achieving change is not easy. Great forces resist change, whether they are political inertia, vested interests or corruption.To fight corruption in the water sector, it is necessary to advocate for better institutions, better participation, and better laws and regulationsThis session aims to explore how can we use evidence to influence lasting change. (nto only as opportunities to raise awareness about the issueof corruption in the water sector)One can take a huge range of actions to make communication strategy effective. These include: undertaking research; organising conferences and seminars; publishing materials such asreports, brochures and posters; lobbying policy-makers; engaging the media; and so on. But to make communications more systematic and methodical, a strategy is necessary.Authoritative research is needed,More specific and locally-based plans can take into account different water sub-sectors, geographical locations, governance systems, forms of corruption, different political and social contexts, and the different resources available… For this reason, this module focuses on the process of planning for advocacy, rather than presenting a ready-built ‘advocacy plan’.
is simply to decide that something must be done against corruption.reach an agreement on how decisions will be made: Research group vs. steering committee vs. other communication group?
is simply to decide that something must be done against corruption.Indeed, there are different ways of organising to deliver and coordinate advocacy. But the bottom line is that there must be a clear, collective mandate. Campaigning againstcorruption should not be a one-person crusade. The more widely it is owned by the community, the better the chances it will effect meaningful and long-lasting change.
Need a clear & well-defined polycy agenda
To make the communication strategy more effective,
1st column: the policy agenda of what should change2nd column: converting these into SMART objectives,
1st column: the policy agenda of what should change2nd column: converting these into SMART objectives,
Setting an approach to persuade policy-makers to adopt the recommendations set out in the advocacy objectives.Policy-makers may have other priorities, they may not recognise there is a problem, or they may even have a vested interest in maintaining the status quo.to understand how this policy is developed and agreed upon.2) Those responsible for developing policy and approving the decisions(those with actual powers to approve decisions) – 3) the extent to which political authorities would tolerate a campaign against corruption, or how public policies are negotiated and enforced.Economic factors may include funding streams or income generation targets. Social factors would include societalattitudes, demographic factors and lifestyle changes. Technological factors would consider current and emergingtechnologies of relevance to the organisation. Legal factors include the relevant international and national laws, aswell as proposed legislation that may affect the organisation.4)SWOT analysis is simply looking at the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that affect the organisation.Strengths are positive factors – financial and material resources, good access to governments, public image, efficientorganisation and so on. Weaknesses are factors that inhibit the ability to act generally or work on specific issues –lack of experience, limited funds, no facilities or bad public image. Knowing your weaknesses is important in order totake steps to overcome them or avoid activities you will be unable to cope with. Opportunities are factors in societythat might affect your advocacy work – an interested and sympathetic media, the existence of relevant coalitions or aforthcoming event that focus attention on the relevant issues (e.g. an international conference). Threats are factorsusually beyond your control that may have a negative impact on your ability to campaign – a political or economiccrisis, poor image or security issues. Strengths and weaknesses are mostly internal to the organisation, whileopportunities and threats are external and relate to the campaigning environment.
E) How influential is this actor on the decision? For, against or neutral towards our advocacy objectives? What do they know about the issue? What is their attitude towards the issue? What do they really care about? Who has influence over them?F) A more impersonal and untargeted communication may have a wider range of audiences but may likely have little impactG) define the core message to deliver to youraudiences – a short sentence setting out the change youwant to bring about (and when). It may also include thereasons why you think the change is important. The coremessage must be brief and concise, and summarise whatyou are aiming for. This will help ensure communication isfocused and coherent throughout the campaign.
Opinion shapers: (i.e. academics, politicians, community leaders) The best approach is to build direct and personalrelationships with journalists, editors and producers. Notonly will they be more responsive to people they know,they will be able to provide advice on the best approach totake. Don’t just rely on a press release – get on the phoneand talk to your contacts!
After identifying what should change and determining howto best influence change, the next step is actually to draftan action plan
The bottom line is that the media – regardless of their role, form or audience – are the maker and shaper of images: they can strengthen or destroy reputation,credibility and legitimacybecause of the often sensitive nature of corruption issues, it is important to take extra care and thoughtfulness when using the media for water integritycampaigns.many media campaigns have also backfired, generating exactly the opposite response from the TargetsMany governments seek to insulate their policies from the ups and downs of public opinion. -- especially if media discussionsbecome confrontational rather than facilitating dialogue. Stories about people are often preferred over hard news, simply because it is easier to connect with other peoplethan with cold facts and figures.
Which is competent authority, necessary documentation they should attach with their request, which is authority issuing this documentation, timeframe for consideration of their request, inspection supervisionCommunal activities still haven’t reached the desired level of development. Namely, many municipalities in the country lack unified procedures and forms for provision of services. The main goal for this Guide is to contribute to the creation and implementation of unified procedures, as well as standardization of the documents (forms) used by the local self-government units, with an aim to prepare the municipalities to respond to the requirements for standardization provided by some of the existing systems for standardization, for example, introduction of ISO standards in local self-government units.
