citation for a source;citation for a source; • 2) A brief summation of the major points of the work;2) A brief summation of the major points of the work; • 3) A brief indication of how this research is helpful to3) A brief indication of how this research is helpful to your project;your project; • 4) And at times, any indications of weaknesses that4) And at times, any indications of weaknesses that are in the source that could compromise using it.are in the source that could compromise using it.
  • AnnotatedAnnotated Bibliography (cont.)Bibliography (cont.) • So, in a nutshell, an Annotated Bibliography is a listSo, in a nutshell, an Annotated Bibliography is a list of sources, their content, and how you will useof sources, their content, and how you will use them in a paper.them in a paper. • A literature review, on the other hand, is an ESSAYA literature review, on the other hand, is an ESSAY that covers the major findings of a field, how theythat covers the major findings of a field, how they relate to or are dissimilar from other findings, andrelate to or are dissimilar from other findings, and major methodological and informational problemsmajor methodological and informational problems in the research.in the research.
  • Why?Why? • Literature Reviews are considered important forLiterature Reviews are considered important for numerous reasons:numerous reasons: • 1) They allow you to know just WHAT is out there;1) They allow you to know just WHAT is out there; • 2) They allow you to demonstrate mastery over a2) They allow you to demonstrate mastery over a subject;subject; • 3) They allow you to locate your area of research within3) They allow you to locate your area of research within the literature, such asthe literature, such as ““how does this fit in withhow does this fit in with everything else that has been written on this subject?everything else that has been written on this subject?””
  • The Pragmatic WhyThe Pragmatic Why • Of course, there is pragmatism in knowing justOf course, there is pragmatism in knowing just what is out there, but here is the crux:what is out there, but here is the crux: • Most masterMost master’’s projects/theses, doctoral dissertations, ands projects/theses, doctoral dissertations, and journal articles will have literature reviews. If you arejournal articles will have literature reviews. If you are going on for higher education, learning how to do literaturegoing on for higher education, learning how to do literature reviews is imperative!reviews is imperative!
  • Long vs. ShortLong vs. Short Lit ReviewsLit Reviews • Literature reviews are divided between beingLiterature reviews are divided between being long or short literature reviews.long or short literature reviews. • Long literature reviews are those typically doneLong literature reviews are those typically done for theses, dissertations, and some journalfor theses, dissertations, and some journal articles.articles. • These literature reviews will have dozens ofThese literature reviews will have dozens of cited studies. They will be organized by THEME.cited studies. They will be organized by THEME. • Shorter literature reviews usually have around 10Shorter literature reviews usually have around 10 or less cited studies. They are often organizedor less cited studies. They are often organized by AUTHOR, but the THEMATIC organization isby AUTHOR, but the THEMATIC organization is still considered better.still considered better.
  • Themes vs. authorsThemes vs. authors • WhatWhat’’s the difference?s the difference? • To organize by author, it is simply discussing oneTo organize by author, it is simply discussing one author at a time.author at a time. • However, more complex (and academic) literatureHowever, more complex (and academic) literature reviews are organized by theme with the researchreviews are organized by theme with the research synthesized together to discuss the theme.synthesized together to discuss the theme.
  • Justify your StudyJustify your Study • When writing a thesis or dissertation, it isWhen writing a thesis or dissertation, it is important to demonstrate how your research isimportant to demonstrate how your research is integral to the field.integral to the field. • Your literature review can help to justify that yourYour literature review can help to justify that your study/thesis/dissertation exists at all.study/thesis/dissertation exists at all. • You can do this in a few ways…You can do this in a few ways…
  • Justify your StudyJustify your Study • Your study/paper/thesis performs at leastYour study/paper/thesis performs at least one of the following:one of the following: • 1) Closes gaps in the research;1) Closes gaps in the research; • 2) Tests an aspect of a theory;2) Tests an aspect of a theory; • 3) Replicates an important study;3) Replicates an important study; • 4) Retests a hypothesis with a new or4) Retests a hypothesis with a new or improved methodology;improved methodology; • 5) Resolves conflicts in the field;5) Resolves conflicts in the field; • 6) Creates original research (this is rare).6) Creates original research (this is rare).
  • Getting StartedGetting Started • The first place to begin is to establish a GENERALThe first place to begin is to establish a GENERAL field of interest.field of interest. • You DO NOT have to narrow right away.You DO NOT have to narrow right away. • This step is just to get the most basic idea aboutThis step is just to get the most basic idea about the field.the field.
  • Where to start…Where to start… • In academic literature, articles in peer-reviewedIn academic literature, articles in peer-reviewed journals are considered the best.journals are considered the best. • As a student at WSU, you have access to the a wideAs a student at WSU, you have access to the a wide variety of Library Databases.variety of Library Databases. • There are field-specific databasesThere are field-specific databases..
  • Some generalSome general guidelinesguidelines • Start with the MOST RECENT and WORK BACKWARDS to theStart with the MOST RECENT and WORK BACKWARDS to the oldest. Many books suggest using a five-year span from theoldest. Many books suggest using a five-year span from the present for sufficient coverage.present for sufficient coverage. • Read through abstracts to identify if an article would beRead through abstracts to identify if an article would be goodgood • Believe it or not, some professors actually start with aBelieve it or not, some professors actually start with a GOOGLE search or even with WIKIPEDIA to get a generalGOOGLE search or even with WIKIPEDIA to get a general idea about a field.idea about a field. • Look for MAJOR figures in the field and MAJORLook for MAJOR figures in the field and MAJOR studies/articles.studies/articles.
