Rio + 20 The Green Power Fund June 18 2012 - Graciela Chichilnisky


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Presentation given on June 15th, 2012 by Professor Graciela Chichilnisky at the UNFCCC Side Event "The Green Power Fund: Carbon Negative Technologies for Sustainable Development" at Rio+20 2012

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Rio + 20 The Green Power Fund June 18 2012 - Graciela Chichilnisky

  1. 1. The Green Power Fund - reflections by its author - Graciela Chichilnisky UNFCCC Side Event June 18th 2012 Rio+20 Rio Centro Brazil
  2. 2. Human Dominated World Human Beings are today the largest geological force in the planet We are changing the planet’s atmosphere, its body of waters, and the complex web of species that makes life on earth Climate Change
  3. 3. Global Risks• Climate Change• Biodiversity Extinction• Clean Water scarcity• Life in the Seas going extinct Avoiding Extinction
  4. 4. URGENCY Why are we being called to respond toThe Climate Question
  5. 5. Catastrophic Risks• Global sea level raise threatens the survival of 43 island nations• Polar Caps melt - accelerating warming trend• Record breaking tornadoes, floods, droughts and devastating fires• 30 million climate migration in 2011• National Security at Risk US Pentagon 2009 Oceans - the origin of life – going extinct
  6. 6. Are Humans Next?• Need Action Now• Waited too long• Industrial economies 20% of world population cause most of world’s C02 emissions Energy from fossil fuels is 45% of global emissions Clean Energy is the Only Solution
  7. 7. The AnthropoceneThe change we are producing will be read in rock formationsfor thousands of yearsA new geological era - the ‘Anthropocene’ – follows theHolocene –it started in 1945 The Bretton Woods Institutions after WWII led to Globalization of Western Economics
  8. 8. A Brief History of Western Economics How an individualistic frontier societyGrows Interconnections & the Global Commons
  9. 9. Western Economics an Individualistic frontier Society• Lacks connections with natural resources• Lacks connections between present and future• Lacks connections between people
  10. 10. Western Market Economics based on – Competitive Markets - individualistic consumers trade private goods: no connection between people – Optimal Growth Theory -- exponential growth of population and resource use – a frontier society without limits: no connection between the economy and ecological systems – Cost Benefit Analysis and Financial Models Discount the Future – a short term vision: no connection between the present and the future Dictatorship of the Present
  11. 11. Western economics Disconnects us• Lacks connections between people• Lacks connections between economy and environment• Lacks connections across generations Sustainable Development requires building connections WHY?
  12. 12. Because humans dominate the planet• For the first time in recorded history• Following an era of rapid globalization Humans dominate Planet Earth• We are connecting and changing the planet’s atmosphere, its bodies of water, and the complex web of species that makes life on Earth
  13. 13. This means natural resource limits• As we reach natural resource and environmental limitsThe survival of humankind is at stake• Need connections with the ecology, between people and with the future of our species Can Western Economics adjust? Can Markets become Sustainable?
  14. 14. Sustainable Economics How to do it
  15. 15. What to do• Change International Law• Change Economics We just have to do it• For the survival of our Species
  16. 16. Changing Economics is Key HOW?• Provide the Missing Connections• Between people and the environment• Between the Present & the FutureNew Global Markets mean new GDP
  17. 17. Changing EconomicsRequires ChangingInternational Law
  18. 18. Change International Law Basic Needs• In 1974 I created the Bariloche Model of the World Economy• Based on my new concept of Basic Needs• Basic Needs foundation of Sustainable Development voted by 150 nations at the 1992 UN Earth Summit in Rio Brazil• Adopted by the G – 20 in 2009Sustainable Development
  19. 19. Change International Law The Carbon Market• The Carbon Market I designed and wrote into the UN Kyoto Protocol in 1997 is international law since 2005• Productive clean CDM transfers to developing nations $50 Bn since 2005• EU ETS Trades $200 Bn/year, decreased 37% EU emissions since became law in 2005• Makes profitable the use of clean energy for the production of all goods and services• Changes the energy foundation of the Global Economy• China ratified the Kyoto Protocol and since 2005 leads the World in Solar and Wind markets• US did not and was left behind in clean technology
  20. 20. Change International Law The Green Power Fund• $200Bn/year Private/Public Fund for building Carbon Negative Power Plants in developing nations• Funded by the CDM of the Kyoto Protocol = Carbon Market trading in 2011• Created in Copenhagen CP15 December 2009 – I published and presented it to Pershing US State Dept, and Pizer US Treasury• Announced two days later December 17 2009 by US Sec H. Clinton -- now accepted in Durban 2011
  21. 21. Where are We?What comes Next?
