GRM 2011: Phenotyping the sorghum reference set for drought tolerance
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GRM 2011: Phenotyping the sorghum reference set for drought tolerance

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GRM 2011: Phenotyping the sorghum reference set for drought tolerance GRM 2011: Phenotyping the sorghum reference set for drought tolerance Presentation Transcript

  • Hari D UpadhyayaVariability for Post-floweringDrought Tolerance inSorghum Reference SetRelated GCP project–G4008.02: Phenotyping sorghum reference set for drought toleranceAssistant Research Program Director-Grain Legumesand Principal Scientist and Head Gene BankICRISAT
  • • Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)Moench] is fifth most importantcereal in the world• Grown in 98 countries mainlyin the semi-arid areas oftropics and subtropics• Annual global production 56.1million t from 40.0 million haSorghum
  • • Landraces - 32,572• Breeding material - 4,814• Advanced cultivars -105• Wild - 458 (13 species)Sorghum germplasmassembly at ICRISAT
  • Drought, especially post-flowering drought stresscan result in significant yield losses due to• Reduced grain size• Premature plant death• Increased susceptibility to diseasesand insect-pestsPost-flowering Drought
  • • Sorghum reference set (384 accessions) representing– 5 races (222 accessions)– 10 intermediate races (106 accessions)– Wilds (23 accessions)• Stay-green QTL (Stg3, Stg4 or StgB) introgressionlines (QTL-IL)Assessed for post-flowering drought tolerance.Material
  • CollaborationsAsia• ICRISAT, Patancheru, India• UAS Dharwad, India (NARS), other locationsAfrica• ICRISAT, Bamako, Mali• ICRISAT, Nairobi, Kenya• KARI Machakos, Kenya (NARS)• NPGRC Arusha, Tanzania (NARS)• IER Mali (NARS)• ISRA/CERAAS, Thies, Senegal (NARS)
  • Reference set- Allelicrichness and diversity• Entire collection (33,100 accessions) is too largefor evaluation• A composite collection (3,372 accessions)developed from entire collection (core)• Composite collection genotyped using 41 SSRmarkers and a reference set (384 accessions)developed (http://www.generationcp.org)• 78% (615 of the 789 alleles) of the SSR markerallelic diversity of the composite collectionrepresented by reference set
  • Legend:Durra-bicolor (DB)Durra-caudatum (DC)Guinea-caudatum (GC)Kafir-caudatum (KC)Guinea-bicolor (GB)Guinea-durra (GD)Guinea-kafir (GK)Kafir-bicolor (KB)kafir-durra (KB)Bicolor (B)Caudatum (C)Durra (D)Guinea (G)Guinea margaritiferum (Gma)Kafir (k)WildCaudatum-bicolor (CB)Tree diagram of sorghumcomposite and reference set41 SSR markers789 alleles615 alleles
  • Reference set accessions classified into seven groups basedon the 2007-08 flowering data from Patancheru, IndiaGroup Range ofdays to 50%floweringNumber ofaccessionsGroup I 54-68 36Group II 69-82 114Group III 83-96 124Group IV 97-110 51Group V 111-124 38Group VI 125-138 13Group VII 139-149 8Total 384Phenology-based classification
  • • Post flowering drought stress was imposed by withholdingirrigation in different groups after specific number of daysafter sowing (DAS), which were calculated as:(Mid point of the range for days to 50% flowering for agroup – 30 days)Groups DAS afterwhich irrigationwas withheldGroup I 31 DASGroup II 46 DASGroup III 60 DASGroup IV 74 DASGroup V 88 DASGroup VI 102 DASGroup VII 115 DASPost-flowering drought stress
