Using Problem Solving Skills To Get A Job


Published on

Presentation to the Portland Maine Unemployed Professional Group on Sept 15, 2009

Published in: Career, Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Using Problem Solving Skills To Get A Job

  1. 1. Using Problem Solving Skills To Get A Job. Changing Your Mindset and Thinking Differently. Unemployed Professional Group Portland, Maine September 15, 2009
  2. 2. Purpose <ul><li>Provide an overview of a number of methods for solving problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Create an understanding on how to use these methods during the job hunting process, when you are back to work, and for personal growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Get you to think about thinking differently. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>Thought Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical versus Creative Thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System and Statistical Thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking Differently </li></ul><ul><li>Intuition </li></ul><ul><li>The Human Connection </li></ul>
  4. 4. Open Your Mind To New Ideas
  5. 5. <ul><li>Intellectuals solve problems; </li></ul><ul><li>geniuses prevent them. --- Albert Einstein </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>I don't want to make the wrong mistake. --- Yogi Berra </li></ul>
  7. 7. Portraits of A Problem Solver?
  8. 8. Overview <ul><li>Like it or not, we are judged by how we think. </li></ul><ul><li>In school, tests generally give credit for problem-solving which produces the &quot;right&quot; answer, but under-estimates creativity and unconventional approaches to problems. </li></ul>Action Data Vision Analysis Questions Problem
  9. 10. Critical (Convergent) Versus Creative (Divergent) Thinking
  10. 12. Critical Thinking <ul><li>Structured, systematic processes are used to focus a persons thinking skills in a particular situation, problem, decision or opportunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Employs not only logic, but broad intellectual criteria such as clarity, credibility, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, significance. </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking is often casual or routine, whereas critical thinking deliberately evaluates the quality of thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly analytical and critical. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Convergent Thinking <ul><li>Follows a particular set of logical steps to arrive at one &quot;correct&quot; solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Involves combining or joining different ideas together based on elements these ideas have in common. </li></ul><ul><li>Putting the different pieces of a topic back together in some organized, structured and understandable fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>Convergent thinking, then, is an essential part of the outlining and organizing process. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not connote Criticism. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Creative ( Divergent) Thinking <ul><li>Thought process or method used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Involves breaking a topic down into its various component parts in order to gain insight about the various aspects of the topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically occurs in a spontaneous, free-flowing manner, such that many ideas are generated in a random, unorganized fashion. Many possible solutions are explored in a short amount of time, and unexpected connections are drawn. </li></ul><ul><li>Following divergent thinking, ideas and information are organized and structured using convergent thinking. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Something To Think About: Being A Creative Person <ul><li>Psychologists have found that a high IQ alone does not guarantee creativity. Instead, personality traits that promote divergent thinking are more important. </li></ul><ul><li>Divergent thinking is found among people with personalities, which have traits such as nonconformity, curiosity, willingness to take risks, and persistence. </li></ul>
  14. 17. Creative Thinking Tools <ul><li>Creating lists of questions </li></ul><ul><li>Setting aside time for thinking and meditation </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping a journal </li></ul><ul><li>Creating artwork </li></ul><ul><li>Free writing. In free writing, a person will focus on one particular topic and write non-stop about it for a short period of time, in a stream of consciousness fashion. </li></ul>
  15. 18. Quick Tips to Thinking Creatively <ul><li>Little Details Matter: Pay attention to words like ‘may’, ‘can’, and ‘will’. Never accept anything at face value. </li></ul><ul><li>Question the Authorities: Ask probing questions. What qualifies the individual to give advice? What credentials does the person have to make claims? Why is he or she an authority on the subject? </li></ul><ul><li>Sweeping Away Statements: Knock down sentences that use words like ‘all’ and ‘everyone’. Not all people do, and not everyone knows. More careful wording such as ‘most’ and ’some’ pass muster more easily. </li></ul>
  16. 19. Quick Tips to Thinking Creatively <ul><li>Watch Out For Fallacies: Fallacies are the tricky smoke and mirrors that divert attention from true critical thinking; all built to deflect, detract, divert and discredit arguments without really doing so. </li></ul><ul><li>Let Down Your Guard: Eliminate bias. Your values, emotions, desires and experiences influence your beliefs and your ability to have an open mind. Set them aside and take the time to ponder information you receive wholeheartedly. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of creativity as a muscle: The more you use it, the stronger it gets. To increase your creativity, you simply need to “act” like a creative person. Not surprisingly, people recognized as creative tend to share common traits. </li></ul>
  17. 20. System & Statistical Thinking
  18. 22. System Thinking <ul><li>Mind set for understanding how things work. </li></ul><ul><li>All work occurs in a system of interconnected processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Systems thinking provides a discipline and tools to encourage the seeing of “interrelationships rather than things, for seeing patterns of change rather than static ‘snapshots.’ </li></ul>
  19. 23. When To Use Systems Thinking <ul><li>Systems thinking is an approach that requires a substantial investment of effort. </li></ul><ul><li>The following are some of the signs that indicate a systems thinking approach is most likely warranted. </li></ul><ul><li>There are multiple perspectives on just what the situation is, and how to deal with it. </li></ul><ul><li>A previously applied fix seems to overshoot the goal. </li></ul><ul><li>A previously applied fix has created problems elsewhere. </li></ul><ul><li>Over time there is a tendency to settle for less. </li></ul><ul><li>After a fix is applied the problem returns in time . </li></ul>
