TLI 2012: Drought phenotyping for legumes

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  • 1. Objective 5: Cross-crop issuesActivity 1: Drought phenotyping Across crops Update on Year 2ICRISAT – CIAT – ISRA – Univ North Carolina
  • 2. Purpose: Looking at similar traits across speciesHypothesis 1: A “drought tolerant” plant has: enough water to fill up grains no more water after grain fillingHypothesis 2: Crop species share same adaptation strategies Options: • Save water • Tap water • Secure reproduction
  • 3. Outputs to TLII Sub-Activity 5: Training Water use / productivity Water uptake Reproduction and partitioning Modeling Trait value Refined protocols Better pheno- predicted More tools typing dataPhenotyping of cell-based processes – toward gene discovery
  • 4. Water use / productivity Basic response of plant exposed to water deficit 1.2 Normalized transpiration 1.0 Stage I 0.8 Stage II 0.6 Stage III 0.4 0.2 0.0 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 FTSW How plant manage water when there is water is criticalTo measure: Soil moisture thresholds for transpiration decline Canopy conductance (Tr in g cm-2 h-1) Tr response to VPD Leaf area development
  • 5. Water use / productivity Groundnut Cowpea Bean ChickpeaSoil moisture thresholds fortranspiration decline x xxx x xxxCanopy conductance (g cm-2 h-1) x xxx x xxTr response to VPD xx xxx x xxLeaf area development xx x Zaman-Allah et al., 2011 JXB Zaman-Allah et al 2011 FPB Belko et al 2012 - FPB Belko et al 2012 – Plant Biology
  • 6. Water use / productivity Groundnut CowpeaA LSD ICG 11862 ICG 12235 B LSD Bambey-21 IT82E-18 ICG 13787 ICG 4598 ICGV 12000 IT97K-556-6 KVX-525 UC-CB46 ICGV 02189 ICGV 02266 ICGV 11088 IT84S-2049 IT93K-503-1 IT93K-693-2 ICGV 97182 ICGV 97183 Mouride Suvita 2 0.080 0.08 0.070 0.07 Sensitive Sensitive Leaf conductance (gH2 O cm-2 h-1 ) Leaf conductance (gH 2 O cm-2 h-1 ) 0.060 0.06 0.050 0.05 0.040 0.04 0.030 0.03 0.020 0.02 Tolerant 0.010 Tolerant 0.01 0.000 0.00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 08:00 16:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 Time of the day (H) Time of the day (H)In cowpea, clear discrimination tolerant/sensitiveIn groundnut, Tr differences at high VPD are smaller From Issa Faye, Nouhoun Belko, Vadez (in prep)
  • 7. Water use / productivity Cowpea - WW Cowpea - WS 2.50 (C) 2.00 (D) WW y = -13.32x + 2.33 y = -17.68x + 2.56 WS R² = 0.401 R² = 0.756 Outdoors Outdoors P = 0.0113 P = 0.0000 2.00Transpiration efficiency (g kg-1) Transpiration efficiency (g kg-1) 1.50 1.50 1.00 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.000 0.050 0.100 0.150 0.200 0.000 0.050 0.100 0.150 Transpiration rate (g H20 cm-2 h-1) Transpiration rate (g H20 cm-2 h-1) High transpiration rates lead to low TE Work on going to test hypothesis across crops Belko et al 2012 - FPB
  • 8. Water use / productivity Relationship between water use efficiency and seed yieldBean – WS 10 SER 16CIAT) r = 0.89*** Drought seed yield (g plant-1) SEA 15 9 SEQ 1003 SER 8 SEQ 11 CAL 96 8 ICA Quimbaya SEC 16 RAA 21 SEA 5 7 Mean: 7.10 CAL 143 VAX 3 LSD0.05: 2.2 DOR 364 BAT 477 6 VAX 1 5 4 PAN 127 3 SUG 131 BRB 191 Mean: 1.06 LSD0.05: 0.41 2 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 Drought water use efficiency (g kg-1) Seed yield differences are closely related to TE Same results in India, but…..
  • 9. Water use / productivity Relationship between water use efficiency and seed yieldBean – WSICRISAT) Nitrogen seems to play a central role in that relationship
  • 10. Water use / productivityGroundnut – WS Post-rainy season Rainy season 12 15 Pod yield - WS Pod Yield - WS 10 10 8 5 6 4 0 2 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 -5 0 Transpiration Efficiency 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 Transpiration Efficiency Compare the most contrasting lines for the transpiration response to high VPD
  • 11. Water use / productivity Leaf area development in chickpea Sensitive TolerantLarge variations in leaf development in contrasting chickpea Leaf and root development closely matches Possible differences in RUE at early stages Hydraulic differences?