Session 8 Communication Strategy Maria Jacobson, UNDP Water Governance Facility, SIWI Marie Laberge, UNDP Oslo Governance Centre
Outline Why should a communication strategy be planned systematically? What are four basic steps of the communication planning cycle? What are the relationships between: a policy agenda (what needs to change) the communication agenda (how to influence change) and the action plan (activities to support the communication agenda)
Why should a communication strategy be planned systematically? Need to go beyond awareness-raising Using communication to influence policy and practice of institutions For communication to be effective: Identify what needs to change (evidence-based) Fully understand the processes by which change can take place (evidence-based) Need to reflect the specific location and context A ‘misguided’ communication strategy can backfire...
What are four basic steps of the communication planning cycle? Decision-making: Commitment-making and organising a management plan to implement a communications strategy Policy-agenda setting: Identifying targeted changes – aims and objectives Communication-agenda setting: Determining how best to influence change – influencing strategy, concerned audiences and tactics Action planning: Identifying activities to engage different decision-makers, influentials and concerned audiences
Stage 1 – Decision-making Reach an agreement on how decisions will be made: By the research Group ? The Advisory Group? Or establish a separate Communication Task Force, constituted by communication stakeholders? Nominate a ‘spokesperson’? Ensure broad-based ownership & participation in the implementation of the communication strategy
Stage 2 – Policy Agenda-Setting: Identifying what should change What is the critical element we want to change to improve water integrity? Are we after a change in the law (if so, which law)? Do we want increased transparency in procurement processes (if so, how can this be done)? Or do we merely want a change in the actions of officials running the processes? Have we properly understood the reasons why corruption has become rampant? Have we identified where responsibility has failed? Do we have a common voice when it comes to suggesting alternative ways of doing things?
Stage 2 – Policy Agenda-Setting: Identifying what should change The focus should be limited to 1 or 2 of the most important recommendations (to ensure highest impact of communications resources) Communication objectives should be SMART: Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant and Time bound. Objectives should specify the outcome being sought, not the activity propose.
Stage 2 – Policy Agenda-Setting: Identifying what should change
Stage 2 – Policy Agenda-Setting: Identifying what should change – Example 2
Stage 3 – Communication Agenda-Setting: Determining how to best influencechange Identify what ‘channels of influence’ to use – which concerned audiences or ‘influentials’ to communicate with in order to put pressure on the policy-makers to take action. To develop an ‘influencing strategy’: A) Understand the policy-making process: draw a flowchart setting out all the stages of the policy-making process and identifying the people or institutions involved at every stage B) Pinpoint the ‘decision-maker’: what to do to reach them, how to engage with them, what specialised materials need to be prepared for them, what tone or approach to use in a face-to-face meeting with them C) Understand the advocacy environment: list all the relevant factors that may affect advocacy on water corruption
Stage 3 – Communication Agenda-Setting: Determining how to best influencechange To develop an ‘influencing strategy’ (continued):
D) Assess your advocacy capacity: Perform an honest assessment of the resources available for undertaking a communication strategy (funding sources, staff & their skills, reputation of an organisation)
E) Understand the various stakeholders (the people or groups affected by the issue or who can influence the outcome): will they be for or against the objectives, or neutral? F) Make choices: Choose what approach to take and which stakeholders will be the channels of influence. With a focus on a few targets, there is a greater chance of making a breakthrough. G) Determine messages and tactics:Brief & concise H) Tailor your communications for the receivers of the message: Are they the decision-makers? Are they ‘influentials’ or opinion-shapers? Are they concerned audiences? Are they media organisations?
Stage 3 – Communication Agenda-Setting: Determining how to best influencechange
Some media issues in water integrity advocacy The media can be a ‘double-edged sword’ for anti-corruption reform
The media can play an important role in building awareness and shaping public opinion
But in many cases the media tend to sensationalise individual cases rather than focus attention on the issues that breed corruption & the changes that are really needed
A debate in the ‘court of public opinion’ may make the government more defensive rather than open about changing policy
A low-key visit to the policy-maker’s office to quietly present analysis and put forward proposals can be a more time- and resource efficient way of getting the change you want
Never go the media with unverified claims: You risk destroying your own reputation
The media tends to prefer real ‘stories’ they think will interest the public
The Yemen caseNational Communication & Awareness Strategy for IWRMDeveloped by the National Water Resources Authority of Yemen Selecting relevant awareness messages Problem-based analysis: Listing the main water problems, their causes, possible solutions and awareness messages derived from this analysis Example: ‘Groundwater depletion’ 2) Identifying communication ‘targets’, the means of reaching the targets (‘communication tools’) and specific activities Here, the messages conveyed in the problem-based analysis are grouped in around key objectives for the communication strategy Example: Objective 4 – ‘Control the extraction and use of water resources’
The Macedonian caseManual for administrative procedures in municipalities Developed by the Association of Local Governments of Macedonia Decentralization resulted in unequal application of administrative procedures in various municipalities Assessment methodology served to identify integrity risks at municipal level in areas of urban planning, procurement, and public financial management Based on assessment findings, a Manual written in user-friendly language was published:
To explain citizens in simple terms how to access public services, in a step-by step format
To promote a more uniform provision of services by civil servants across the country, by providing a compendium describing the procedures which should be applied nationwide
Planning ahead: Implications for the communication of the Tajik assessment?