McGillThermal Management of Permanent Molds   for the Casting of Aluminum Alloys                 Chunhui Zhang            ...
Objectives:• Control the cooling of a permanent mold to  produce aluminum castings of superior quality.• Selectively cool:...
History of the Heat Pipe• Dates back to the early 1960’s• NASA and Los Alamos Labs were prime developers• Used extensively...
• sealed chamber wherein a working  substance evaporates and condenses• passive device (no moving parts)• extremely high, ...
Classical Heat PipeCondenser Section                       Vapor   (Heat out)         outHeat Pipe Wall                   ...
Major Problems with Classical Heat PipesWhile the potential of heat pipes is enormous,There are 2 major problems:  1. Film...
What Was Done:• Designed and built water-based McGill Heat Pipes.• Incorporated such pipes in a permanent mold at  McGill....
Features of the McGill Heat PipeCan handle heat flux loadings of 1 MW/m2 andmore with water as the working substance.ON/OF...
Permanent Mold Cooled by Heat Pipes             è   è    è è                            Unit:                            m...
Cooling Air Lines                             Data                             acquisition Heat pipes                     ...
Simulation by SOLIDCast              Heat pipes       Z                           Y                                   X
Heat pipes
Heat pipe
Plan View of the Casting, Heat Pipes and          the Thermocouples                Heat Pipe 2    Heat Pipe 1  Heat Pipe 3...
800                   700                                  Casting in the parting plane                   600Temperature (...
Typical Casting ExperimentUsing Heat Pipe 1 onlyAl 356 alloyInitial mold temperature of 200oC
700                600                                                        TC2 Casting on the parting planeC)          ...
A: The side without heat pipe, DAS=40±6µm             B: Center, DAS=41±10µm                                              ...
Typical Casting ExperimentUsing Heat Pipes 1, 2 and 3Al 356 alloyInitial mold temperature of 300oC
Heat Pipe 2       Heat Pipe 1Heat Pipe 3   S           M            L       Thermocouple Locations
700                     600                                                                                 Casting-L     ...
McGill
No HP DAS=39± 4 µ m            ±                            Middle DAS=41± 5 µ m                                          ...
No HP DAS=42± 4 µ m            ±                        Middle DAS=53± 6 µ m                                              ...
McGillEffect of Heat Pipe Cooling on DAS                                                    (unit: µm)C                   ...
McGill                SummaryWe have developed a controllable, water-basedMcGill Heat Pipe for high heat flux applications...
McGill                 Summary                        Cont’d The DAS of A356 alloy is refined considerably with heat pipe ...
So, where are we now?Let’s visit our lab at   McGill
Testing the Water-Based Heat Pipe               in the Gas FurnaceCondenser                     Air-cooled condenser      ...
Testing the Water-Based Heat Pipe           Directly in Molten Aluminum                                       Typical Heat...
Aluminum Melt Temperature Data for 5.1 cm Immersion
Leading End of the Heat Pipe After the Test                         Note the uniform but rough                         sol...
So, where are we now?In addition to our work in the lab, we have a number ofindustrial sponsors for the following:Full sca...
McGill Thermal Mgmt Perm Mold 4casting
McGill Thermal Mgmt Perm Mold 4casting
McGill Thermal Mgmt Perm Mold 4casting
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McGill Thermal Mgmt Perm Mold 4casting

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McGill Thermal Mgmt Perm Mold 4casting