  20. 24. When To Use Systems Thinking (continued) <ul><li>The same fix is used repeatedly. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a tendency to allow an established standard to slip. </li></ul><ul><li>Partners for growth become adversaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations experienced are believed to result from insufficient capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Limited resources are shared by others . </li></ul><ul><li>Growth leads to decline elsewhere. </li></ul>
  21. 25. System Thinking and the Butterfly Effect <ul><li>Small variations of the initial condition of a dynamical system may produce large variations in the long term behavior of the system. </li></ul>
  22. 26. The Butterfly Effect <ul><li>Refers to the idea that a butterfly's wings might create tiny changes in the atmosphere that may ultimately alter the path of a tornado or delay, accelerate or even prevent the occurrence of a tornado in a certain location. </li></ul><ul><li>The flapping wing represents a small change in the initial condition of the system, which causes a chain of events leading to large-scale alterations of events; or in a science fiction story where a time traveler creates a small change that alters the course of the future. </li></ul>
  23. 27. Statistical Thinking
  24. 28. Statistical Thinking <ul><li>Statistical thinking provides the means to view processes holistically. </li></ul><ul><li>Things to understand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variation exists in all processes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding and reducing variation are the keys to success. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of variation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Cause: Occurs naturally; part of the process and random (noise in the system). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Cause: Unexpected, but assignable to known factors. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methodologies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Quality Management. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 Sigma / Lean Manufacturing. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 29. Control Charting
  26. 30. Improvement Methods <ul><li>Statistical Process Control (SPC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal is Continuous Improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the process capability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exams the variability in process characteristics. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the process capable of producing products which conforms to specifications? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Plan, Do, Check Act (PDCA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement New Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure the Results and Compare against expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze Differences to Determine Cause. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine where to apply changes that will include improvement. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 31. Improvement Methods (Continued) <ul><li>7 Step Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 .    Define and Identify the Problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.    Analyze the Problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.    Identifying Possible Solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4.    Selecting the Best Solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5.    Evaluating Solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6.    Develop an Action Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7.    Implement the Solution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DMAIC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>D efine the project goals and deliverables for both internal and external customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M easure the process to determine current performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A nalyze and determine the root cause(s) of the defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I mprove the process by eliminating defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C ontrol future process performance </li></ul></ul>
  28. 32. Problem Solving
  29. 33. Problem Solving <ul><li>The problem-solving process comprises many different elements that can be used in varying degrees depending on the problem / opportunity to be solved. Typical elements are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem definition (part of understanding the problem) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation analysis (part of understanding the problem) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idea generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining the next steps to be taken to introduce the solution </li></ul></ul>
  30. 34. Problem Solving Tools: Kepner-Tregoe (KT) Analysis <ul><li>Situation Appraisal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of ensuring that priority and order are established for multiple concerns associated with a specific issue. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example – You’re out of work or under employed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create Problem Description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify Possible Causes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine True Cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example – You can’t get a job similar to what you did or want to do. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decision Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop Alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncover Adverse Consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example - What is the best alternative for getting a job that will fit your needs? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential Problem Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate What Could Go Wrong and the Likely Causes Would Be. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop Prevention & Contingency Plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example - Determine key risks associated with the alternative. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 35. Kepner-Tregoe Decision Analysis <ul><li>State Decision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s the Purpose? