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Objective 5: Cross-crop issuesActivity 1: Drought phenotyping           Across crops        Update on Year 2ICRISAT – CIAT...
Purpose: Looking at similar traits across speciesHypothesis 1: A “drought tolerant” plant has:     enough water to fill up...
Outputs to TLII                                                          Sub-Activity 5: Training          Water use / pro...
Water use / productivity        Basic response of plant exposed to water deficit                                        1....
Water use / productivity                                  Groundnut   Cowpea        Bean      ChickpeaSoil moisture thresh...
Water use / productivity                                                                     Groundnut                    ...
Water use / productivity                                                            Cowpea - WW                           ...
Water use / productivity Relationship between water use efficiency and seed yieldBean – WS                                ...
Water use / productivity   Relationship between water use efficiency and seed yieldBean – WSICRISAT)  Nitrogen seems to pl...
Water use / productivityGroundnut – WS                              Post-rainy season                                     ...
Water use / productivity   Leaf area development in chickpea                                                   Sensitive  ...
Transpiration response to 1 mM H2O2 in chickpea         Sensitive to                              Insensitive to        AQ...
Water use / productivity                    TPLA varying TPLA_inflection_ratio          25                                ...
Lysimetric assessments                                   Lysimetric system            Total water extractedTo measure: Kin...
Lysimetric assessments                               Groundnut   Cowpea        Bean      ChickpeaTotal water extraction   ...
Lysimetric assessments                                           Relationship between maximum root depth or RLD           ...
Lysimetric assessments                                              Relationship between maximum root depth or RLD and    ...
Lysimetric assessments  Relationship between drought seed yield and waterBeans                extraction         Pre-Flowe...
Vegetative and pod yield under high / low nitrogen and     under well-watered and water stress conditionsBeans     Nitroge...
Lysimetric assessments Relationship between drought seed yield and water                    extractionCowpea      Similar ...
Correlation coefficients between seed yield and plant attributes of    20 common bean genotypes grown in lysimeters at CIA...
Modeling of critical traits
Groundnut   Cowpea        Bean      ChickpeaModel availability                     xxx       xxx           xxx          xx...
Faster root growth in Chickpea                                   5      Percentage yield increase                         ...
Altered depth of water extraction in Chickpea                            15                                               ...
RLD and water extraction seldom correlate
Altered depth of water extraction +/- faster rooting                            15                             5Percentage...
Faster leaf development +/- faster rooting                            25                            20                    ...
Irrigation at key time during grain filling                             50 Percentage yield increase                      ...
So far, few locationsCan Marksim-generated weather be used?? Predictions from Marksim weather deviate from     those obtai...
Marksim weather can be used to test trait effects
Modeling & mapping the benefits of particular trait in the targeted regions                                               ...
TrainingTraining on drought phenotypingLong term trainingYear 2 trainees:        Vincent Vadez – Crop modelingYear 3 plans...
