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Thrust on Facing Elements Assuming a “yielding” facing, the loading is negligible. 1/3 σh ReinforcementS 7/10 S Granular Backfill 3/10 S (φ = 34°) 2/3 σh (γ = 125 lbs/ft2) σh = γ S Ka = γ S tan2 (45°- 34°/2) = 125 S (0.283) = 35.4 S (lbs/ft2) F = 2/3 σh (7/10 S) + 5/6 σh (3/10 S) = 43/60 σh S = 25.4 S2 lbs/ft Wu, McMullen, and Ruckman
COMPACTION AT THE FACE IS ROUTINE WITH GCS®A LIFT OFGRAVELBEHIND THEFACING BLOCKSISUNWARRANTEDCONCRETEFOOTERSARECOUNTER-PRODUCTIVE Turkey, 1995 Barrett, Ruckman, Guler
55 FOOT HIGH GCS® WALLBUILT BY COUNTY FORCESAND SUMMER HELPBarrett and Ruckman Presented with1998 IFAI International Design Award Mike Adams FHWA
• HALF THE COSTOF THE BRIDGESCHEDULEDFOR THISCROSSING AND• HALF THE TIME
SAVINGS COMPARED TO PILING $600,000 AND HALF THE TIME