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classify Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define Musts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mandatory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measurable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Realistic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define Wants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Score </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluate Alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Assess Adverse Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probability (Low, Medium, High) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seriousness (Low, Medium, High) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 36. Kepner-Tregoe Problem Analysis <ul><li>State Deviation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s the Purpose? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specify the Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is –Is Not </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is compared to is not </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Possible Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Test for Probable Cause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not explain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explains under certain conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Determine Most Probable Cause </li></ul><ul><li>Verify True Cause </li></ul>
  33. 37. Kepner-Tregoe Potential Problem Analysis <ul><li>State Action or Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List steps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>List Anticipated Potential Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probability (Low, Medium, High) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seriousness (Low, Medium, High) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>List Anticipated Likely Causes for Each Potential Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Select Preventive Actions To Reduce Preventative Actions </li></ul><ul><li>Select Contingent Actions to Minimize Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Triggers For Contingent Action. </li></ul><ul><li>Modify Plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define Steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define Responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create Mileposts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign Resources </li></ul></ul>
  34. 39. Thinking Differently <ul><li>Think differently leads to new ideas and innovation, cultural changes, upsets the status quo, takes courage, changes mind set, creates personal change and one acting differently. </li></ul>
  35. 40. Thinking Differently (Lateral Thinking) <ul><li>Thinking differently is hard work; you must change pre conceived ideas especially when you have been successful using your favorite methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Courses in lateral thinking try to teach you how to identify and set aside the obstacles in your own head (biases and preconceptions, inability to concentrate or imagine, entrenched ways of thinking, fear, conservatism, ignorance) that prevent you from thinking in truly novel ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice and exercise is needed to reinforce learning. </li></ul>
  36. 41. 12 Techniques for Thinking Differently* <ul><li>* From Dave Pollard’s business innovation & knowledge management philosophy “ how to save the world” Before you consider them, you might want to ask yourself whether you need them. They are unlikely to make you happier, though they will probably make you more creative, and more understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Meditation: Aids with relaxation, centering, and clarity. </li></ul><ul><li>Reconnect With Your Senses: Most of what you learn is perceptual rather than conceptual, and you can learn an astonishing amount by just becoming more aware of nature, and of yourself, and of the connection between your senses and the senses of all life on Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Reconnect With Your Intuition: We are taught to distrust it. The perspective you can get when your intuition provides one viewpoint on a situation and your 'book learning' another is remarkable. It's like suddenly seeing stereo when all your life you've only seen with one eye. Instant depth perception. </li></ul>
  37. 42. 12 Techniques for Thinking Differently <ul><li>Analogies and Metaphors: Analogies and metaphors allow you to 're-see' something abstract as something concrete, something conceptual as perceptual. analogies and metaphors permit us to think things we probably otherwise couldn't. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversations and Interviews: A wonderful enabler for thinking differently is the shared context that comes from conversations and interviews. Several of my most popular articles have been conversations with myself or with other people, because they help people understand my thought process much better than analytical discourse. Like everything natural, they are inefficient but extremely effective. Interviews work the same way. Face-to-face and recorded conversations and interviews, if they are natural and probing and improvisational, are even better, because you learn more of the participants' worldview from the vocal nuances and body language. </li></ul>
  38. 43. 12 Techniques for Thinking Differently <ul><li>Synthesis, Distillation and Restatement: When you recapitulate and condense what you've read or heard, you force yourself to use your own words to say what they had to say. You can learn as much from this about their way of thinking, and your own, as you can from the reading or listening experience itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading diverse and alternative works: internet bias thing </li></ul><ul><li>Learning a New Language: The vocabulary, the syntax, the way in which it is ordered, the nuances of meaning, all push you to new ways of thinking Reading diverse and alternative works; Internet bias thing </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoactive and Other Drugs: They work for some people, and have for thousands of years. Nope, don't have any on me. </li></ul>
  39. 44. 12 Techniques for Thinking Differently <ul><li>Learning Something Outside Your Comfort Zone: </li></ul><ul><li>Do Impulsive and Serendipitous Things: Any activity that won't let you plan or anticipate, but which instead forces you to perceive and learn quickly and pay attention and react and live in the moment, will get you outside the centre of your own universe and help you see and think differently. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration: Not just coordination or cooperation, true collaboration. When you have produced a truly collective work-product, you have in many ways got inside the heads of your fellow collaborators, and that will change you forever. </li></ul>
  40. 45. The Eternal Question
  41. 47. Control Chart ???
  42. 48. So, What is the Answer?