  • • Evaluated each group with controls (IS 2205, IS18758, IS 33844) in a split-plot design with threereplications during 2008/09 and 2009/10postrainy seasons at Patancheru.Main plots: Water-stressed (WS) and non-stressed (well-watered, WW)moisture regimesSub-plots: Accessions within moisture regimesEvaluation for drought stress
  • Evaluation for post-floweringdrought stress• Evaluated at three ICRISAT locations:- ICRISAT Patancheru, India- ICRISAT Bamako, Mali- ICRISAT Nairobi, Kenyafor post-flowering drought tolerant traits(stay-green, chlorophyll content, and yield)
  • Evaluation for water extraction& Transpiration efficiency• 152 reference set accessions and58 QTL introgression lines (QTL-IL) evaluated for water extraction(WE) and transpiration efficiency(TE) under terminal WS and WWin large and long PVC cylinders(2.0 m long and 25 cm diametertubes) during 2008-09 and 2009-10 postrainy seasons underrainout shelter• Reference set evaluated for TE inpotted trials under WW conditionsLysimetric study of sorghumvariation for water extraction (WE)and transpiration efficiency (TE)under post-flowering drought stress
  • Criteria used:• Accessions with least reduction in grainyield under WS compared to WW• Accessions with good performance underWS identified as drought tolerantIdentification of post-floweringdrought stress tolerant lines
  • • Accessions which yielded at par or less affected(<10% yield reduction) under WS compared to WWGroup Number ofaccessionsGP I 7GPII 42GP III 66GP IV 33GP V 32GP VI 6GP VII 4Drought tolerant accessions
  • • Least affected under WS: Arundinaceum andcultivated Guinea race• Most affected (29%): kafir-caudatum racereduction in grain yield)• SPAD Chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR)Five accessions: IS 2398, IS 3963, IS 13989, IS24009, IS 393(411)659 had high SCMR both atflowering and 30 DAF under both WS and WWconditionsDrought tolerant accessions
  • • Significant variation (-0.074 to -0.225 leaf d-1) forstay-green trait (measured by leaf senescence)• 22 accessions green at grain maturity due to a lowleaf senescence before flowering• 34 green due to low leaf senescence after flowering• 7 accessions had both qualitiesICRISAT Samanko, Mali
  • • Short duration plants (group 1)- Shorter in height- More basal and nodal tillers than longer durationgenotypes (group 7)• Initial chlorophyll content of 2nd leaf from the flagleaf (N-2) differed significantly among lines at allstages of evaluation• Chlorophyll content was higher at flag leaf initiationand earlier weeks after irrigation compared to laterweeksICRISAT Nairobi, Kenya
  • • A large range variation observed for grain Fe andZn, with higher range under WS (ICRISAT, India)Groups RangeFe ZnWW WS WW WSGroup 1 24.0-42.3 27.5-74.1 13.2-32.2 14.4-41.6Group 2 17.9-53.9 26.5-128.0 13.7-32.1 15.3-35.7Group 3 21.3-45.5 23.0-50.8 11.4-30.7 13.0-38.5Group 4 20.8-39.9 22.5-101.1 10.1-26.7 11.6-27.9Group 5 21.1-45.4 25.0-61.2 13.1-29.2 13.2-31.0Group 6 27.7-44.6 28.8-93.7 16.1-34.8 18.7-31.2Group 7 33.5-48.1 30.3-62.2 20.0-39.0 20.2-39.1Entire set 17.9-53.9 22.5-128.0 10.1-39.0 11.6-41.6Variability for grain Fe and Znunder WW and WS conditions
