Teaching australian wartime history
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Teaching australian wartime history

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A presentation to the HTASA State Conference on teaching Australian wartime history, especially in the new Australian Curriculum

A presentation to the HTASA State Conference on teaching Australian wartime history, especially in the new Australian Curriculum

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  • 1. Giles Bartram Nuriootpa High School giles.bartram510@schools.sa.edu.au
  • 2. Overview Our context Australian History World War 1 at Year 9 World War 2 at Year 10 Premier’s Anzac Spirit School Prize and the Simpson Prize Fostering empathy Resources/ideas/exemplars
  • 3. Our context Nuriootpa High School has approximately 850 students We are a country High School but close enough to Adelaide for day trip excursions History has been offered as an elective from Year 9 onwards and is one of our most popular subjects We trialled Australian Curriculum: History in 2010 and 2011 with a particular focus on Year 10 We have a number of History specialists though need to rely on some “non-specialists” We have a great relationship with our local RSL branch. Every year we do a special Anzac Day assembly and a Remembrance Day assembly We have a memorial to ex-students who were killed in WWII. Recently a ex-student was killed in Afghanistan.
  • 4. Teaching Wartime History Students are interested. “Most Australian History might be boring but our wartime history isn’t.” Develops historical empathy Some great resources, especially online and through the DVA Great competitions like the Premier’s Anzac Spirit and Simpson Prizes Core Content – Year 9 WWI, Year 10 WWII
  • 5. World War 1 as an accident Why did the driver hit the tree? Was it mostly because of the kangaroo, the sun, the bend in the road or because he wasn’t paying attention? Of course, if the tree wasn’t there, he wouldn’t have hit it! Which of these causes is short term and which is long term?
  • 6. World War I as an accident
  • 7. GCSE Bites http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tu5VPnwGev0
  • 8. Workshop Activity Have a go! Can you come up with your own analogy to explain the multiple causes of World War 1? For an added complication, try to include the effects as well. Any incident will do, it just needs a number of causes Think about the different sorts of causes, what might be short and long term? What causes are Social/Cultural? Economic? Political?
  • 9. Diplomacy Boardgame (or Computer) simulation of European alliances pre-WWI Some of the advantages It allows students to experience the MAIN causes of WWI directly – Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism and Nationalism It teaches them some European geography There are some interesting lessons to be learnt about human nature, teamwork and negotiation skills
  • 10. Diplomacy: The map
  • 11. The game in action Turkey planning their next move Students use mobile phones to take pictures of the map, plan what they will do and then try to convince at least some of the other countries to go along with it!
  • 12. Some resources https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TU03EU5_MCE A useful video that explains the rules in nine minutes http://www.playdiplomacy.com/index.php Online Diplomacy http://playdiplomacy.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=453&t=31545 http://www.mrboll.com/?page_id=4346 https://www.academia.edu ‘Teaching Diplomacy by other means’ Some examples and articles about how you might use an online Diplomacy game in class
  • 13. Research Tasks Family History: ‘In their Footsteps’ Project (Stage 2) Creative Works Presentation (Stage 2) Documentaries (Stage 1) Premier’s Anzac Spirit School Prize (Year 9/10) Simpson Prize (Year 9/10)
  • 14. Basic Research Task You must use inquiry-based research – come up with at least 5 questions about your topic. For example: What did they do? What battles were they in? Who won those battles? How many Australians died or were wounded in that battle? How did they die? How did they earn their medals? Where did they serve? What was that like? Why should they be remembered? You must then write a letter to or from a soldier, sailor or nurse serving overseas. Use your research to make it seem more real.
  • 15. Example “Five years after Atkinson’s death his mother was sent a memorial scroll and memorial plaque and the following year she received a Victory Medal for his services. I think she would have rather had her son. One document that I found while looking through the archives that made me feel quite sad was the permission slip from his parents consenting to him joining the army… When Atkinson died his personal effects were returned to his mother, there was not very much to return, 2 electric lamps, razor strap, shaving brush, razor, soap, woolen cap, 2 bibles, wallet and some writing gear. Not a lot to show for his life. From the records about conditions in the trenches most of his belongings would have been fairly useless in a practical sense but probably gave him some comfort. This only adds to the sadness I felt when exploring the life of Frederick Atkinson.” Frank explained to his parents that had the war not ended when it did, many of the POWs in Siam would have been shot. He describes the year of 1943 as particularly bad especially when he and the other POWs were “driven like galley slaves and life was a horrible misery” this comment is in reference to the way the prisoners of the Japanese were treated in the building of the Burma-Thailand Railway. A combination of the poor health of the prisoners, the terrain, climate and the lack of tools and supplies would have made the labour even more horrific for prisoners. In one particular letter (see Appendix 1) Frank describes the horrific details of living as a prisoner of the Japanese to his parents. “They died in twos and threes and when the cholera came as many as a dozen at a time.” The lives of many Australian POWs were lost to the Japanese. Although Australian POWs often experienced brutality and deprivation at the hands of the Japanese many also recognised the importance of mateship and hope. Comparing himself to others helped Frank realise “I’m not so badly off”. This ANZAC spirit would have been present among many of the Australian prisoners. As ex-POW Ian Wall says, “You lived for one another”.