  43. 49. Using Triggers To Think Differently
  44. 50. Triggers to help with change <ul><li>On Waking up: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide what positive change you want in your life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create the trigger: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pick a specific, every-day routine chore. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do it differently, but the same way everyday; this will be the trigger. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Shave the other side of your face first, put bread in the toaster upside down, put on the other shoe, first. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>During the day: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Become more aware of yourself and surroundings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When you notice something “unusual”, remind yourself of your morning thought. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take the time to write it out 15 times a day. </li></ul></ul>
  45. 51. Intuition
  46. 52. Intuition <ul><li>Experience and expertise are not the same; intuition comes from data clues prompting investigation. Intuition is the voice of experience using it effectively is expertise. </li></ul><ul><li>Two type of responses from data clues: it fits a patterns and makes sense or it doesn’t </li></ul><ul><li>Intuition is not accidental, but reflects experience; </li></ul>
  47. 53. Intuitive Ability <ul><li>The intuitive mind is a sacred gift and the rational mind is a faithful servant. We have created a society that honors the servant and has forgotten the gift. --- Albert Einstein </li></ul><ul><li>When analytical and intuitive abilities are combined, the result is ‘holistic.’ </li></ul>
  48. 54. Thinking Intuitively Versus Analytically
  49. 55. Analytical Thinking <ul><li>Is powerful. </li></ul><ul><li>It is focused, sharp, linear, deals with one thing at a time, contains time, is deconstructive, contains no perspective, is subject to disorientation, is brain centered, and tends to the abstract. </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical thinking is efficient in the following conditions – sufficient time, relatively static conditions, a clear differentiation between the observer and the observed. It is best suited for dealing with complexities, and works best where there are established criteria for the analysis (for example, rules of law). </li></ul><ul><li>It is necessary when an explanation is required, seeks the best option, and can be taught in the classroom to beginners. </li></ul>
  50. 56. Intuitive Thinking <ul><li>Intuitive thinking has contrasting qualities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it is unfocused, nonlinear, contains &quot;no time,&quot; sees many things at once, views the big picture, contains perspective, is heart centered, oriented in space and time, and tends to the real or concrete. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intuition comes into its own where analytical thinking is inadequate: under time pressure, where conditions are dynamic, where the differentiation between observer and observed is unclear. </li></ul><ul><li>It works best where the observer has experience in the particular situation, is difficult to teach in the classroom, eschews seeking the ‘best’ option in favor of the ‘workable,’ and is prepared to act on feelings or hunches where explanations are either not required or there is no time for them. Intuition is experience translated by expertise to produce rapid action. </li></ul>
  51. 57. OODA Loop Decision-making occurs in a recurring cycle of observe-orient-decide-act. An entity (whether an individual or an organization) that can process this cycle quickly, observing and reacting to unfolding events more rapidly than an opponent, can thereby &quot;get inside&quot; the opponent's decision cycle and gain the advantage.
  52. 58. The Human Connection
  53. 59. Myers – Briggs Personality Indicator <ul><li>Jungian based test designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>4 pairs of personality traits. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrovert / Introvert (attitude) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensing / Intuitive (information gathering) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking / Feeling (decision making) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judging / Perceiving (preference) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One is not better than another; it indicates one preference over another. </li></ul>
  54. 60. Human Dynamics <ul><li>Explores the interaction in people of three universal principles - the mental, the emotional (or relational) and the physical (or practical). </li></ul><ul><li>Mental: related to the mind - to thinking values, structure, focus, objectivity, perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional: more subjective. It is concerned with relationships - with feelings, communication, organization, and synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical: pragmatic. It is the making, doing, operationalizing part of us. </li></ul>
  55. 61. The wRap Up
  56. 62. Where to Get More Information <ul><li>Books: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Out of the Crisis by Edward Deming (Statistical Thinking) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 th Discipline Field Manual by Peter Senge et al. (Systems Thinking) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boyd: Fighter Pilot Who Changed The Art of War by Robert Coram (Intuitive Thinking) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Please Understand Me by Keirsey & Bates (Myers –Briggs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unthinkable: Who Survives When Disaster Strikes by Amanda Ripley (Decision Making) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American Prometheus: The Triumph and Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer by Bird & Sherwin (Project Management) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web Resources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem Solving newsletter: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Dynamics International: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 Sigma Methodology: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dave Pollard’s Blog; </li></ul></ul>
  57. 63. Final Thoughts <ul><li>Your Are What You Think. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Become more positive and deliberate in your thoughts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open your mind to the possibility of thinking differently; it will be life changing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read about alternative ideas; it’s ok to be skeptical. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice, apply and do it repeatedly through out the day! </li></ul></ul>
  58. 64. <ul><li>Maintain Focus. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Try To Stay Relaxed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Become more observant and aware. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be a good listener. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Find An Advisor Or A Mentor. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do worry about the age or gender of the person. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Become one. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Closed Mind Is Like A Clenched Fist. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s full of tension. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicates emotional turmoil. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can’t accept a handshake or receive a gift. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People (employers) notice. </li></ul></ul>