  • • Fe content increased from 10.6% to 31.3% in differentgroups (21.0% in the entire set ); Zn content increasedfrom 0.8% to 16.4% (average 13.3%) under WSGroups MeanFe ZnWW WS t- testprobabilityWW WS t- testprobabilityGroup 1 32.9 ± 1.00 42.5 ± 2.16 <0.001 21.9 ± 0.78 25.5 ± 1.22 0.015Group 2 29.4 ± 0.49 38.6 ± 1.04 <0.001 20.3 ± 0.33 23.9 ± 0.40 <0.001Group 3 31.0 ± 0.45 36.4 ± 0.63 <0.001 20.1 ± 0.36 22.4 ± 0.42 <0.001Group 4 29.9 ± 0.68 34.8 ± 1.52 0.005 19.0 ± 0.47 20.9 ± 0.49 0.005Group 5 32.3 ± 0.78 36.5 ± 1.23 0.006 19.5 ± 0.63 22.1 ± 0.78 0.010Group 6 35.0 ± 1.37 38.8 ± 4.66 0.439 22.5 ± 1.51 23.6 ± 1.19 0.559Group 7 38.7 ± 1.91 42.8 ± 4.57 0.433 26.0 ± 2.20 26.2 ± 2.38 0.967Entire set 31.0 ± 0.28 37.5 ± 0.52 <0.001 20.3 ± 0.21 23.0 ± 0.25 <0.001Variability for grain Fe and Znunder WW and WS conditions
  • • Wild type accessions had higher Fe & Zn contents than cultivated typesRace/subraceclassificationFe ZnWW WS WW WSRaces 30.53 36.28 20.14 22.90Intermediate races 30.36 35.81 20.05 22.48Wilds 38.27 58.81 22.74 26.16CultivatedBicolor 30.51 40.69 21.59 25.11Caudatum 29.57 34.47 17.99 20.57Caudatum-bicolor 32.48 38.96 21.95 24.81Durra 27.48 32.58 19.63 22.26Durra-bicolor 31.29 34.96 21.24 23.97Durra-caudatum 31.66 36.86 20.75 22.85Guinea 34.28 38.66 22.45 24.88Guinea-bicolor 35.81 35.03 22.92 20.75Guinea-caudatum 28.88 33.93 18.44 20.85Guinea-durra 27.30 29.16 18.98 20.63Guinea-kafir 25.09 40.44 19.81 24.08Kafir 28.80 35.03 19.42 22.55Kafir-bicolor 24.50 35.95 17.54 23.21Kafir-caudatum 23.65 31.09 17.36 18.42Kafir-durra 28.84 41.45 22.19 23.81Wild relativeVerticilliflorum 40.95 68.91 23.70 28.07Virgatum 40.70 40.79 20.14 24.66Aethiopicuum 38.48 50.34 23.78 28.01Arundinaceum 40.12 72.78 24.83 28.46Drummondii 35.63 50.66 21.38 23.87Variability for grain Fe and Znunder WW and WS conditions
  • • Four accessionsIS 18879IS 18821IS14259IS 3957having high contents of Fe and Znboth under WW and WS conditionsVariability for grain Fe and Znunder WW and WS conditions
  • • A large range variation in WE (10.2 kg plant-1 to 15.3 kgplant-1) and TE (2.44 g kg-1 to 6.09 g kg-1 water transpired)among reference set accessions under WS, with a numberof accessions showing higher WE and/or TE than stay-green QTL recurrent parent lines, R 16 and S 35Variation for WE and TE under post-flowering drought stress conditions
  • Variation in TE among stay-greenQTL-IL in R16 backgroundA number of stay-green QTL-IL in R 16 backgroundhad higher TE under WS than under WW conditions
  • • Yield related to HI, however at any level of HI,substantial yield difference were closelyrelated to TE (R2 = 0.60)• Substantial yield variations not explained byHI or TE were closely related to the total WEunder WS (R2 = 0.35)Lysimetric studies for WE and TE
  • • Race durra had highest WE, whereas durra-caudatumhad the lowest followed by caudatum-bicolorVadez et al., 2011; Crop & Pasture Science 62: 645-655Lysimetric studies for WE and TE
  • • Races durra, caudatum and guinea-caudatum hadhighest TE, and Guinea had the lowestVadez et al., 2011; Crop & Pasture Science 62: 645-655Lysimetric studies for WE and TE
  • • A wide range of variation (between about 6 and10 g biomass kg-1 water transpired) observed forTE based on pooled analysis of two years data• No relationship between TE and SCMR0.02.04.06.08.010.012.0387 entries testedTE(gbiomasskg-1watertranspired)Testing for TE in potted trials
  • • NARS partners identified promisinglines for multilocation (2-3 locations)evaluation in Asia and Africa and foruse in breeding programsMultilocation evaluation of promisingdrought-tolerant accessions