Thank you
TLI 2012: Drought phenotyping for legumes
TLI 2012: Drought phenotyping for legumes
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TLI 2012: Drought phenotyping for legumes

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Transcript of "TLI 2012: Drought phenotyping for legumes"

  1. 1. Objective 5: Cross-crop issuesActivity 1: Drought phenotyping Across crops Update on Year 2ICRISAT – CIAT – ISRA – Univ North Carolina
  2. 2. Purpose: Looking at similar traits across speciesHypothesis 1: A “drought tolerant” plant has: enough water to fill up grains no more water after grain fillingHypothesis 2: Crop species share same adaptation strategies Options: • Save water • Tap water • Secure reproduction
  3. 3. Outputs to TLII Sub-Activity 5: Training Water use / productivity Water uptake Reproduction and partitioning Modeling Trait value Refined protocols Better pheno- predicted More tools typing dataPhenotyping of cell-based processes – toward gene discovery
  4. 4. Water use / productivity Basic response of plant exposed to water deficit 1.2 Normalized transpiration 1.0 Stage I 0.8 Stage II 0.6 Stage III 0.4 0.2 0.0 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 FTSW How plant manage water when there is water is criticalTo measure: Soil moisture thresholds for transpiration decline Canopy conductance (Tr in g cm-2 h-1) Tr response to VPD Leaf area development
  5. 5. Water use / productivity Groundnut Cowpea Bean ChickpeaSoil moisture thresholds fortranspiration decline x xxx x xxxCanopy conductance (g cm-2 h-1) x xxx x xxTr response to VPD xx xxx x xxLeaf area development xx x Zaman-Allah et al., 2011 JXB Zaman-Allah et al 2011 FPB Belko et al 2012 - FPB Belko et al 2012 – Plant Biology
  6. 6. Water use / productivity Groundnut CowpeaA LSD ICG 11862 ICG 12235 B LSD Bambey-21 IT82E-18 ICG 13787 ICG 4598 ICGV 12000 IT97K-556-6 KVX-525 UC-CB46 ICGV 02189 ICGV 02266 ICGV 11088 IT84S-2049 IT93K-503-1 IT93K-693-2 ICGV 97182 ICGV 97183 Mouride Suvita 2 0.080 0.08 0.070 0.07 Sensitive Sensitive Leaf conductance (gH2 O cm-2 h-1 ) Leaf conductance (gH 2 O cm-2 h-1 ) 0.060 0.06 0.050 0.05 0.040 0.04 0.030 0.03 0.020 0.02 Tolerant 0.010 Tolerant 0.01 0.000 0.00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 08:00 16:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 Time of the day (H) Time of the day (H)In cowpea, clear discrimination tolerant/sensitiveIn groundnut, Tr differences at high VPD are smaller From Issa Faye, Nouhoun Belko, Vadez (in prep)
  7. 7. Water use / productivity Cowpea - WW Cowpea - WS 2.50 (C) 2.00 (D) WW y = -13.32x + 2.33 y = -17.68x + 2.56 WS R² = 0.401 R² = 0.756 Outdoors Outdoors P = 0.0113 P = 0.0000 2.00Transpiration efficiency (g kg-1) Transpiration efficiency (g kg-1) 1.50 1.50 1.00 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.000 0.050 0.100 0.150 0.200 0.000 0.050 0.100 0.150 Transpiration rate (g H20 cm-2 h-1) Transpiration rate (g H20 cm-2 h-1) High transpiration rates lead to low TE Work on going to test hypothesis across crops Belko et al 2012 - FPB
  8. 8. Water use / productivity Relationship between water use efficiency and seed yieldBean – WS 10 SER 16CIAT) r = 0.89*** Drought seed yield (g plant-1) SEA 15 9 SEQ 1003 SER 8 SEQ 11 CAL 96 8 ICA Quimbaya SEC 16 RAA 21 SEA 5 7 Mean: 7.10 CAL 143 VAX 3 LSD0.05: 2.2 DOR 364 BAT 477 6 VAX 1 5 4 PAN 127 3 SUG 131 BRB 191 Mean: 1.06 LSD0.05: 0.41 2 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 Drought water use efficiency (g kg-1) Seed yield differences are closely related to TE Same results in India, but…..
  9. 9. Water use / productivity Relationship between water use efficiency and seed yieldBean – WSICRISAT) Nitrogen seems to play a central role in that relationship
  10. 10. Water use / productivityGroundnut – WS Post-rainy season Rainy season 12 15 Pod yield - WS Pod Yield - WS 10 10 8 5 6 4 0 2 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 -5 0 Transpiration Efficiency 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 Transpiration Efficiency Compare the most contrasting lines for the transpiration response to high VPD
  11. 11. Water use / productivity Leaf area development in chickpea Sensitive TolerantLarge variations in leaf development in contrasting chickpea Leaf and root development closely matches Possible differences in RUE at early stages Hydraulic differences?
