Basic electrical comp


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Electrical Components

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Basic electrical comp

  1. 1. ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS Ganesh Kumar.M HCLT Confidential
  2. 2. Agenda VIISTA HCLT Confidential
  3. 3. FUSEA safety device that protects an electric circuit frombecoming overloaded. HCLT Confidential
  4. 4. FUSE Fuse - is a type of over current protection device. Its essential component is a metal wire or strip that melts when too much current flows, which interrupts the circuit in which it is connected. Short circuit, overload or device failure is often the reason for excessive current A fuse interrupts excessive current (blows) so that further damage by overheating or fire is prevented. HCLT Confidential
  5. 5. MINIATURE CIRCUIT BREAKER (MCB)An automatic switch that stops the flow of electriccurrent in a suddenly overloaded or otherwiseabnormally stressed electric circuit HCLT Confidential
  6. 6. MINIATURE CIRCUIT BREAKER (MCB) when excessive current develops, a circuit breaker opens to protect equipment . These abnormal currents are usually the result of short circuits created by lightning, accidents, deterioration of equipment. A protective device that opens a circuit upon sensing a current overload. Unlike a fuse, it can be reset. HCLT Confidential
  7. 7. MCB WORKING Able to protect the wiring and the loads of electrical circuits. MCB’s are a Thermal-Magnetic type circuit breaker. Thermal part loads (motors, heaters, power supplies, etc.) will be protected from short circuits by its magnetic parts. HCLT Confidential
  8. 8. MCB APPLN These are manufactured for fault level of up to 10KA. Only with operating current range of 0.5 to 63 Amps. Available types are single, double and three pole version. Mainly used for control voltage protection. Machine Lighting. Cooling unit. HCLT Confidential
  9. 9. MCB TRIPPINGType B devices are generally suitable for domestic applications. They may alsobe used in light commercial applications where switching surges are low ornon-existent.Type C devices are the normal choice for commercial and industrialapplications where fluorescent lighting, motors etc. are in use.Type D devices have more limited applications, normally in industrial usewhere high inrush currents may be expected. Examples include large batterycharging systems, winding motors, transformers, X-ray machines and sometypes of discharge lighting.Type B devices are designed to trip at fault currents of 3-5 times rated current(In). For example a 10A device will trip at 30-50A.Type C devices are designed to trip at 5-10 times In (50-100A for a 10Adevice).Type D devices are designed to trip at 10-20 times In (100-200A for a 10Adevice). HCLT Confidential
  10. 10. Curve Graph HCLT Confidential
  11. 11. MOULDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKER (MCCB)An automatic switch that stops the flow of electric currentin a suddenly overloaded or otherwise abnormallystressed electric circuit for high SC production. HCLT Confidential
  12. 12. MCCB (Mould case circuit breakers) MCCB’s are Moulded case Circuit breakers, with protection facilities of over current, earth fault. They are manufactured for fault levels of 16KA to 50KA and operating current range of 25A to 630Amps. They are used for application related with larger power flow requirement. In machines it is used for main supply connection. HCLT Confidential
  13. 13. MOTOR PROTECTION CIRCUIT BREAKER (MPCB) An automatic switch that stops the flow of electric current in a suddenly overloaded or Short circuit protection. HCLT Confidential
  14. 14. MPCB (MOTOR PROTECTION CIRCUITBREAKER)Motor Protection Circuit Breakers may provide the following protective and control functions. Disconnect for Motor Branch Circuit Branch-Circuit, Short-Circuit Protection (Magnetic Protection) Overload Protection (Thermal Protection) High Current Limiting High Switching Capacity Current Range 0.1…630 A HCLT Confidential
  15. 15. Relay A relay is an electrically operated switch. TYPES OF RELAY: • Latching relay. • Solid state relay. • Over load protection relay. Slide 15 HCLT Confidential
  16. 16. Relay Operation Electrical device such that current flowing through it in one circuit can switch on and off a current in a second circuit. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically. A relay is used to isolate one electrical circuit from another. It allows a low current control circuit to make or break an electrically isolated high current circuit path. Normally-open (NO) contacts connect the circuit when the relay is activated; the circuit is disconnected when the relay is inactive. Normally-closed (NC) contacts disconnect the circuit when the relay is activated; the circuit is connected when the relay is inactive Slide 16 HCLT Confidential
  17. 17. CONTACTOR A contactor is an electrically controlled switch used for switching a power circuit, similar to a relay except with higher current ratings. HCLT Confidential
  18. 18. CONTACTOR A contactor is controlled by a circuit which has a much lower power level than the switched circuit Unlike a circuit breaker, a contactor is not intended to interrupt a short circuit current. A type of relay that can handle the high power required to directly control an electric motor is called a contactor. Contactors typically have multiple contacts, and those contacts are usually normally-open, so that power to the load is shut off when the coil is de-energized. The most common industrial use for contactors is the control of electric motors. HCLT Confidential
  19. 19. PUSH BUTTONS Actuating any function in the machine can be done by Push Buttons. HCLT Confidential
  20. 20. PUSH BUTTON It is a simple switch mechanism for controlling some aspect of a machine or a process. Buttons are typically made out of hard material, usually plastic or metal Pushbuttons are often color-coded to associate them with their function so that the operator will not push the wrong button in error. Commonly used colors are RED for stopping the machine or process and GREEN for starting the machine or process. Secured operations can be done by Key Switch. HCLT Confidential
  21. 21. EMO SwitchEmergency Machine Off. HCLT Confidential
  22. 22. EMO Switch HCLT Confidential
  23. 23. CONNECTORS & CRIMPSConnector is an Electro-Mechanical devicefor joining Electrical Circuits as an interfaceusing a mechanical assembly. HCLT Confidential