  1. 1. McGillThermal Management of Permanent Molds for the Casting of Aluminum Alloys Chunhui Zhang Frank Mucciardi and John Gruzleski Dept. of Mining, Metals and Materials Engineering McGill University Frank.Mucciardi@mcgill.ca Web Site: www.mmpc.mcgill.ca/~frank
  2. 2. Objectives:• Control the cooling of a permanent mold to produce aluminum castings of superior quality.• Selectively cool: specific locations, at specific times. Methodology:• Use heat pipes to control the heat transfer.
  3. 3. History of the Heat Pipe• Dates back to the early 1960’s• NASA and Los Alamos Labs were prime developers• Used extensively in electronics• Used extensively in satellites, Space Shuttle and Space Station
  4. 4. • sealed chamber wherein a working substance evaporates and condenses• passive device (no moving parts)• extremely high, effective thermal conductivity (as much as 1,000 times that of Cu)
  5. 5. Classical Heat PipeCondenser Section Vapor (Heat out) outHeat Pipe Wall Condensate FilmCapillary WickEvaporator Section Liquid Pool (Heat in) in
  6. 6. Major Problems with Classical Heat PipesWhile the potential of heat pipes is enormous,There are 2 major problems: 1. Film boiling 2. Entrainment of returning liquidMcGill Heat Pipe (patents pending) overcomes theseproblems and thus makes heat pipe technology viablefor high heat flux systems.Details of the McGill Heat Pipe will be disclosedas soon as we are allowed to. McGill
  7. 7. What Was Done:• Designed and built water-based McGill Heat Pipes.• Incorporated such pipes in a permanent mold at McGill.• Found an industrial partner, Grenville Castings, to Castings sponsor and conduct plant trials (Oct. 2002). Applicability of Results:• In casting systems - permanent molds - DC casters
  8. 8. Features of the McGill Heat PipeCan handle heat flux loadings of 1 MW/m2 andmore with water as the working substance.ON/OFF heat extraction capability.External chill absorbs the heat duringON mode.Cooling air dissipates the heat stored in the chillduring OFF mode. McGill
  9. 9. Permanent Mold Cooled by Heat Pipes è è è è Unit: mmUnit: mm
  10. 10. Cooling Air Lines Data acquisition Heat pipes systemPermanent mold On/Off Valve Configuration McGill
  11. 11. Simulation by SOLIDCast Heat pipes Z Y X
  12. 12. Heat pipes
  13. 13. Heat pipe
  14. 14. Plan View of the Casting, Heat Pipes and the Thermocouples Heat Pipe 2 Heat Pipe 1 Heat Pipe 3 TC1 TC2 TC3
  15. 15. 800 700 Casting in the parting plane 600Temperature ( C) 500 o Mold without HP 400 300 Mold with HP 200 100 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Time (s)
  16. 16. Typical Casting ExperimentUsing Heat Pipe 1 onlyAl 356 alloyInitial mold temperature of 200oC
  17. 17. 700 600 TC2 Casting on the parting planeC) 500o 400Temperature ( TC3 Mold without HP 300 HP ON TC1 Mold with HP 200 Air gap formation HP OFF 100 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Time (s)
  18. 18. A: The side without heat pipe, DAS=40±6µm B: Center, DAS=41±10µm Alloy A356 Tmold= 200oC C: The side with heat pipe cooling, DAS=27±3µm
  19. 19. Typical Casting ExperimentUsing Heat Pipes 1, 2 and 3Al 356 alloyInitial mold temperature of 300oC
  20. 20. Heat Pipe 2 Heat Pipe 1Heat Pipe 3 S M L Thermocouple Locations
  21. 21. 700 600 Casting-L Casting-M 500 Casting-sTemperature ( o C) Mold-L Mold-M 400 Mold-S Mold-HP2-M 300 Mold-HP1-L Mold-HP3-S 200 100 Max. Heat Flux to the Heat Pipes: 500-600 kW/m 2 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Time (s)
  22. 22. McGill
  23. 23. No HP DAS=39± 4 µ m ± Middle DAS=41± 5 µ m ± Alloy A356 Tmold= 300oC With HP Cooling HP DAS=27± 2 µ m ±
  24. 24. No HP DAS=42± 4 µ m ± Middle DAS=53± 6 µ m ± Alloy A356 Tmold= 300oC With no HP cooling HP DAS=46± 7 µ m ±
  25. 25. McGillEffect of Heat Pipe Cooling on DAS (unit: µm)C DASAS Section withT Cooling S M LI (Location E) (Location D) (Location C)NG1 None (Ref) ± 31±5 ± 41±3 ± 46±7 ± 24±4 ± 27±3 ± 27±22 SML Decrease 21% 33% 41%
  26. 26. McGill SummaryWe have developed a controllable, water-basedMcGill Heat Pipe for high heat flux applications,such as permanent molds.Heat dissipation rates equivalent to thoseassociated with conventional water cooledpassages are achieved with air cooling.Cooling with heat pipes is very effective incontrolling the microstructure of the castingand the mold temperature.
  27. 27. McGill Summary Cont’d The DAS of A356 alloy is refined considerably with heat pipe cooling of the mold. Heat pipe cooling of the mold can alter the direction of solidification as well as the location of the shrinkage.
  28. 28. So, where are we now?Let’s visit our lab at McGill
  29. 29. Testing the Water-Based Heat Pipe in the Gas FurnaceCondenser Air-cooled condenser Typical Heat Flux: ~ 500 kW/m2Evaporator Heat Extraction: ~ 6 kW for 10 cm insertion McGill
  30. 30. Testing the Water-Based Heat Pipe Directly in Molten Aluminum Typical Heat Flux: ~ 1,500 kW/m2Condenser The cooling of permanent Insulation molds is simple in comparison.Heat Pipe Other applications: - Superheat reduction in DC casting molds Crucible - Cooling of the electrolytic cells - Cooling the off gases McGill
  31. 31. Aluminum Melt Temperature Data for 5.1 cm Immersion
  32. 32. Leading End of the Heat Pipe After the Test Note the uniform but rough solidification surface.McGill
  33. 33. So, where are we now?In addition to our work in the lab, we have a number ofindustrial sponsors for the following:Full scale oxygen lances for steel refining andlead refiningCooling elements for aluminum and magnesium castingHeat pipe units for cooling lead furnace taphole McGill

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