  12. 12. Transpiration response to 1 mM H2O2 in chickpea Sensitive to Insensitive to AQP inhibitor AQP inhibitor 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 NTR 1 0.8 0.6 Control 1 mM H2O2 Before treatment 0.4 10 30 50 70 90 110 130 150 170 190 210 230 250 270 290 310 330 350 370 390 410 430 450 470 Time (mn)
  13. 13. Water use / productivity TPLA varying TPLA_inflection_ratio 25 0.66 20 0.33 0.5 15 0.33 TPLA 0.66 10 5 0 0 200 400 600 800 TPLA max = 20 TTemerg_to_flag TPLA_prod_coef - 0.018The coefficients are used as input to the crop modelSimilar work is taking place in groundnutSimilar work needs to be done in cowpea
  14. 14. Lysimetric assessments Lysimetric system Total water extractedTo measure: Kinetics of water extraction Max rooting depth Root length density Relationships RLD vs Water extraction
  15. 15. Lysimetric assessments Groundnut Cowpea Bean ChickpeaTotal water extraction xxx x x xxxKinetics of water extraction xx x x xxxRoot length density (RLD) xxx xx x xxxMaximum rooting depth xxx xx x xxxRelationships Roots vs water xxx x xxxRelationships yield vs water xxx xxx Zaman-Allah et al., 2011 JXB Ratnakumar & Vadez 2011 FPB Belko et al 2012 – In preparation Belko et al 2012 – Plant Biology
  16. 16. Lysimetric assessments Relationship between maximum root depth or RLD and seed yield Beans 10 10 SEA 15 SEA 15 r = 0.48*** r = 0.30* Drought seed yield (g plant-1)Drought seed yield (g plant-1) SER 16 SER 16 9 SEQ 1003 9 SEQ 1003 SER 8 SEQ 11 RCW SER 8 CAL 96 SAB 259 CAL 96 SEQ 11 RCW SAB 259 8 8 ICA Quimbaya ICA Quimbaya RAA 21 RAA 21 SEA 5 SEA 5 7 DOR 364 7 Mean: 7.10 CAL 143 DOR 364 Mean: 7.10 CAL 143 VAX 3 LSD0.05: 2.2 VAX 3 LSD0.05: 2.2 BAT 477 BAT 477 6 VAX 1 6 VAX 1 5 5 4 4 PAN 127 PAN 127 BRB 191 3 BRB 191 3 SUG 131 Mean: 0.56 SUG 131 Mean: 98.7 LSD0.05: 0.13 LSD0.05: 21 2 2 70 80 90 100 110 120 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 Drought length of the longest root (cm) Drought root length density (cm cm-3)Poor relations between yield under WS and root length or RLDSimilar results in chickpea in India
  17. 17. Lysimetric assessments Relationship between maximum root depth or RLD and water extraction BeansDrought water extraction (kg plant-1) Drought water extraction (kg plant-1) 8.5 8.5 PAN 127 r = 0.25* PAN 127 r = 0.08 CAL 143 CAL 143 8.0 8.0 SEA 15 SEA 15 7.5 7.5 SEC 16 SEC 16 RCW SER 8 SER 8 RCW SUG 131 7.0 DOR 364 SUG 131 DOR 364 SEQ 11 7.0 Mean: 6.84 SEA 5 SER 16 Mean: 6.84 SER 16 SEQ 11 SEA 5 CAL 96 LSD0.05: 1.53 CAL 96 LSD0.05: 1.53 6.5 RAA 21 SEQ 1003 RAA 21 SEQ 1003 BAT 477 6.5 SAB 259 BAT 477 VAX 3 SAB 259 VAX 3 ICA Quimbaya ICA Quimbaya 6.0 6.0 VAX 1 BRB 191 VAX 1 Mean: 98.7 Mean: 0.56 LSD0.05: 21 BRB 191 LSD0.05: 0.13 5.5 5.5 70 80 90 100 110 120 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 Drought length of the longest root (cm) Drought root length density (cm cm-3) No relation b’ween water extraction (WS) and root length / RLD Similar results in chickpea in India
  18. 18. Lysimetric assessments Relationship between drought seed yield and waterBeans extraction Pre-Flowering stage Grain-Filling stage Seed yield differences are related to higher pre-flowering water extraction “ “ to lower grain filling water extraction Nitrogen seems to play a central role in these relationships Trend is different in chickpea
  19. 19. Vegetative and pod yield under high / low nitrogen and under well-watered and water stress conditionsBeans Nitrogen supply seems to be a more critical factor than drought for seed yield
  20. 20. Lysimetric assessments Relationship between drought seed yield and water extractionCowpea Similar results in cowpea and chickpea