  • NarrowingNarrowing • All literature reviews must be FOCUSED.All literature reviews must be FOCUSED. • I will narrow down my topic through research:I will narrow down my topic through research:
  • ParaphraseParaphrase as you goas you go • There are numerous ways of jotting downThere are numerous ways of jotting down information for a literature reviewinformation for a literature review • Some people take notes and come back to articlesSome people take notes and come back to articles • Others paraphrase as they go.Others paraphrase as they go.
  • Why as you go?Why as you go? • This is a good idea because you can do theThis is a good idea because you can do the following:following: • 1) Each article you find germane is ALREADY1) Each article you find germane is ALREADY summarized, so you WRITE AS YOU GO;summarized, so you WRITE AS YOU GO; • 2) You have a better chance of remembering2) You have a better chance of remembering something and drawing connections;something and drawing connections;
  • Quantitative andQuantitative and QualitativeQualitative • 1) Always note if the study was qualitative or1) Always note if the study was qualitative or quantitativequantitative • 2) Note if study is experimental or non-2) Note if study is experimental or non- experimentalexperimental • 3) If an experiment, how were subjects3) If an experiment, how were subjects assigned to test conditions?assigned to test conditions? • 4) Cause-and-effect vs. correlation4) Cause-and-effect vs. correlation • 5) Reliability5) Reliability • 6) Validity6) Validity • 7) Sampling, demographics, statistical7) Sampling, demographics, statistical significancesignificance
  • Managing NumerousManaging Numerous DefinitionsDefinitions • Very often, you will encounter the sameVery often, you will encounter the same concept defined in different ways byconcept defined in different ways by different researchers.different researchers. • This is especially important in researchThis is especially important in research as how we define something determinesas how we define something determines how we can measure it.how we can measure it.
  • • Consider building tables for definitions so as to keep track. • The following is adapted from Galvan’s (2006) book Writing Literature Reviews, Third Edition (pp. 63-64):
  • Creating theCreating the OutlineOutline • The good literature will start with a good outline.The good literature will start with a good outline. • At a minimum, you will have:At a minimum, you will have: • 1) An introduction that establishes the importance of1) An introduction that establishes the importance of the topic, the scope of the review, and thethe topic, the scope of the review, and the organization of the paper;organization of the paper; • 2) The major section headers and sub-sections that2) The major section headers and sub-sections that follow the same organization as the organizationfollow the same organization as the organization established in the introduction;established in the introduction; • 3) Summary of findings, implications of findings, and3) Summary of findings, implications of findings, and discussion.discussion.
  • Other GuidelinesOther Guidelines • It recommended that you:It recommended that you: • 1) NOT use contractions;1) NOT use contractions; • 2) NOT use first person;2) NOT use first person; • 3) ONLY use acronyms AFTER you have defined their meaning;3) ONLY use acronyms AFTER you have defined their meaning; • 4) Spell out numbers from 0-9 and use the numerals for all numbers above 9;4) Spell out numbers from 0-9 and use the numerals for all numbers above 9; • 5) Avoid slang, colloquialisms, and idioms;5) Avoid slang, colloquialisms, and idioms; • 6) Make sure that every source you cite in your paper is included in the6) Make sure that every source you cite in your paper is included in the References page(s);References page(s); • 7) Double-space ALL lines, number ALL pages; do not futz around with margins;7) Double-space ALL lines, number ALL pages; do not futz around with margins; • 8) Be consistent with verb tenses.8) Be consistent with verb tenses. • APA recommends past (discussed) or present perfect (have discussed) when presenting resultsAPA recommends past (discussed) or present perfect (have discussed) when presenting results • Chicago and MLA are a little more accepting of present tenseChicago and MLA are a little more accepting of present tense
  • Expanding ScopeExpanding Scope • As you research, you will begin to notice moreAs you research, you will begin to notice more connections.connections. • For longer literature reviews, this means lookingFor longer literature reviews, this means looking up studies in new areasup studies in new areas
  • DrawingDrawing ConnectionsConnections • This is a key step. When looking at these articles,This is a key step. When looking at these articles, begin to note connections between studies.begin to note connections between studies. • Note how authors discuss a particular field.Note how authors discuss a particular field.
  • IntroductionsIntroductions & Summaries& Summaries • Literature Review sections will be similarlyLiterature Review sections will be similarly structured as they are in other types ofstructured as they are in other types of writing.writing. • For example, in other essays, the bestFor example, in other essays, the best sections have introductions to the new topicsections have introductions to the new topic area, (typically) a review of the main points,area, (typically) a review of the main points, and the order of the presentation.and the order of the presentation. • A summary for each section is a good ideaA summary for each section is a good idea as you can summarize complex researchas you can summarize complex research for your reader. A summary is also a goodfor your reader. A summary is also a good place to comment on the problems with theplace to comment on the problems with the research.research.
  • Creating categoriesCreating categories • As you narrow the research, the major categoriesAs you narrow the research, the major categories you identify will probably end up being theyou identify will probably end up being the section headers for your paper.section headers for your paper.
  • Being specificBeing specific W/ ReferencesW/ References • It is often tempting to make blanket statements andIt is often tempting to make blanket statements and refer to numerous authors at once.refer to numerous authors at once. • It is better to divide up blanket statements intoIt is better to divide up blanket statements into smaller and more manageable snippets.smaller and more manageable snippets.