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First Generation StudentScholar Program (FGSSP) Greg Andrews
Background Who are First Generation Students (FGS)? Neither parent has attended institution of higher education More likely to be non-traditional age (older than 18-22) More likely to identify as female More likely to be a student of color Likely to be from a low income family/area
Background (cont.) Usually a commuter student May be married/have dependents Typically attends part time/works full time This demographic as of 2011 makes up approximately 50% of students in the United States Are more likely to attend 2-year institutions
So What Is The Problem? (Literature) Since approximately 50% of all students are FGS, support is necessary This population is projected to grow to become a majority of students FGS need proactive support Currently FGS are less likely to persist than non-FGS FGS are 71% more likely to drop out than Non-FGS
Literature Suggestions (Cont.) Summer enrichment programs with peer groups on the college campuses that these students will be attending Educating faculty and staff of needs of the FGS population to ensure that proper information is getting to the students, which is seen as a contributor to lack of persistence. Creating inclusive and comprehensive curriculum instructional practices and student services supporting diverse populations.
Literature Suggestions (Cont.) Provide direction for FGS in order to learn the college system, and help them to make use of college resources Develop an early detection system around academic and financial concerns as well as other types of concern Hire staff, faculty, and administration that reflect diverse population
FGSSP Purpose To provide guidance and assistance by: Identify FGS at community colleges Help FGS to navigate the collegiate systems Meet FGS where they are at NOT require them to have additional financial burden or spend more time than necessary at their academic institutions Work with their needs not in spite of them Utilize most of the suggestions presented in literature
FGSSP 2 year program for community colleges Modeled similar to Ronald McNair Scholar program Participants are selected based on first assessment Program will be mandatory Program ideally would be funded by a TRIO grant
FGSSP Participants What are requirements for participation? Must be a FGS In order to gain additional aid, must meet “low-income” definition If Upward Bound eligible and FGS automatically accepted
How Does FGSSP Work? In order to be efficient with time, rather than provide a standalone class, there will be FGS sections of program specific classes. Added credit hour = added hour of class Cost free if at all possible (grants/scholarships) Hour will be used to aide FGS specific needs Monthly 2 hour gathering for ALL FGS students by cohort This addresses lack of “community” or “belonging”
How Does FGSSP Work? (Cont.) Collaboration with various other departments Academic Advisors specifically trained for FGS FGS Advisor/Mentor program Professional administrator and ideally peer Consideration to be made for internship/graduate assistantship Early Alert System Second Year focused on transition/transfer/persistence
Theoretical Framework FGSSP Before FGSSP 2-year Degree Background Dropout Knowledge of College Systems s Financial Debt Potential Tranfer to 4-year No Degree Institution Frustration Transition to NEW Professional Opportunity
Assessments Entrance Assessment (Demographics) Pre-Implementation Assessment Current Implementation Assessments Completion of each class/presentation/gathering Completion of each semester Completion of each year Completion of program Comparison between Pre-Implementation and Completion of Program will take place after first year and will continue year to year ALL ASSESSMENTS WILL BE MIXED METHOD (Qualitative and Quantitative)
Recommendations Continuous assessment and reaction to assessment Patience, Patience, Patience.. Complete one cycle (2 years) before making major change Listen to the voices of the participants Perhaps an opt out after a full month of the program, allowing them to attend a cohort gathering and take a month of courses to understand benefits, this can be based on school policies
References Adam, M. (2005). Low-Income, first-generation students left behind. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, 15(24), 17. Astin, A. W. (1999). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Development,40(5), 518-518. Astin, A. W. (1993). What matters in college?. Liberal Education, 79(4), 4. Bobbitt, L. & Choy, S. P. (2000). Low income students: Who they are and how they pay for their education. National Center for Educational Statistics. D‟Allegro, M. L. & Kerns, S. (2011). Is there such a thing as too much of a good thing when it comes to education? Reexamining first generation student success. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice, 12(3), 293-317 Davis R. J, & Palmer, R. T. (2010) The Role of Postsecondary Remediation for African American Students: A Review of Research. The Journal of Negro Education.79 (4) 503-520. Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Self-determination theory: A macrotheory of human motivation, development, and health. Canadian Psychology, 49(3), 182-185.
References Dolan, T. G. (2005). Removing barriers to financially needy, first-generation students. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education 15, 12. Engel, J., & Tinto, V. (2008). Moving beyond access: College success for low-income, first-generation students. The Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education. Fry, R. (2011). Hispanic college enrollment spikes, narrowing gaps with other groups. Retrieved from: http:// www.pewhispanic.org/2011/08/25/hispanic-college-enrollment-spikes-narrowing-gaps-with-other-groups/ Gilroy, M.. (2011, September). Where Hispanics Go to College. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, 21(22), 8-10. Gonzalez, J. (2012). Aspen competition drives innovative ideas for community-college completion. The Chronicle of Higher Education. 58(19 Hao, R. N. (2011). Critical compassionate pedagogy and the teacher‟s role in first-generation student success. New Directions for Teaching and Learning. 2011(127) p. 91-9 Horwedel, D. M. (2008). Putting first-generation students first.Diverse: Issues In Higher Education, 25(5), 10-12. Investment Weekly News (2012) New study from the Kellogg school of management: College culture contributes to „academic disadvantages‟ for first-generation students. Investment Weekly News.
References Laden, B. V. (2004).Serving emerging majority students. New Directions for Community Colleges, 127, 5-19. Lunceford, B. (2011).When first-generation students go to graduate school. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 127, 13-20. Mehta, S. S., Newbold, J. J., & O‟Rourke, M. A. (2011).Why do first-generation students fail?.College Student Journal, 45(1), 20-35. Merritt, C. R. (2008).First-generation college students: Then and now.Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociological of Self Knowledge, 45-52. Padgett, R. D., Johnson, M. P. &Pascarella, E. T. (2012). First-generation undergraduate students and the impacts of the first year of college. Journal of College Student Development, 53(2) Pascarella, E. T., Pierson, C. T., Terenzini, P. T., &Wolniak, G. C. (2004). First-generation college students: Additional evidence on college experiences and outcomes. The Journal of Higher Education, 73(3), 249-284. Prospero, M. &Vohra-Gupta, S. (2007). First generation college students: Motivation, integration, and academic achievement. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 31, 963-975. Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement (2012) Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement Program. Retrieved from: http://www2.ed.gov/programs/triomcnair/index.html
References Snell, T. P. (2008). First-generation students, social class, and literacy. Academe, 94(4), 28-31. U.S. Department of Education (2011). Federal TRIO programs.Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ope/trio/index.html U.S. Department of Education (1998) Characteristics of first-generation college students, Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 42(3), 2-5. Upward Bound Program (2012) Upward Bound Program. Retrieved from: http://www2.ed.gov/programs/trioupbound/index.html Woosley, S. A. &Shepler, D. K. (2011). Understanding the early integration experiences of first-generation college students. College Student Journal, 45(4) 700-715