GRM 2013: Impact of key physiological traits on wheat adaptation to contrasting drought mega-environments – F Dreccer (redacted)


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GRM 2013: Impact of key physiological traits on wheat adaptation to contrasting drought mega-environments – F Dreccer (redacted)

  1. 1. Fernanda Dreccer, H. OuabbouT. Condon, F. Makdis, L. Barnes,, F. Eticha, M.Reynolds, M. G. Borgognone, S. Udupa, T. Wuletaw, F. C. Ogbonnaya PLANT INDUSTRY Impact of key physiological traits on wheat adaptation to contrasting drought mega-environments
  2. 2. Background 2 | • Limited water availability: most important abiotic constraint to yield globally; increasing uncertainty regarding rising temperature and atmospheric demand. • Yield improvement remains slow, due to the large GxE interaction. • Given the changing timing and intensity of drought, different patterns of water use (and traits underpinning them) are required to maximise yield. Traits for drought types | Dreccer Objectives I. Assess the relative impact of putative key traits to different drought mega- environments. II. Develop and validate a field-based phenotyping system to estimate patterns of crop water use on a seasonal basis III. Evaluate ICARDA elite drought adapted lines and the traits underpinning them. IV. Build capability in non-invasive phenotyping, particularly within the Central and West Asia and North Africa.
  3. 3. Traits for increased water productivity..... Tillering Early vigour Water soluble carbohydrates Phenology C13 disc. Stay green .....have the potential to increase transpiration, shift WU to critical crop periods, increase water use efficiency and/or influence biomass partitioning to the grains Traits for drought types | Dreccer Passioura and Angus
  4. 4. Environments, germplasm & methods CIMMYT, Mexico EIAR, Ethiopia CSIRO, AU INRA/CRRA Morocco ICARDA, Syria and Lebanon Summer dominant rainfall Winter dominant rainfall Uniform rainfall  Environments: 38 (YxLxM)  Up to 245 lines: • ICARDA elite nurseries • Trait comparison lines • Global checks  Measurements: • Ground cover • Canopy temperature • Phenology • Biomass, yield and components • Environment  Analysis: • MET analysis; linear mixed models Traits for drought types | Dreccer
  5. 5. Genetic correlations show specific adaptation for Yield Traits for drought types | Dreccer5 | 10MX_Cia_RF 10ET_Kul_RF 10ET_De_RF 10ET_Mel_RF 09ET_Mel_RF 09ET_De_RF 10SY_Mal 12MO_SEA_Late 12MO_ZEM_Late 11MO_SEA_RF 11MO_SEA_Irr 10MO_SEA_RF 10MO_SEA_IRR 10SY_TTa_RF 11AU_Tem_RF 10LE_Ter 11SY_Mal 11SY_THa 11SY_Bre_RF 11LE_KDa 10SY_THa 11LE_Ter 10AU_Lee_RF 11AU_Yan_RF 10AU_Lee_IRR 10SY_THa_Late 11MO_Mar_RF 10AU_Gat_IRR_Late 10AU_Gat_RF 10AU_Gat_IRR 10AU_Tem_RF 09AU_Gat_RF 09AU_Gat_IRR 09AU_Gat_IRR 09AU_Gat_RF 10AU_Tem_RF 10AU_Gat_IRR 10AU_Gat_RF 10AU_Gat_IRR_Late 11MO_Mar_RF 10SY_THa_Late 10AU_Lee_IRR 11AU_Yan_RF 10AU_Lee_RF 11LE_Ter 10SY_THa 11LE_KDa 11SY_Bre_RF 11SY_THa 11SY_Mal 10LE_Ter 11AU_Tem_RF 10SY_TTa_RF 10MO_SEA_IRR 10MO_SEA_RF 11MO_SEA_Irr 11MO_SEA_RF 12MO_ZEM_Late 12MO_SEA_Late 10SY_Mal 09ET_De_RF 09ET_Mel_RF 10ET_Mel_RF 10ET_De_RF 10ET_Kul_RF 10MX_Cia_RF -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 Et+Mx S Oz +ME N Oz Morocco In-season rainfall vs. Stored soil moisture
  6. 6. Later maturity advantageous in longer seasons with intermittent rainfall 6 | -2.5 -1.5 -0.5 0.5 1.5 2.5 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 YieldBLUPs Days to Flowering BLUPs 10MO_SEA 11MO_SEA spring winter • Yields from 2 (2010) to 5 (2011) t/ha. • Yields were correlated to GN/m2. • Resources such as radiation and N, better utilised for grain production Traits for drought types | Dreccer In- season rainfall - Morocco