  21. 21. Correlation coefficients between seed yield and plant attributes of 20 common bean genotypes grown in lysimeters at CIAT-Colombia Plant trait Irrigated DroughtDay to flowering 0.03 -0.33**Days to maturity 0.08 -0.62***Water use efficiency (g kg-1) 0.63*** 0.89***Stem biomass (g plant-1) 0.43*** -0.30*Pod harvest index (%) -0.01 0.23Maximum rooting depth (cm) 0.16 0.48***Total root length (m plant-1) 0.17 0.30*Root length density (cm cm-3) 0.17 0.30*Root length density at the 0-15 cm soil layer (cm cm-3) 0.01 -0.29*Root length density at the 30-45 cm soil layer (cm cm-3) 0.18 0.30*Root length density at the 45-60 cm soil layer (cm cm-3) 0.12 0.44***Root length density at the 60-75 cm soil layer (cm cm-3) 0.08 0.12Root length density at the 75-90 cm soil layer (cm cm-3) 0.09 0.28*Total root biomass (g plant-1) 0.26* 0.22
  22. 22. Modeling of critical traits
  23. 23. Groundnut Cowpea Bean ChickpeaModel availability xxx xxx xxx xxxParameterization of key cultivars xx xxxModelling water use traits x xModeling root traits xxxDeveloping maps (India) x NA NA xDeveloping maps (ESA – WCA) xx xx Zaman-Allah et al., 2011 JXB Ratnakumar & Vadez 2011 FPB Belko et al 2012 – In preparation Belko et al 2012 – Plant Biology
  24. 24. Faster root growth in Chickpea 5 Percentage yield increase 0 Faster root growth -5 -10 -15 0 50 100 150 200 250 Baseline Yield at locationsNegative effect of faster root growth (= faster water depletion)
  25. 25. Altered depth of water extraction in Chickpea 15 Increased depthPercentage yield increase 5 of water extraction -5 -15 -25 Decreased depth -35 of water extraction -45 0 50 100 150 200 250 Baseline Yield at locations Water extraction at depth is what really matters
  26. 26. RLD and water extraction seldom correlate
  27. 27. Altered depth of water extraction +/- faster rooting 15 5Percentage yield increase -5 -15 -25 -35 -45 0 50 100 150 200 250 Baseline Yield at locations Decreased depth of water extraction Decreased depth of water extraction + Faster root growth Increased depth of water extraction Increased depth of water extraction + Faster root growth
  28. 28. Faster leaf development +/- faster rooting 25 20 15Percentage yield increase 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 Increased leaf area -20 Increased leaf area -25 + Faster root growth 0 50 100 150 200 250 Baseline Yield at locations Again, faster rooting brings a negative effect
  29. 29. Irrigation at key time during grain filling 50 Percentage yield increase 40 30 20 30 mm irrigation 10 at R5 0 -10 0 50 100 150 200 250 Baseline Yield at locationsThe effect is larger than the best genetic effect
  30. 30. So far, few locationsCan Marksim-generated weather be used?? Predictions from Marksim weather deviate from those obtained from observed weather
  31. 31. Marksim weather can be used to test trait effects
  32. 32. Modeling & mapping the benefits of particular trait in the targeted regions Region with low probability of yield increase Probability of yield increase after introduction of trait X into standard genotype Region with high probability of yield increaseCapacity to test trait effects acrossWCA and ESA)Work on-going in chickpea and groundnutSoon will start with soybean
  33. 33. TrainingTraining on drought phenotypingLong term trainingYear 2 trainees: Vincent Vadez – Crop modelingYear 3 plans: Abalo Hodo TOSSIM (Groundnut CSSL???) Omar Halilou (Groundnut) – Crop modeling Nouhoun Belko (Cowpea) – Trait mapping – Crop modeling Jose Polania (Bean) – Trait mapping – Crop modeling
  34. 34. Thank you
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