  24. 24. D-Sub CONNECTORS A D-sub contains two or more parallel rows of pins or sockets usually surrounded by a D-shaped metal shield that provides mechanical support . The part containing pin contacts is called the male connector or plug, while that containing socket contacts is called the female connector or socket . Click HCLT Confidential
  25. 25. D-Sub CONNECTORS Appln Communications Ports (RS-232 serial communications ) Network Ports. (Ethernet, network interface cards, ) Computer Video Port. (VGA Adapters) Game Controller Port. Click HCLT Confidential
  26. 26. CPC CONNECTORS Circular Plastic Connectors (CPC). Lightweight, all-plastic connectors and metal-shell versions available. CPC connectors are UL 94V-0 rated stabilized, heat resistant, self- extinguishing thermoplastic material . Operating temperature range: -55°C - 105°C Unique contact pattern for each position size helps prevent accidental mating with other position sizes Click HCLT Confidential
  27. 27. CABLES A device for connecting electrical devices together. HCLT Confidential
  28. 28. CABLESCable Basics Conductor is a material which contains movable electric charges. Of the metals commonly used for conductors, copper has a high conductivity. Silver is more conductive, but due to cost it is not practical in most cases. Aluminum has been used as a conductor in housing applications for cost reasons. Electrical Wires are either solid or stranded Conductors. "Solid Conductors" are exactly that, one solid Wire. "Stranded Conductors" consist of a Wire made of a number of smaller Wire strands wrapped around each other. The choice between solid or stranded depends on the need for flexibility in handling and working with the Wire. Smaller electrical Wire Sizes are generally made of solid Conductors; while Wires larger than Number 6 AWG are generally stranded. HCLT Confidential
  29. 29. CABLES Insulation separates conductors electrically and physically within a cable. The jacket physically protects the internal components of a cable, improves the cable’s appearance and provides flame redundancy. Protects from the environment Drain Wire Metallic conductor frequently used in contact with foil-type signal-cable shielding to provide a low-resistance ground return at any point along the shield. Twisted pair cabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors (the forward and return conductors of a single circuit) are twisted together for the purposes of canceling out electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external sources; for instance, electromagnetic radiation from unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables, and crosstalk between neighboring pairs.. HCLT Confidential
  30. 30. AMERICAN WIRE GAUGE(AWG)American wire gauge (AWG) is a standardized wire gauge system used predominantly in the United States and Canada for the diameters of round, solid, nonferrous, electrically conducting wire. The cross-sectional area of each gauge is an important factor for determining its current-carrying capacity HCLT Confidential
  31. 31. AWG TABLE HCLT Confidential
  32. 32. SHRINK TUBING Shrink tubing - is a sleeve ordinarily made of nylon or polyolefin, which shrinks in diameter when heated. HCLT Confidential
  33. 33. Heat Shrink Tubing Its diameter and thickness can vary. Heat shrink tubing is rated by its expansion ratio, a comparative of the differences in expansion and recovery rate. Heat shrink is used to insulate wires offering abrasion resistance and environmental protection for stranded and solid wire conductors, connections, joints and terminals in electrical engineering. To protect wires or small parts from minor abrasion, and to create cable entry seals. Common shrink ratio is 2:1, while high-grade polyolefin heat shrink is available in 3:1 Heat shrink tubing is available in a variety of colors to allow easier color coding of wires and connections Slide 33 HCLT Confidential
  34. 34. Heat Shrink Tubing HCLT Confidential
  35. 35. SHIELDING Shielding - Contains electrical energy so that the signal on the cable does not radiate and interfere with signals in other nearby cables and circuitry. HCLT Confidential
  36. 36. SHIELDING It is the process of reducing the electromagnetic field in a space by blocking the field with barriers made of conductive and/or magnetic materials . Shielding is typically applied 1) to enclosures to isolate electrical devices from the outside world and 2) to cables to isolate wires from the environment through which the cable runs The cable shielding and its termination must provide a low- impedance path to ground. . A shielded cable that is not grounded does not work effectively. Make sure the equipment that the cable is connected is properly grounded. HCLT Confidential
  37. 37. SHIELDING •Protects the signal from external interference. Shielding materials- Metallic foil Braid French braid™ Spiral (serve) Semi-conductive HCLT Confidential
  38. 38. GROUNDING Ground or Earth may be the reference point in an electrical circuit from which other voltages are measured HCLT Confidential
  39. 39. GROUNDING In mains powered equipment, exposed metal parts are connected to ground to prevent contact with a dangerous voltage if electrical insulation fails. An electrical ground system should have an appropriate current- carrying capability in order to serve as an adequate zero-voltage reference level. Signal Ground is a reference point from which that signal is measured. Chassis ground is the box or frame in which a circuit is built. HCLT Confidential
  40. 40. TERMINALS A device for joining electrical circuits together HCLT Confidential
  41. 41. TERMINALS A terminal is the point at which a conductor from an electrical component, device or network comes to an end and provides a point of connection to external circuits . A screw terminal is a type of electrical connector where a wire is clamped down to metal by a screw . HCLT Confidential
  42. 42. BusBar A device used for Making Multi- Connection HCLT Confidential
  43. 43. BusBar In electrical power distribution, a busbar is a thick strip of copper or aluminum that conducts electricity within a switchboard, distribution board, substation or other electrical apparatus. Busbars are used to carry very large currents, or to distribute current to multiple devices within switchgear or equipment. Busbars are typically either flat strips or hollow tubes as these shapes allow heat to dissipate more efficiently due to their high surface area to cross- sectional area ratio. HCLT Confidential
  44. 44. PD overview HCLT Confidential
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