  • 12. Transpiration response to 1 mM H2O2 in chickpea Sensitive to Insensitive to AQP inhibitor AQP inhibitor 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 NTR 1 0.8 0.6 Control 1 mM H2O2 Before treatment 0.4 10 30 50 70 90 110 130 150 170 190 210 230 250 270 290 310 330 350 370 390 410 430 450 470 Time (mn)
  • 13. Water use / productivity TPLA varying TPLA_inflection_ratio 25 0.66 20 0.33 0.5 15 0.33 TPLA 0.66 10 5 0 0 200 400 600 800 TPLA max = 20 TTemerg_to_flag TPLA_prod_coef - 0.018The coefficients are used as input to the crop modelSimilar work is taking place in groundnutSimilar work needs to be done in cowpea
  • 14. Lysimetric assessments Lysimetric system Total water extractedTo measure: Kinetics of water extraction Max rooting depth Root length density Relationships RLD vs Water extraction
  • 15. Lysimetric assessments Groundnut Cowpea Bean ChickpeaTotal water extraction xxx x x xxxKinetics of water extraction xx x x xxxRoot length density (RLD) xxx xx x xxxMaximum rooting depth xxx xx x xxxRelationships Roots vs water xxx x xxxRelationships yield vs water xxx xxx Zaman-Allah et al., 2011 JXB Ratnakumar & Vadez 2011 FPB Belko et al 2012 – In preparation Belko et al 2012 – Plant Biology
  • 16. Lysimetric assessments Relationship between maximum root depth or RLD and seed yield Beans 10 10 SEA 15 SEA 15 r = 0.48*** r = 0.30* Drought seed yield (g plant-1)Drought seed yield (g plant-1) SER 16 SER 16 9 SEQ 1003 9 SEQ 1003 SER 8 SEQ 11 RCW SER 8 CAL 96 SAB 259 CAL 96 SEQ 11 RCW SAB 259 8 8 ICA Quimbaya ICA Quimbaya RAA 21 RAA 21 SEA 5 SEA 5 7 DOR 364 7 Mean: 7.10 CAL 143 DOR 364 Mean: 7.10 CAL 143 VAX 3 LSD0.05: 2.2 VAX 3 LSD0.05: 2.2 BAT 477 BAT 477 6 VAX 1 6 VAX 1 5 5 4 4 PAN 127 PAN 127 BRB 191 3 BRB 191 3 SUG 131 Mean: 0.56 SUG 131 Mean: 98.7 LSD0.05: 0.13 LSD0.05: 21 2 2 70 80 90 100 110 120 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 Drought length of the longest root (cm) Drought root length density (cm cm-3)Poor relations between yield under WS and root length or RLDSimilar results in chickpea in India
  • 17. Lysimetric assessments Relationship between maximum root depth or RLD and water extraction BeansDrought water extraction (kg plant-1) Drought water extraction (kg plant-1) 8.5 8.5 PAN 127 r = 0.25* PAN 127 r = 0.08 CAL 143 CAL 143 8.0 8.0 SEA 15 SEA 15 7.5 7.5 SEC 16 SEC 16 RCW SER 8 SER 8 RCW SUG 131 7.0 DOR 364 SUG 131 DOR 364 SEQ 11 7.0 Mean: 6.84 SEA 5 SER 16 Mean: 6.84 SER 16 SEQ 11 SEA 5 CAL 96 LSD0.05: 1.53 CAL 96 LSD0.05: 1.53 6.5 RAA 21 SEQ 1003 RAA 21 SEQ 1003 BAT 477 6.5 SAB 259 BAT 477 VAX 3 SAB 259 VAX 3 ICA Quimbaya ICA Quimbaya 6.0 6.0 VAX 1 BRB 191 VAX 1 Mean: 98.7 Mean: 0.56 LSD0.05: 21 BRB 191 LSD0.05: 0.13 5.5 5.5 70 80 90 100 110 120 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 Drought length of the longest root (cm) Drought root length density (cm cm-3) No relation b’ween water extraction (WS) and root length / RLD Similar results in chickpea in India
  • 18. Lysimetric assessments Relationship between drought seed yield and waterBeans extraction Pre-Flowering stage Grain-Filling stage Seed yield differences are related to higher pre-flowering water extraction “ “ to lower grain filling water extraction Nitrogen seems to play a central role in these relationships Trend is different in chickpea
  • 19. Vegetative and pod yield under high / low nitrogen and under well-watered and water stress conditionsBeans Nitrogen supply seems to be a more critical factor than drought for seed yield
  • 20. Lysimetric assessments Relationship between drought seed yield and water extractionCowpea Similar results in cowpea and chickpea
