GRM 2013: Delivering drought tolerance to those who need it: From genetic resources to cultivar – R Trethowan

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  • 1. 1 Delivering drought tolerance to those who need it; from genetic resource to cultivar R. M. Trethowan
  • 2. 2 Stepwise exploitation of genetic resources - do the easy things first - exploit existing gene pool genetic variation Coordinated and relevant field based phenotyping - local, national & international levels - trait validation across the target environment Maximised benefits from global public goods breeding - CGIAR centres and affiliates have access to diversity - CGIAR centres a mandate to “tame” diversity - National strategies to “squeeze” the most out of international germplasm Three efficiencies to delivering drought tolerant cultivars
  • 3. 3 Stepwise exploitation of genetic resources Adapted cultivars Landraces Related species (crossable) Alien species
  • 4. Genetics of wheat yield in the northwestern NSW Chromosome Number of significant markers linked to yield 1A 3 1B 1 1D 4 2A 6 5A 2 5B 4 6A 12 6D 3 7A 20 7D 6 4 Association analysis of a commercial wheat breeding program Atta et al 2013 Based on 300 parents & derived progeny tested in multi-environment trials over 3 years
  • 5. Better breeding strategies to improve WUE: targeting crown rot resistance in NSW Crown rot in wheat  Complex inheritance of resistance  Plenty of genetic variation in the gene pool  Low heritability  Symptoms exacerbated under moisture stress  Little progress over the past twenty years Marker assisted recurrent selection  Combine resistance QTLs in each population  Yield testing in paired plots (+/- inoculation)  Off season symptom testing 5 GRDC supported
  • 6. Marker Assisted Recurrent Selection Significant Markers - CSCR16/2/2-49/CUNNINGHAM//KENEDY/3/SUNCO/2*PASTOR(1RDRN#44)  Symptom expression off season (controlled conditions)  1AL, 1BL, 1DL, 2AL, 2BL, 2BS, 3AL, 3DL, 4AL, 4BL, 4DL, 4DS, 5AL, 5AS, 5BS, 5DL, 6AL, 6BL, 6DL, 7AS, 7BS  Field  1AL, 2BL, 3AL, 3B(?), 4BL, 4DL, 5BL,6BL 6
  • 7. T. dicoccum or durum A. tauschii AABBDD DD + AABB Synthetic wheat: the next step Yield of a synthetic derivative compared to the best local check in 30 environments 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 Average yield of SAWYT at site (t/Ha) Yieldofline(t/Ha) Local Check Vorobey Lage & Trethowan, 2008
  • 8. Improving wheat WUE at Narrabri, NSW Genotype Water use (mm) WUE kg ha-1 mm -1 D67.2/P66.270//AE.SQUARRO SA (320)/3/Cunningham 273 18.0 Cunningham 261 13.9 Crusader 254 16.2 Envoy 283 12.0 Spitfire 258 14.6 8 Atta et al., 2013
  • 9. Improved WUE is higher grain yield 9 y = 264.08x + 106.31 R² = 0.88** 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 10 12 14 16 18 20 Grainyield(kgha-1) WUEGrain (kg ha-1 mm-1) Envoy Cunningham Synthetic/Cunningham Spitfire
  • 10. 10 Coordinated & relevant phenotyping
  • 11. Phenotyping at the local level: managing heterogeneity Walgett NSW
  • 12. Managing soil heterogeniety: EM38 assessment at PBI Narrabri 1 - 25 175 - 215 Higher values indicate higher clay content, differences in texture & moisture
  • 13. Indicates differences in soil texture & moisture content Managing soil heterogeneity: EM38 assessment at Narrabri
  • 14. More drought tolerant wheat: national Managed Environment Facility (GRDC supported) Screening large numbers in the field with an accurate water balance - define year type - identify subsets - estimate trait value Rain shelters used to: - evaluate subsets - test population tails etc Narrabri Yanco Merredin
  • 15. Extended impact: global network of field based managed environment facilities? Australia (GRDC) India (GCP) China (GCP) Narrabri New Delhi Beijing Yanco Pune Hebei Merredin Powarkheda Shanxi Ludhiana Xinjiang
  • 16. Genotype x tillage practice trials on two soil types at Narrabri: evaluation of a mapping population Keeping screening relevant: selection for adaptation to moisture conserving farming practices
  • 17. The yield difference between zero-tillage and conventional tillage: 2 sites x 2 years. -600 -400 -200 0 200 400 600 800 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Genotype Yielddifferencekg/ha(ZT-CT) Krichauff Berkut
  • 18. Significant QTL effects for yield under contrasting tillage regimes on two soil types in 2 years Chr Interval Treatment Soil type Additive effect % Allele 1B gwm268/wPt-3475 CT Grey v 8 K 1B wPt-1313/gmw140 CT Grey v 10 K 1D cdf19/wmc216 CT Red k 10 K 2D wPt-3728/cfd44 ZT Grey v 9 K 2D gmw484/wmc27 ZT Red k 9 B 5A cfa2155/wPt1370 ZT Grey v 25 B 5A cfa2115/wPt1370 CT Grey v 14 B 5A cfa2115/wPt1370 CT Red k 9 B 5B wmc99/wPt2373 ZT Grey v 12 B Trethowan et al. 2012.
