GRM 2013: Delivering drought tolerance to those who need it: From genetic resources to cultivar – R Trethowan

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GRM 2013: Delivering drought tolerance to those who need it: From genetic resources to cultivar – R Trethowan

  1. 1. 1 Delivering drought tolerance to those who need it; from genetic resource to cultivar R. M. Trethowan
  2. 2. 2 Stepwise exploitation of genetic resources - do the easy things first - exploit existing gene pool genetic variation Coordinated and relevant field based phenotyping - local, national & international levels - trait validation across the target environment Maximised benefits from global public goods breeding - CGIAR centres and affiliates have access to diversity - CGIAR centres a mandate to “tame” diversity - National strategies to “squeeze” the most out of international germplasm Three efficiencies to delivering drought tolerant cultivars
  3. 3. 3 Stepwise exploitation of genetic resources Adapted cultivars Landraces Related species (crossable) Alien species
  4. 4. Genetics of wheat yield in the northwestern NSW Chromosome Number of significant markers linked to yield 1A 3 1B 1 1D 4 2A 6 5A 2 5B 4 6A 12 6D 3 7A 20 7D 6 4 Association analysis of a commercial wheat breeding program Atta et al 2013 Based on 300 parents & derived progeny tested in multi-environment trials over 3 years
  5. 5. Better breeding strategies to improve WUE: targeting crown rot resistance in NSW Crown rot in wheat  Complex inheritance of resistance  Plenty of genetic variation in the gene pool  Low heritability  Symptoms exacerbated under moisture stress  Little progress over the past twenty years Marker assisted recurrent selection  Combine resistance QTLs in each population  Yield testing in paired plots (+/- inoculation)  Off season symptom testing 5 GRDC supported
  6. 6. Marker Assisted Recurrent Selection Significant Markers - CSCR16/2/2-49/CUNNINGHAM//KENEDY/3/SUNCO/2*PASTOR(1RDRN#44)  Symptom expression off season (controlled conditions)  1AL, 1BL, 1DL, 2AL, 2BL, 2BS, 3AL, 3DL, 4AL, 4BL, 4DL, 4DS, 5AL, 5AS, 5BS, 5DL, 6AL, 6BL, 6DL, 7AS, 7BS  Field  1AL, 2BL, 3AL, 3B(?), 4BL, 4DL, 5BL,6BL 6
  7. 7. T. dicoccum or durum A. tauschii AABBDD DD + AABB Synthetic wheat: the next step Yield of a synthetic derivative compared to the best local check in 30 environments 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 Average yield of SAWYT at site (t/Ha) Yieldofline(t/Ha) Local Check Vorobey Lage & Trethowan, 2008
  8. 8. Improving wheat WUE at Narrabri, NSW Genotype Water use (mm) WUE kg ha-1 mm -1 D67.2/P66.270//AE.SQUARRO SA (320)/3/Cunningham 273 18.0 Cunningham 261 13.9 Crusader 254 16.2 Envoy 283 12.0 Spitfire 258 14.6 8 Atta et al., 2013
  9. 9. Improved WUE is higher grain yield 9 y = 264.08x + 106.31 R² = 0.88** 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 10 12 14 16 18 20 Grainyield(kgha-1) WUEGrain (kg ha-1 mm-1) Envoy Cunningham Synthetic/Cunningham Spitfire
  10. 10. 10 Coordinated & relevant phenotyping
  11. 11. Phenotyping at the local level: managing heterogeneity Walgett NSW
  12. 12. Managing soil heterogeniety: EM38 assessment at PBI Narrabri 1 - 25 175 - 215 Higher values indicate higher clay content, differences in texture & moisture
  13. 13. Indicates differences in soil texture & moisture content Managing soil heterogeneity: EM38 assessment at Narrabri
  14. 14. More drought tolerant wheat: national Managed Environment Facility (GRDC supported) Screening large numbers in the field with an accurate water balance - define year type - identify subsets - estimate trait value Rain shelters used to: - evaluate subsets - test population tails etc Narrabri Yanco Merredin
  15. 15. Extended impact: global network of field based managed environment facilities? Australia (GRDC) India (GCP) China (GCP) Narrabri New Delhi Beijing Yanco Pune Hebei Merredin Powarkheda Shanxi Ludhiana Xinjiang