  • Region Country Locations Number oflines selectedControlsAsia India (5) ICRISAT, Patancheru 100 ISs 2205, 18758, and 33844Dharwad 30 ISs 2205, 18748, and 33844Bijapur 30 ISs 2205, 18748, and 33844Indi 30 ISs 2205, 18748, and 33844Bailhongal 30 ISs 2205, 18748, and 33844Africa Senegal(3)Bambey 14 CE 151-262, CE 180-33Nioro 14 CE 151-262, CE 180-33Darou 14 CE 151-262, CE 180-33Mali (2) Cinzana AgriculturalResearch Station12 B 35, Séguifa, and JakumbèBema AgriculturalResearch Sub-Station12 B 35, Séguifa, and JakumbèKenya (4) Kampi ya 22 KARI Mtama-1, Gadam, ZSV-3Mawe 22 KARI Mtama-1, Gadam, ZSV-3Masongaleni 22 KARI Mtama-1, Gadam, ZSV-3Kiboko 22 KARI Mtama-1, Gadam, ZSV-3Sites for multilocation evaluation
  • • Promising drought tolerant lines (12-30) identified fordifferent location in Asia and Africa based on leastreduction in grain yield or good performance underWS, stay-green, SCMR, TE and rate of water loss perunit of leaf area under terminal drought conditions• Large variation observed for TE and WE capacity, andeach contributes to a substantial yield differencesunder terminal drought• The lysimetric system useful to precisely assess yield-traits and assess their respective influence on yield• Races as a group, responded differentially to droughtstressConclusions
  • • ICRISAT, Patancheru, India: V Vadez, ShivaliSharma, CT Hash, SL Dwivedi, LKrishnamurthy• ICRISAT, Bamako, Mali: E Weltzein-Rattunde• ICRISAT, Nairobi, Kenya: MA Mgonja• UAS Dharwad, India: PM Salimath and others• KARI Machakos, Kenya: CK Karari• NPGRC Arusha, Tanzania: LND Mapunda (yetto be confirmed) in place of W Ntundu• IER Mali: M Diourte• ISRA/CERAAS, Thies, Senegal: N CisseCollaborators
  • Thank you
  • 3 years work planObjective 1 Seed increase and complete characterization of reference set for morpho-agronomictraitsActivity 1 Seed increase of reference set entries using plants from which DNA was extractedActivity 2 Complete characterization of reference set for morpho-agronomic traitsObjective 2 Evaluate reference set for variation in seed micronutrients density (Fe and Zn) undervarying moisture regimes (rainfed and irrigated)Activity 3 Evaluate sorghum reference set for seed Fe and Zn contents under varying moisture (irrigated andrainfed) conditionsObjective 3 Evaluate reference set and stay-green QTL introgressions lines for stay-green,chlorophyll content, transpiration efficiency, and rate of water loss per unit of leaf areaunder terminal drought conditionsActivity 4 Evaluation of the full reference set for stay-green and chlorophyll content under terminal droughtconditionsActivity 5 Evaluation of the full reference set for transpiration efficiency (TE) under well-watered and water-stressed conditions, and for rate of water loss per unit of leaf areaActivity 6 Evaluation of a portion of reference set (with relatively similar flowering time during rabi) and selectedstay-green QTL introgression lines for water uptake under stressed conditions in lysimeters (2.0 mlong and 25 cm diameter tubes) for the proportion of water used prior anthesis/ after anthesisObjective 4 Multilocation evaluation of promising reference set accessions and selected stay-greenQTL introgressions linesActivity 7 Multilocation evaluation of promising reference set and stay-green QTL introgression lines forstover/grain yield and component traits