  • 21. Correlation coefficients between seed yield and plant attributes of 20 common bean genotypes grown in lysimeters at CIAT-Colombia Plant trait Irrigated DroughtDay to flowering 0.03 -0.33**Days to maturity 0.08 -0.62***Water use efficiency (g kg-1) 0.63*** 0.89***Stem biomass (g plant-1) 0.43*** -0.30*Pod harvest index (%) -0.01 0.23Maximum rooting depth (cm) 0.16 0.48***Total root length (m plant-1) 0.17 0.30*Root length density (cm cm-3) 0.17 0.30*Root length density at the 0-15 cm soil layer (cm cm-3) 0.01 -0.29*Root length density at the 30-45 cm soil layer (cm cm-3) 0.18 0.30*Root length density at the 45-60 cm soil layer (cm cm-3) 0.12 0.44***Root length density at the 60-75 cm soil layer (cm cm-3) 0.08 0.12Root length density at the 75-90 cm soil layer (cm cm-3) 0.09 0.28*Total root biomass (g plant-1) 0.26* 0.22
  • 22. Modeling of critical traits
  • 23. Groundnut Cowpea Bean ChickpeaModel availability xxx xxx xxx xxxParameterization of key cultivars xx xxxModelling water use traits x xModeling root traits xxxDeveloping maps (India) x NA NA xDeveloping maps (ESA – WCA) xx xx Zaman-Allah et al., 2011 JXB Ratnakumar & Vadez 2011 FPB Belko et al 2012 – In preparation Belko et al 2012 – Plant Biology
  • 24. Faster root growth in Chickpea 5 Percentage yield increase 0 Faster root growth -5 -10 -15 0 50 100 150 200 250 Baseline Yield at locationsNegative effect of faster root growth (= faster water depletion)
  • 25. Altered depth of water extraction in Chickpea 15 Increased depthPercentage yield increase 5 of water extraction -5 -15 -25 Decreased depth -35 of water extraction -45 0 50 100 150 200 250 Baseline Yield at locations Water extraction at depth is what really matters
  • 26. RLD and water extraction seldom correlate
  • 27. Altered depth of water extraction +/- faster rooting 15 5Percentage yield increase -5 -15 -25 -35 -45 0 50 100 150 200 250 Baseline Yield at locations Decreased depth of water extraction Decreased depth of water extraction + Faster root growth Increased depth of water extraction Increased depth of water extraction + Faster root growth
  • 28. Faster leaf development +/- faster rooting 25 20 15Percentage yield increase 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 Increased leaf area -20 Increased leaf area -25 + Faster root growth 0 50 100 150 200 250 Baseline Yield at locations Again, faster rooting brings a negative effect
  • 29. Irrigation at key time during grain filling 50 Percentage yield increase 40 30 20 30 mm irrigation 10 at R5 0 -10 0 50 100 150 200 250 Baseline Yield at locationsThe effect is larger than the best genetic effect
  • 30. So far, few locationsCan Marksim-generated weather be used?? Predictions from Marksim weather deviate from those obtained from observed weather
  • 31. Marksim weather can be used to test trait effects
  • 32. Modeling & mapping the benefits of particular trait in the targeted regions Region with low probability of yield increase Probability of yield increase after introduction of trait X into standard genotype Region with high probability of yield increaseCapacity to test trait effects acrossWCA and ESA)Work on-going in chickpea and groundnutSoon will start with soybean
  • 33. TrainingTraining on drought phenotypingLong term trainingYear 2 trainees: Vincent Vadez – Crop modelingYear 3 plans: Abalo Hodo TOSSIM (Groundnut CSSL???) Omar Halilou (Groundnut) – Crop modeling Nouhoun Belko (Cowpea) – Trait mapping – Crop modeling Jose Polania (Bean) – Trait mapping – Crop modeling
  • 34. Thank you