  22. 22. Changes Articulated by the United NationsKyoto Protocol
  23. 23. The Carbon Market• What is it?• What it is not
  24. 24. The Carbon Market• EU-ETS Trades $200 Bn/year• Reduced 30% EU emissions• CDM transfersred $50 Bn clean energy projects in poor nations• Now in 4 continents• Compulsory Carbon Market in California USA• US Federal Law March 2012 limits power plant emissions•
  25. 25. Emission Limits are the basis of Carbon Market How does it Work Carbon Makes Clean Energy CARBON CHANGES THE Dirty pays profitable PRICES ARE $25/TON ENTIREclean – ZERO Dirty Energy THE Missing EMITTED GLOBALoverall costs expensive and Signal ECONOMY Undesirable
  26. 26. Carbon Market Links to Global Economy Everything is made with energy Economic growth = Energy Use Link to EnergyCarbon Market provides Missing Signal New Market Prices = New ValuesCarbon Market = New GDP
  27. 27. From the Carbon Market to the Green Power Fund
  28. 28. Power Plants Create Development• Energy is the mother of all Markets A US$55 TrillionGlobal Power Plant Infrastructure (IEA)• They Power the World• The World needs more energy• But Power Plants today emit 45% of all Carbon emissions• Need carbon negative power plants NOW
  29. 29. The Green Power Fund• Mobilizes the World Energy Markets Builds Carbon Negative Power Plants• $200bn/year to build carbon negative power pants• Creating Rapid Development in Latin America Africa Small Island StatesFunded by the Carbon Market
  30. 30. To Build Carbon Negative Power Plants in LA Africa and AOSIS• Capture More Carbon than Emitted• Providing Rapid Development while• Cleaning the Planet’s Atmosphere• Ideal for Low Income Developing Nations• Low Emitting Nation can Reduce more Carbon than they emit• Paid for by the $200 Bn/trading of the Carbon Market of the Kyoto Protocol
  31. 31. Copenhagen COP15: Two Seeds with Irresistible Growth1. Green Power Fund2. Carbon Negative Technologies in the CDM
  32. 32. Durban December 2011: Kyoto Protocol extended 3 years• Existing KP limits valid until 2015• New Carbon limits pledged for 2015• Green Climate Fund Accepted by all Nations
  33. 33. Sustainable Development (Chichilnisky 1996, 2000, 2006, 2009, 2010)• Cost Benefit Analysis and Optimal Growth theory exist that do not discount the FutureA Formal Theory of Sustainable Development has been developed that providesEqual treatment for future generations Connects The Present and the Future
  34. 34. Basic Needs, The Carbon Market and the Green Power Fund• New types of markets that value the Global Commons• The Atmosphere, Biodiversity, Water Change the global economy
  35. 35. New Markets Change Capitalism• Markets trading privately produced public goods are new• They combine equity with efficiency Connecting People• They require limits on resource use Connecting Economics with Ecological Systems
  36. 36. Green Capitalism in the 21st Century • The basis exists: international law and economics • Theoretically and in practice • New markets for the global commons, new growth theory, new cost benefit analysis and new GDP measures, new international law
  37. 37. The Global Commons New Economics From maximizing profits to economic progressthat ensures survival of our species
  38. 38. Technology is Urgently Needed• To Reduce Carbon from the Atmosphere• In a Profitable Way The Word needs Energy CLEAN ENERGY FOR DEVELOPING NATIONS
  39. 39. Global Thermostat Pilot Plant, SRI International - Menlo Park California February 2011