  7. 7. Traits for drought types| Dreccer7 | -2.5 -1.5 -0.5 0.5 1.5 2.5 -200 -100 0 100 200 YieldBLUPs Spikes per m2 BLUPs 10MO_SEA 11MO_SEA -2.5 -1.5 -0.5 0.5 1.5 2.5 -200 -100 0 100 200 YieldBLUPs Spikes per m2 BLUPs 10MO_SEA 11MO_SEA SVS tin CSIRO ZAFIR-ICARDA NEJMAH-ICARDA In seasons with intermittent rainfall, more spikes per m2 lead to more yield independently of flowering date • Very low +/no correlation between flowering date and spike number SVS tin lines ca. 7 days earlier and ICARDA lines less than a day later compared to site average. In- season rainfall - Morocco
  8. 8. 8 | Stored soil moisture- Ethiopia -2.5 -1.5 -0.5 0.5 1.5 2.5 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 YieldBLUPs Days to Flowering BLUPs 10ET_Melkassa 10ET_Dhera • Yield associated to GN/m2 via grains per spike, not spike number m2. • Short spikes with few grains. • High TE lines had 25% more yield across sites. Earlier maturing lines did better under terminal drought Traits for drought types| Dreccer winter spring
  9. 9. Real-time simulation of LAI, water use: derived phenotypes 9 | TotalbiomassLAIGroundcoverZadoks Long season Phenotyping- Dreccer 1. Photograph canopy 2. Fit phenology, look for parameter combination (kl, SLA) to fit GC with minimum error 3. Estimate LAI, biomass, water use 4. Compare ‘derived phenotypes’, e.g. total transpiration, season TE Dreccer, Zheng, Chapman, Chan
  10. 10. Conclusions/Next steps • Initial analysis highlighted the possibilities for E specific adaptation • A particular flowering pattern can have opposite effects in different drought types. • Developmental and morphological traits are important drivers of water productivity. • Flowering and tillering patterns can be combined for yield advantage. • For crops grown under stored soil moisture, traits saving water for the critical period (higher TE), tackling spike sterility or sustaining grain growth (high WSC) are likely candidates for combination. • Analysis of traits in the context of weather/water availability conditions per pheno-stage • Phenotyping: • Streamlined methods to characterise main target traits • Attempt at integration via phenotyping + simulation with initial encouraging results on the ‘derived phenotype’ for seasonal trends (T, TE). Effort needs to continue. • Development of cheaper technologies to be deployed more widely 10 | Traits for drought types | Dreccer
  11. 11. Outputs/Products Presentation title | Presenter name11 |
  12. 12. Germplasm characterisation • 38 (YxLxM) across drought mega-environments • Data: yield, components, height, development and height genes Dreccer12 | Germplasm Trait Number Availability ICARDA lines Drought nurseries up to 200 Free Seri x Babax RILS WSC, tillering Ca. 20 M. Reynolds CSIRO lines Tillering (tin), TE (13C), EV Ca. 25 MTA • Syria: 10 elite germplasm lines were to be planted in on-farm trials involving 30 farmers in Nov./Dec. 2011. This was thwarted by the unrest. • Morocco: breeders have selected 23 lines, now in crossing blocks. • Ethiopia: NARS breeders identified 15-20 lines for performance under drought , stem and yellow rust resistance to the Ethiopian pathotypes. Crossing started in 2010. Selections also tested at Preliminary National Variety trials. Germplasm take-up
  13. 13. • 2 workshops on phenotyping for water productivity: Aleppo 2010 and Rabat 2013. • Trait value in different environments • Phenotyping methods • Association mapping • QEI & QTI including crop simulation for functional responses of WU Dreccer13 | Capability building Papers
  14. 14. PLANT INDUSTRY Thank you Francis Ogbonnaya Tony G. Condon Farid Makdis and Sripada Udupa Laura Barnes Hassan Ouabbou Firdissa Eticha and Solomon Gelalcha Matthew Reynolds Gaby Borgognone Greg Rebetzke, Osman Abdallah Tadesse Wuletaw