  • 16. James Martin As stated by the Australian War Memorial, he is thought to be the youngest Australian to die on active service. https://www.awm.gov.au/encyclop edia/martin/
  • 17. James Martin http://recordsearch.naa.gov.au/NameSearch/Interface/ItemDetail.aspx?Barcode=3000269&isAv=N Note the age 18 Also the reference to parental consent
  • 18. James Martin Unit History https://www.awm.go v.au/units/unit_11208 .asp Unit Diary http://www.awm.gov .au/collection/AWM 4/23/38/2/
  • 19. Task Design Australian Curriculum asks us to focus on key questions at each year level. For Year 9 What were the changing features of the movements of people from 1750 to 1918? How did new ideas and technological developments contribute to change in this period? What was the origin, development, significance and long-term impact of imperialism in this period? What was the significance of World War I? For Year 10 How did the nature of global conflict change during the twentieth century? What were the consequences of World War II? How did these consequences shape the modern world? How was Australian society affected by other significant global events and changes in this period?
  • 20. Understanding by Design or “Backwards Design” Identify desired results Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Determine acceptable evidence Plan learning experiences & activities“Begin with the end in mind” What learning needs to occur? What will this learning look like?
  • 21. What learning do we want? Developing historical empathy Understanding “historical significance” Developing Sources Analysis skills By the end of Year 10, students refer to key events, the actions of individuals and groups, and beliefs and values to explain patterns of change and continuity over time. They analyse the causes and effects of events and developments and explain their relative importance. They explain the context for people’s actions in the past. Students explain the significance of events and developments from a range of perspectives. They explain different interpretations of the past and recognise the evidence used to support these interpretations.
  • 22. Year 10 Sources Analysis Content link - An examination of significant events of World War II, including the Holocaust and use of the atom bomb (ACDSEH107) Intended to assess the following elements of the achievement standard Students explain the significance of events and development from a range of perspectives. Students analyse sources to identify motivations, values and attitudes. When evaluating these sources, they analyse and draw conclusions about their usefulness, taking into account their origin, purpose and context. Designed for trial – not yet fully polished!
  • 23. Year 11 Documentaries Chose any person or event Locate relevant primary and secondary sources Using Moviemaker, Photoshop etc, explain how this event or person was historically significant
  • 24. Year 12 Creative Works Key Area of Inquiry 2 War memorials, commemorative ceremonies, and creative works (e.g. art, literature, songs, photographs, and film) as ways of remembering Australians involved in war or conflict Choice of topic eg: Art, Music, Film, specific events like the sinking of HMAS Sydney, specific groups like nurses or POWs Multi-modal presentation
  • 25. DVA Resources http://www.dva.gov.au/commems_oawg/commemorations/education/Pages/education%20resources.aspx
  • 26. Australian Prisoners of War Published in March 2009 Includes a collection of short films
  • 27. Twitter Feeds
  • 28. Crash Course Videos WWI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_XPZQ0LAlR4 WWII http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q78COTwT7nE
  • 29. Some great websites www.ww1sa.gravesecrets.net/sa.html www.rslvirtualmemorial.org.au www.mappingouranzacs.naa.gov.au
  • 30. Some great books
  • 31. Recommended videos Australians at War series Australian War Memorial You Tube Channel www.youtube.com/user/AustWarMemorial ‘Gallipoli: The Frontline Experience’ (BBC) ABC Kokoda (two part series) The Fog of War You Tube Channel www.youtube.com/channel/UCShQwaYMurWOQAsDY D8REew Films – Beneath Hill 60, Gallipoli, The Lighthorsemen
  • 32. Some other online resources http://www.dva.gov.au/commems_oawg/commemorations/history_researc h/Pages/index.aspx Department of Veterans Affairs resources and website list www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/hq/trenchwarfare.shtml Students take the role of a WW1 general, trying to minimise casualties and still achieve their objectives www.bbc.co.uk/schools/worldwarone/hq/worldwarwhen.shtml A quiz www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/games/overtop/index_e.shtml A interactive Canadian game that puts students in the position of an ordinary soldier
  • 33. Anzac Spirit and Simpson Prize www.simpsonprize.org Year 9&10 students Essay response – set question Closes 17th October http://www.sa.gov.au/topics/education-skills-and- learning/schools/curriculum-and-learning/programs-and-extra-curricular- activities/premier-s-anzac-spirit-school-prize Year 9&10 students Multiple formats – research a person Closes 26th September
  • 34. DECD acleadersresource http://www.acleadersresource.sa.edu.au/index.php?page=bringing_it_to_life
  • 35. For further information Contact me giles.bartram510@schools.sa.edu.au Twitter @BartramGiles Download this presentation http://www.slideshare.net/GBartram/teaching- australian-wartime-history