  • 19. 19 Maximise the benefits of global public goods research
  • 20. 20 The CGIAR has:  Multiple crop focus  Access to genetic diversity  Resources to introduce this diversity into adapted materials  The network to distribute materials globally
  • 21. Global distribution of CIMMYT International Wheat Nurseries, 1994-2004 ESWYT HRWYT SAWYT IAT (Elite Spring Wheat Yield Trial (ESWYT), High Rainfall Wheat Yield Trial (HRWYT) and Semi-Arid Wheat Yield Trial (SAWYT)) and the International Adaptation Trial, 2001-2004 Matthews et al. 2008
  • 22. Probe genotypes for soil borne constraints (International Adaptation Trial) Probe genotypes are:  Genetically similar (either near-isogenic or same background)  Similar yield in the absence of the stress  Differentiate in the presence of the stress Thirty seven different probe genotype comparisons in the IAT including soil borne diseases and abiotic constraints: Matthews et al., 2011 GRDC supported
  • 23. 30 o S 30 o S 0 o 0 o 30 o N 30 o N 60 o N 60 o N International Adaptation Trial locations 2001-2007 100 locations; 32 countries 165 trials trial mean yield range 0.42 – 9.13 t/ha
  • 24. Root Lesion Nematode_Isoline (Pratylencas thorneii) NA No Difference Significant negative Significant positive Genotypes Gatcher GS50A > Gatcher 30 o S 30 o S 0 o 0 o 30 o N 30 o N 60 o N 60 o N
  • 25. The average genetic correlation of IATs at Roseworthy (2001-2004), with global IATs Matthews et al. 2011
  • 26. CIMMYT Australia ICARDA Germplasm Evaluation (CAIGE)  Improved access to (and exploitation of) CIMMYT and ICARDA germplasm by Australian wheat breeders  Co-ordinated germplasm introduction, quarantine, evaluation & data management  Two-way flow of information between Australia and the CGIAR centres (CAIGE website) Supported by the GRDC
  • 27. Locations where CAIGE yield trials are grown CAIGE Yield Trial approx 200 entries 4 organisations 9 locations In addition, materials are screened for resistance to: Rust Septoria Tan spot Crown rot
  • 28. Site groupings based on germplasm performance Site grouping 1. Narrabri, North Star, Wongan Hills 2. Toodyay, Junee 3. Roseworthy, Horsham 4. Esperance, Merredin 28
  • 29. 1.Overall the SAWYT tends to have the highest yield potential and ICARDA materials the lowest. 2.The SAWYT best in Group 1 environments – Narrabri, NorthStar and Wongan Hills – while the ESWYT most suited to Group 2 environments – Junee and Toodyay. 3.ICARDA nurseries best adapted in southern and western areas (i.e. Group 3 and 4 environments) 4. Lines with high yield potential could be identified from both CIMMYT & ICARDA nurseries in all regions 29 Grain yield of CAIGE gemplasm in Australia
  • 30. Acknowledgements Funding: GRDC, ACIAR, Generation Challenge Program & the Wheat Research Foundation Collaboration: Australia’s wheat breeding groups & companies CIMMYT, ICARDA, ICAR (India) & CAAS (China) 30