  16. 16. Genotype x tillage practice trials on two soil types at Narrabri: evaluation of a mapping population Keeping screening relevant: selection for adaptation to moisture conserving farming practices
  17. 17. The yield difference between zero-tillage and conventional tillage: 2 sites x 2 years. -600 -400 -200 0 200 400 600 800 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Genotype Yielddifferencekg/ha(ZT-CT) Krichauff Berkut
  18. 18. Significant QTL effects for yield under contrasting tillage regimes on two soil types in 2 years Chr Interval Treatment Soil type Additive effect % Allele 1B gwm268/wPt-3475 CT Grey v 8 K 1B wPt-1313/gmw140 CT Grey v 10 K 1D cdf19/wmc216 CT Red k 10 K 2D wPt-3728/cfd44 ZT Grey v 9 K 2D gmw484/wmc27 ZT Red k 9 B 5A cfa2155/wPt1370 ZT Grey v 25 B 5A cfa2115/wPt1370 CT Grey v 14 B 5A cfa2115/wPt1370 CT Red k 9 B 5B wmc99/wPt2373 ZT Grey v 12 B Trethowan et al. 2012.
  19. 19. 19 Maximise the benefits of global public goods research
  20. 20. 20 The CGIAR has:  Multiple crop focus  Access to genetic diversity  Resources to introduce this diversity into adapted materials  The network to distribute materials globally
  21. 21. Global distribution of CIMMYT International Wheat Nurseries, 1994-2004 ESWYT HRWYT SAWYT IAT (Elite Spring Wheat Yield Trial (ESWYT), High Rainfall Wheat Yield Trial (HRWYT) and Semi-Arid Wheat Yield Trial (SAWYT)) and the International Adaptation Trial, 2001-2004 Matthews et al. 2008
  22. 22. Probe genotypes for soil borne constraints (International Adaptation Trial) Probe genotypes are:  Genetically similar (either near-isogenic or same background)  Similar yield in the absence of the stress  Differentiate in the presence of the stress Thirty seven different probe genotype comparisons in the IAT including soil borne diseases and abiotic constraints: Matthews et al., 2011 GRDC supported
  23. 23. 30 o S 30 o S 0 o 0 o 30 o N 30 o N 60 o N 60 o N International Adaptation Trial locations 2001-2007 100 locations; 32 countries 165 trials trial mean yield range 0.42 – 9.13 t/ha
  24. 24. Root Lesion Nematode_Isoline (Pratylencas thorneii) NA No Difference Significant negative Significant positive Genotypes Gatcher GS50A > Gatcher 30 o S 30 o S 0 o 0 o 30 o N 30 o N 60 o N 60 o N
  25. 25. The average genetic correlation of IATs at Roseworthy (2001-2004), with global IATs Matthews et al. 2011
  26. 26. CIMMYT Australia ICARDA Germplasm Evaluation (CAIGE)  Improved access to (and exploitation of) CIMMYT and ICARDA germplasm by Australian wheat breeders  Co-ordinated germplasm introduction, quarantine, evaluation & data management  Two-way flow of information between Australia and the CGIAR centres (CAIGE website) Supported by the GRDC
  27. 27. Locations where CAIGE yield trials are grown CAIGE Yield Trial approx 200 entries 4 organisations 9 locations In addition, materials are screened for resistance to: Rust Septoria Tan spot Crown rot
  28. 28. Site groupings based on germplasm performance Site grouping 1. Narrabri, North Star, Wongan Hills 2. Toodyay, Junee 3. Roseworthy, Horsham 4. Esperance, Merredin 28
  29. 29. 1.Overall the SAWYT tends to have the highest yield potential and ICARDA materials the lowest. 2.The SAWYT best in Group 1 environments – Narrabri, NorthStar and Wongan Hills – while the ESWYT most suited to Group 2 environments – Junee and Toodyay. 3.ICARDA nurseries best adapted in southern and western areas (i.e. Group 3 and 4 environments) 4. Lines with high yield potential could be identified from both CIMMYT & ICARDA nurseries in all regions 29 Grain yield of CAIGE gemplasm in Australia
  30. 30. Acknowledgements Funding: GRDC, ACIAR, Generation Challenge Program & the Wheat Research Foundation Collaboration: Australia’s wheat breeding groups & companies CIMMYT, ICARDA, ICAR (India) & CAAS (China) 30

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