GCS Research and Case Histories

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Geosynthetically Confined Soil (GCS) Research and Case Histories.

Geosynthetically Confined Soil (GCS) Research and Case Histories.

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  • 1. 40+ YEARS AND 25,000,000FHWA, UNIVERSITY AND DOT RESEARCH
  • 2. 2ndREINFORCEDEARTH tmWALLIN THE U. S.Barrettand Ruckman
  • 3. FULL TIMEINSTRUMENTATION TEAM
  • 4. 1st FULLHEIGHTPANELREINFORCEDEARTHWALLBarrettRuckman
  • 5. First Major U. S. Gabion WallBarrett 1969
  • 6. U. S. Forest ServiceFirst use of geosynthetics----to stabilize loggingroads
  • 7. U. S. Forest Service John StewardFirst USA Fabric Wall
  • 8. U. S. Forest ServiceFirst Use of Wood ChipsAs Backfill
  • 9. Colorado DOTGCS® DemoBarrett and Ruckman1981
  • 10. LARGESTGEOSYNTHETICALLYCONFINED SOIL (GCS®) DEMO WALLColorado DOT 1982BARRETT, RUCKMANAND BELL
  • 11. MASSIVE SURCHARGE LOADING
  • 12. Long Term Durability ResearchThese fabrics will last hundreds of years
  • 13. FHWA GRS/GCS® ResearchAdams, Wu, Barrett, Ruckman1996
  • 14. DirectShearTest BoxInterfaceFrictionTestingForGeosyntheticsAnd aVariety ofBackfillsSandClayWood ChipsShredded TiresGlass
  • 15. CDOT/UC/DFull ScaleGCS®RetainingWall TestFrameBarrett,Wu,Ruckman
  • 16. FHWA GRS/GCS® BRIDGE PIEREXCEEDS 10 TONS PER SQUARE FOOTBEARING CAPACITY NCHRP REPORT 556FHWATHFRCRESEARCHCENTER
  • 17. JapaneseDemoForMinimumFabricWidth(2 feet)
  • 18. TECHNOLOGY EVOLUTION Wall Type External InternalTieback Soil Nails MSE GCS® metallic geosynthetic Strips Wire Grids 0.8m 0.6m 0.4m 0.2m Increased Reinforcement Frequency
  • 19. Weak Reinforcement? How about bedsheets and cheesecloth?3372 lbs/ft2 Tult = 20 lbs/in Photo courtesy of M. Adams
  • 20. Spacing Controls Performance….Not Strength of the Inclusion BASED ON NCHRP REPORT 556
  • 21. THEOPTIMUMDESIGN…1.2.3.1. CMU2. GRANULAR BACKFILL3. FABRIC
  • 22. GCS® MSE1.Composite Structure 1.Reinforced Soil Structure2.Internally stable 2.Quasi-tieback3.Friction Connections 3.Pin Connections4.Lightweight Inclusions 4.Strong reinforcement5.Close spacing 5.Wide Spacing6.High Safety Factor 6. 2-10% Failure Rate
  • 23. Thrust on Facing Elements Assuming a “yielding” facing, the loading is negligible. 1/3 σh ReinforcementS 7/10 S Granular Backfill 3/10 S (φ = 34°) 2/3 σh (γ = 125 lbs/ft2) σh = γ S Ka = γ S tan2 (45°- 34°/2) = 125 S (0.283) = 35.4 S (lbs/ft2) F = 2/3 σh (7/10 S) + 5/6 σh (3/10 S) = 43/60 σh S = 25.4 S2 lbs/ft Wu, McMullen, and Ruckman
  • 24. COMPACTION AT THE FACE IS ROUTINE WITH GCS®A LIFT OFGRAVELBEHIND THEFACING BLOCKSISUNWARRANTEDCONCRETEFOOTERSARECOUNTER-PRODUCTIVE Turkey, 1995 Barrett, Ruckman, Guler
  • 25. 55 FOOT HIGH GCS® WALLBUILT BY COUNTY FORCESAND SUMMER HELPBarrett and Ruckman Presented with1998 IFAI International Design Award Mike Adams FHWA
  • 26. • HALF THE COSTOF THE BRIDGESCHEDULEDFOR THISCROSSING AND• HALF THE TIME
  • 27. SAVINGS COMPARED TO PILING $600,000 AND HALF THE TIME
  • 28. GEOSYNTHETICALLY CONFINED SOIL (GCS®) NCDOT EMPLOYEES CONSTRUCTING GCS® WALL 1. 2. 3.
  • 29. VDOTEMPLOYEES BUILDING A GRS®RETAINING WALL
  • 30. INDIANA DOT GCS®
  • 31. CITYEMPLOYEES’FIRST GCS® PROJECT1. CMU’S2. BACKFILL3. FABRIC
  • 32. Istanbul GCS® WallBarrett, Ruckman,Guler
  • 33. 2008MEXICO’SFIRSTGCS®WALL
  • 34. Note there is no minimum width -- and note the light weight2008 Inclusions for the GCS®NEWZEALANDGCS®VARIATIONWITHSHOTRODS™(LAUNCHEDNAILS™) http://www.hiwaystab.co.nz/
  • 35. GCS® IN JAMAICA
  • 36. 2008MEXICO’SFIRSTGCS®WALL
  • 37. 2007CANADA’SFIRSTGCS®WALL
  • 38. NATIVE STONE CAN BE USED FOR FACINGMORTAR IS NOT REQUIRED
  • 39. A 275,000 POUND LOCOMOTIVE ON A GCS® WALL
  • 40. DRY STACKED GCS® ROCK WALL ON SOIL NAILED FOUNDATION
  • 41. BRIDGES ON GRS/GCS® ABUTMENTS DEFIANCE COUNTY, OHIODESIGNED WITH CRITERIA PROVIDED IN NCHRP REPORT 556
  • 42. CDOT GCS® BRIDGE ABUTMENT AND PIER DEMONSTRATION
  • 43. DEFIANCECOUNTYOHIOGRS/GCS®ABUTMENTS
  • 44. BRIDGES ON GCS® COST LESS, LAST LONGER, CANBE CONSTUCTED IN A DAY, AND NO “BUMP”
  • 45. 2007CANADIANGCS®ABUTMENTSCALVIN VANBUSIRKTERRATECH
  • 46. 191 FOOT LONG SINGLE SPAN ON GCS® BIG SKY, MONTANA
  • 47. JAPANESE NEGATIVE BATTER DEMONSTRATION 60 DEGREES NEGATIVE AND NO FACING GCS® IS INDEED AN EXCEPTIONAL TECHNOLOGY
  • 48. NEGATIVEBATTERSAFEANDUSEFUL
  • 49. GCS ROCKFALLPROTECTIONON I-70This WallProvides a30 Foot WideBench AboveLook at the nextPhoto…….
  • 50. 15 millionfoot pounds onto thisGCS Wall!!!
  • 51. THE DAMAGE WAS EASILY REPAIRED
  • 52. A GCS® wall or abutment can withstandthe most severe credible earthquake. Dr. J.T.H. Wu and NCHRP 12-59