  40. 40. Why a Carbon Negative Solution Carbon Neutral is not enough Reducing CO2 Concentrations in • Neutralizing emissions does not prevent the Atmosphere CO2 Parts per Million (PPM) 800 further increases in atmospheric CO2 700 • Even the most aggressive efficiency Business as Usual improvements and renewables adoption 600 are unlikely to keep CO2 concentration at 500 Constant Growth the generally agreed 450ppm to avoid 400 catastrophic climate risk Wedges 300 Approach / Negative Carbon is the solution1 200 Stabilization Global • Air capture enables direct and rapid 100 Thermostat reduction of CO2 concentration 0 Hazardous Level • GT allows for the capture of even more CO2 450 ppm than we are loading into the atmosphere or that the earth’s systems can absorb – Negative Carbon GT’s technology directly reduces1 United Nations Headquarters, New York, November 12, 2009. Presentation by G.Chichilnisky on"The Rising Tide at Copenhagen: carbon concentration in the air,A Win-Win Solution for Industrialized and Developing Nations" making carbon negative possible Global Thermostat Company Confidential Page 40
  41. 41. Closing the Carbon Cycle• GT Technology Captures Carbon from Air• Inexpensive: Uses Low Process Heat• Cogenerates Power Production withCarbon Capture• The More Power is Produced – the More Carbon is reduced• Makes Coal Plants Carbon Negative• Makes Solar Power Plants even more Carbon Negative
  42. 42. GT’s Air Capture TechnologyThree-Step Process Produces Concentrated CO 2 Stream Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Air Input CO 2 Capture CO 2 Regeneration Key to GT’s technology is cogeneration using Transport and Compression Other low temperature Injection Applications process heat to capture CO 2 Subsequent steps are shared by all CO 2 capture methods though pipelining costs can be reduced by co-locating where CO 2 is stored or used
  43. 43. UP Absorbing CO2Pipes to oil well or algae
  44. 44. DOWN Releasing CO2Pipes to oil well or algae ponds
  45. 45. Applications & Markets for Captured CO2 Storage Enhanced Oil Algae-Based Recovery* Biofuels* *EOR and Algae-based biofuels represent most significant opportunities for commercial applications of CO2 captured using GT’s technology Hydrogen- Products Based Fuels cement, fertilizer, plastic s, greenhousesGlobal Thermostat Company Confidential Page 45
  46. 46. Unique Advantages of GT’s Technology Measurable advantages over other forms of carbon capture Carbon Negative SolutionLow-Cost Provider •An energy or industrial plant can•Powered by low cost & widely capture even more CO2 than isavailable process heat emitted – a carbon negative solution Flexible IntegrationScalable Design • Fossil, renewable, nuclear•Modular design adapts to plants, industrialdifferent sized applications plants, (cement, steel) – anywhere heat is available
  47. 47. GT Pilot Plant at SRI - October 1, 2010Global Thermostat Company Confidential Page 47
  48. 48. Strategic Partners
  49. 49. GT Producing Carbon Negative Fuels with IHI and Algae Systems GT isloping fully-integrated biorefinery in partnership with Algae Systems • Produces carbon negative transportation fuels (gasoline diesel) • Treats municipal wastewater and produces drinking water • Generates green electricity and biochar fertilizers CO2 Fuels, Algae Fuel Solar Dewatering Electricity & Production ProductionEnergy Biochar Waste water Treated Drinking Desalination Wastewater Water Provides critical municipal services while producing energy Global Thermostat As Green As It Gets Company Confidential Page 49
  50. 50. The Green Power Fund Creates a Carbon Negative World• To fund Carbon Negative Power plants in island nations AOSIS Latin America & Africa• The ONLY WAY that low emitting developing nations can benefit from the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol