Meta Case Study of Public Services Based Sub-district Organization Models _ Context of Indonesia (Haris Faozan 2011)

  • 400 views
Uploaded on

Sub-district is one of the organization peripheral area that has a crucial role in public services. Law number 32, year 2004, states that in addition from having attributive duties, sub-district is …

Sub-district is one of the organization peripheral area that has a crucial role in public services. Law number 32, year 2004, states that in addition from having attributive duties, sub-district is also devolved in delegated authorities. However, both main tasks can not be performed optimally. The policies concerned with sub-district organization indicates complicated issues, and the public services of the sub-district remain low-performed. This paper presents models of sub-district organization that anticipate the needs and priorities of public services. This research is a meta-applied case study. This study used research data about sub-district organizations in Indonesia. The analytical methodology was in-depth qualitative analysis based on the findings of the previous case studies.
This study resulted in important findings. The design of sub-district organizations remained to have low performance based on the dimensions of its organizational structure. This internal drawback led to poor public service delivery. Based on these findings, this study recommends three sub-district organization models. One of these models can be selected by local government to redesign its sub-district organization, in accordance with organizational capacity and public service demands and priorities.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
400
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
1

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. International Journal of Policy StudiesVol.2, No.1, 2011 Meta Case Study of Public Services Based Sub-District Organization Models: Context of Indonesia Haris Faozan The National Institute of Public Administration, Republic of Indonesia Abstract Sub-district is one of the organization peripheral area that has a crucial role in public services. Law number 32, year 2004, states that in addition from having attributive duties, sub-district is also devolved in delegated authorities. However, both main tasks can not be performed optimally.The policies concerned with sub-district organization indicates complicated issues, and the public services of the sub-district remain low-performed. This paper presents models of sub-district organization that anticipate the needs and priorities of public services. This research is a meta applied case study. This study used research data about sub-district organizations in Indonesia. The analytical methodology was in-depth qualitative analysis based on the findings of the previous case studies. This study resulted in important findings. The design of sub-district organizations remained to have low performance based on the dimensions of its organizational structure. This internal drawback led to poor public service delivery. Based on these findings, this study recommends three sub-district organization models. One of these models can be selected by local government to redesign its sub-district organization, in accordance with organizational capacity and public service demands and priorities. Key Words: sub-district, organization peripheral of area, local government, public services BACKGROUND & Tushman (1992, 1997), organization possesses various important aspects and as a whole it requires attention, and Nowadays, in the era of the autonomy, it is observable its alignment requires adequate strokes from all level ofthat the existence of organization peripheral of area management. For the local government, understandingindeed has become the concern of the central and applying total management of government is agovernment, but ironically its establishment rarely draws necessity. There are important pillars of the managementserious attention by the local government itself. The of local government that must be paid through attentionterminology of organization peripheral of area for the which is the understanding of bureaucratic organization,local government side generally remains to be perceived policy, and public services. These three pillars are a seriesmerely a shape. Therefore, in the effort of organizational of the management of local government where it showsredesign, it only goes as far as adding or reducing an interface and connectivity that are inter-related andposition boxes. Because of this, it is surprising if the very important for the existence and sustainability oforganization peripheral of area is not yet able to show organization peripheral of the area.optimum performance from the design or organizational In relation with the series of the management of localredesign that they develop. Meanwhile from the government above, it is important to look back to theperspective of the congruence model according to Nadler function of local government civil servants. The core
  • 2. 84 International Journal of Policy Studiesfunction of the existence of local government civil having attributive duties, sub-district is also devolved inservants is to provide protection for the society, deliver delegated authorities. The duties are general governmentalpublic services and implement development. The product duties that are attached to the sub-district, whereasoutputs of local government are goods and regulation for delegated duties are authorities that are devolved bythe benefit of the public (public interest). “Goods” here is regent/mayor to the head of sub-district. The issues thatdefined as materials or public facilities that are produced are often raised related with sub-district institution areby the government such as schools, hospitals, roads, and concerned with delegated duties. The sub-districtbridges; whereas in the regulation category products are perceives that they are still confined in getting thegenerally in a form of regulatory or regulations such as available devolved authorities. The delegated authoritiesbirth certificate, citizen ID card and building permit. that are devolved by regent/mayor to the head of sub- Public demands towards the services of local district are perceived to be not yet optimum according togovernment nowadays are increasingly high both in the needs of the society within the sub-district. Accordingterms of quality and quantity. This requires immediate to the research team of the center for civil service researchanticipation. In relation to the position of local and education and training III – the National Institute ofgovernment as an institution that obtains legitimacy from Public Administration (PKP2A III LAN 2007) there are atthe people to produce goods and regulations therefore least two obstacles that are encountered in devolvingbecomes very crucial for the local government along with authorities to the sub-district/village unit. First, theits organization peripheral of the area to meet their sub-district/village unit has been long accustomed todemands, that is, to deliver high quality services as a implement attributive authorities. That is authorities thatform of public accountability. One of the peripheral of the are attached when it is established. Because of sucharea that is perceived to have an important role in public custom, the work pattern of sub-district becomes rigid,services is sub-district. Apart from that the head of mechanistic and tends to be less dynamic. Second, thesub-district is the stimulator for society empowerment objective condition of sub-district can be said to be lessand stabilizer of the socio-political condition of their supportive to the policy of government authoritiesregion. Therefore, the existence of sub-district in the devolved to the sub-district. This is based on the qualitymanagement of state government possesses very and quantity of the civil service that are not adequate,important meaning in the improvement of the public limited work facilities, and inadequate fund resources.service quality that becomes the main mission of the Such condition is a real fact that needs to be strengthenedmanagement of the state government. prior to the realization of authorities delegation. Nevertheless, in the last two years, the issue of From the other perspective, Sadu Wasistiono (2009)abolishing sub-districts from the regional governance in sees that basically sub-district possessed important roleIndonesia was heated. It started from the perception that the in public services, so that the sub-district organizationsub-districts in Indonesia are performing far from the should be designed as an organization of service providerexpectations, and the fact that they spend a big proportion in the framework of optimizing its existence. Theof their budget. This is, of course, unfair since the majority research findings of Anwar Sanusi (2010) showed thatof the organizations of the peripheral of the area and even there are several strategies that can be done in increasingthe central government institutions are generally not yet the effectiveness of sub-district institution, amongstable to perform optimally. If the sub-districts are abolished, others, are the presence of grand design that clearlyso are most government institutions. Abolishing directs the sub-district restructuring in the future andsub-districts do not solve the problems but, in fact, it there is a clarity in regulating devolution of authoritiescreates a bigger new problem considering that there are from regent/mayor to the sub-district and othermore than 6,000 sub-districts all over Indonesia. It is, organization peripheral of the area, and the relationtherefore, important to find the solution of the problems pattern between the two.rather than abolishing the organization itself. The glimpse of the above elaboration gives some The important role of sub-district in public services can pictures that basically shows sub-district organization orbe studied in law number 32, year 2004. Besides from institution is not yet able to optimize its role and
  • 3. Meta Case Study of Public Services Based Sub-District Organization Models: Context of Indonesia 85existence, so it requires redesigning in order to be able to optimally to the life of society. The main function ofprovide public services optimally based on the mandated government institution is essentially to deliver services totasks and functions. the society. The government organization in a norm In principle, the organizational issue of sub-districts system is formed in the effort to meet societies demand.that triggers low performing is quite fundamental. In fact, But if you look at the folk ways and mores, governmentthis is due to inappropriate organizational structures of institution is a structured process in the establishment asthe sub-districts that are stipulated by their mandated well as management. Based on that sub-district as part oftasks (either structure too big but less functional or organization peripheral of the area can be perceived asotherwise be the case). The absence of clear criteria in norms and regulation system within it there is adetermining the size of the organization of sub-district structured process in the management of government inwill impact on the amount of budget required. No clear order to achieve the objective, i.e., to fulfill the needs ofdefinitions of the attributive and delegated tasks of the the society.sub-district will significantly impact on low performing The clear division of task is badly needed in sub-head of sub-district particularly and the sub-district district organization. With this clear task division, whoorganization generally. Therefore, the size and the does the job and who is responsible and who to report tostructure of sub-district must be based on clear criteria will be clear. Apart from that this clear division of taskand clear definitions of attributive and delegated tasks of will simplify the coordination mechanism both verticallythe head of sub-district. By considering the two and horizontally. The main issue in sub-districtarguments above, part of the fundamental issues of organization particularly and organization peripheral ofsub-district organization can be minimized; subsequently the area generally, is the lack of clarity in task division. Ifthe performance of the head of sub-district can this is the case, the possibility to coordinate, integrate andperiodically be improved. This must immediately be synchronize is hard to be achieved optimally.anticipated considering the important roles of sub-district Another character of bureaucracy that remainsorganization in providing public services in Indonesia. necessary is promotion based on competency. Since the Based on the above elaboration, this research is early development of bureaucracy model by Weber, thisimportant in the framework of providing a way out to the character is already attached to and it is indispensable.problems encountered by the sub-district organizationsthat are concerned with increasing demands on the Therefore, competency becomes an absolute requirementquality of public services. This solution is smarter than for each member of sub-district organization that willabolishing the sub-district organization. seat in certain position. However, the problem is that competency requirement and job achievement are oftenPurpose and Research Question neglected. This is highly risky for the existence of sub-district organization particularly for organization This research aims at obtaining organizational model peripheral of the area generally in the future.of sub-district that enables the realization of public There are relatively many portraits that describe theservice quality of sub-district. Based on the purpose, the organization peripheral of the area that are not yet able toresearch question raised is “how the development model give concrete contribution to public empowermentof sub-district organization enables to boost optimum widely. This requires a solution so that the organizationperformance of the sub-district as the representation of peripheral of the area can better serve the local. To realizesub-district public services?” this, it requires strong collected commitment from the whole lines of government peripheral of area. This accumulative commitment will become a valuable LITERATURE REVIEW resource to achieve the expected goals. In the management perspective, modern bureaucracy Government organization in a state administration that is required at present is the compact bureaucracy, i.e.,system is a public organization that is formed by the in terms of physical organization, it is relatively slim andgovernment based on rules of law in order to function dense (compact), but its qualitative capacity is big, or
  • 4. 86 International Journal of Policy Studiesknown as slim structure but rich functions (Faozan and If it is related with the authorities of the head of sub-Mansoer 2008). Looking at the composition of the district, the organizational structure, and the tasks andsub-district organization in particular and the functions of the sub-district, the elaboration aboveorganization peripheral of the area in general, it can be becomes increasingly interesting and important to beobserved that the designed structure has not yet referred further discussed. The authorities of the head of sub-to adequate research findings. It is, therefore, district based on Law Number 32, year 2004 regardingunderstandable if the designed structure of the Regional Government are not only concerned withorganization peripheral of the area is labeled as merely delegated authorities, but also the attributive ones. Inbuilt by common sense. article 126 paragraph (2) it stipulates that a sub-district is The following elaboration attempts to elaborate several led by the head of sub-district that during their term oflimitations of the bureaucratic structure in the office receives devolution of some authorities of theorganization peripheral of the area based on the structural regent/mayor to deal with certain affairs of the localdimensions (Faozan 2005, 2007). In the complexity autonomy. As for the attributive authorities of the head ofdimension, vertical and horizontal differentiation sub-district, it can be found in paragraph (3) thatcomplexity needs to be adjusted with development of stipulates a head of sub-district implements generalstrategic issues. In relation to that, the hierarchy that is governmental tasks.designed between one service unit with the others is not In year 2008 the government issued the Governmentnecessarily the same. Also is the case with the number of Regulation Number 19, year 2008 regarding Sub-echelons II, III, and IV (Director level, Manager level, District, which regulates detailed tasks and authorities ofSupervisor Level). Their presence heavily depends upon the head of sub-district, both of attributive andthe strategic issues that they have to deal with. delegative. In relation to the implementation of the In the formalization dimension, the formalization of attributive tasks, the head of sub-district conducts thethe harmonization of regulation, policy, procedure and following general governmental tasks:others is rigidly designed so that it makes it hard to givecreative response towards most recent challenges. 1. coordinating society empowerment activities;Looking at the progressive environmental changes, it is 2. coordinating efforts to create peace and order;necessary to give some freedom to the widespread 3. coordinating compliance and enforcement of rulesservice units to respond to the encountered challenges by of laws;still sticking to the objectives and targets of its parent 4. coordinating maintenance of public infrastructuresinstitution. This also impacts positively for the middle and facilities;and lower managers, functional (professional) officials 5. coordinating the management of governmentaland even for the staff to have the courage to take the risks activities at sub-district level;to the challenges ahead of them. 6. fostering the management of village government In the centralization dimension, the authorities of the and/or village unit; andbureaucratic structure are on the top management. The 7. delivering public services to the society withintradition of centralized decision-making and authorities their scope of duties and/or that of unable to bethat has been deeply rooted in the organization peripheral delivered by the village government or villageof the area brings about negative impacts to the unit.subordinate level in making decisions. The authoritiesand decision-making should be decentralized Regarding the delegated duties, the Governmentproportionally, both in the context of the organization Regulation Number 19, year 2008 also stipulates that theperipheral of the area, organizational unit, as well as head of sub-district implements governmental authoritiesservice unit. With clear and comprehensive framework, devolved by regent/mayor to deal with certain affairs ofdecentralization of authorities will run in line with the local autonomy as follows:scenario. With this adjustment, the widespread units will 1. permit;feel more challenging in performing optimally. 2. recommendation;
  • 5. Meta Case Study of Public Services Based Sub-District Organization Models: Context of Indonesia 87 3. coordination; components of their organization adequately. In relation 4. fostering; to that, the congruence model offered by Nadler & 5. supervision; Tushman (1992, 1997) can be used as a reference. The 6. facilitation; foundation of the congruence model is, in fact, an open 7. decision; system where the sub-systems of the organization are 8. management; and influenced by external environment. The organizational 9. other devolved authorities sub-system as a system consists of: inputs into the system that covers environment, organizational resources, and A sub-district organization is led by the head of history; transformation process or business strategy; andsub-district. In implementing their duties, the head of output that covers organizational activity pattern,sub-district is assisted by civil servants of the sub-district, behavior and performance.and is responsible to regent/mayor through secretary of In the congruence model, input includes elementsregency/city. The composition of the sub-district related with quality that is needed by an organization,organization consists of head of sub-district, secretary to including materials with which the organization shouldthe head of sub-district, and maximum five sections, and work with. There are several types of contextual factorsfunctional (professional) positions. Secretariat leads where each shows a unit of specific matters for themaximum three sub-divisions. They are government organization, namely environment, organization’sreforms section, society empowerment and village unit resources, and organization’s history. After the threesection, and public peace and order section. contextual factors are analysed, the strategy is then As the organization peripheral of regency/city area, the decided, namely decisions on allocating limitedrelationship between head of sub-district and regent/ resources to anticipate limitations and opportunitiesmayor is hierarchical. This can be seen in Article 14 caused by environment both long-term decision andparagraph (2) of the Government Regulation Number 19, shorter-term objective and tactics (supporting strategies).year 2008 that stipulates the head of sub-district is under With decent strategy and targets that are internallyand responsible to regent/mayor through the coordination consistent, the challenge of the management is toof regional secretary. In the mean time the relationship of increase organizational intensity to achieve the strategicthe head of sub-district with the regional service units, targets. Therefore the strategy determines form, quality,regional technical units, and available vertical institution and character of work, and critical organizational output.within the sub-district is functionally technical The transformation mechanism in the context ofcoordination. Whereas the relationship between the head congruence model is organizational operation thatof sub-district and village government is coordinative comprises of four organizational components, namely:and facilitative, the relationship between the head of the work, the people who perform the work, the formalsub-district and the head of village unit is coordinative. arrangements that provide structure and direction to theirThis is because the delegated authorities implemented by work, and the informal arrangements that reflect theirthe head of village unit comes from regent/mayor, thus values, beliefs, and patterns of behavior. Thethe head of village unit is also responsible to regent/ organizational operation as “heart of the congruencemayor through the coordination of the head of sub- model” stated by Nadler (1997) uses their businessdistrict. strategy to produce outputs, all things related with Looking at the bureaucratic organizational structure environmental context, resources and organizationalwithin the sub-district organization in particular, and the history. Nadler confirms that an effective organization isorganization peripheral of the area in general, the characterized by as how well the organizationalexistence of the former needs to be modified in line with components are all integrated. The main issue for thethe latest condition to enable the sub-district to improve managers involved in organizational design is how totheir service performance significantly (Faozan 2005). In find the best way to form organizational components tothe efforts to optimize the sub-district performance, the be able to produce expected output in line with strategiclocal government must be able to manage all important objective. It is, therefore, very improtant to understand
  • 6. 88 International Journal of Policy Studieseach organizational component and their relationship determined by the policy of the regent. This implies thatwith one another. the devolution of the regent’s authorities can be different between one regency and the others. In the model context developed here, the devolution of part of the regent’s METHODOLOGY authorities to the head of sub-district is perceived as prioritized types of public services in the sub-district. The The method used in this study is Meta applied case assumption is that the devolution of part of the regent’sstudy, that is, applied research based on case studies that authorities to the head of sub-district has considered twohad been conducted previously on sub-districts in fundamental matters, namely services that are requiredIndonesia. The Meta case study is conducted in the by the society within the sub-district, and services thatframework of optimizing valuable existing data that were are considered important due to the current demands.obtained from the fields by the previous researchers. It is Those two things in this study is called “sub-districtused as an improved methodology where generally the prioritized public services”. Prioritized Services (PS) areanalysis of the sub-district case cannot be done sharply, a number of sub-district services determined based on theso that it cannot provide adequate recommendations. In delegated services by the regent to the head ofthis context, the approach of the methodology sub-district and the services that are required by theemphasizes on qualitative analysis using both society within the sub-district.quantitative and qualitative data. The qualitative analysis Although the priority of the sub-district public servicesanalyses the existing data more comprehensively. serves as an important factor to be considered, that doesThrough this Meta case study, the chance of giving not mean that it becomes the main factor. Another thingexpected policy recommendations on sub-district to be considered is related with the object and theorganization model is bigger. accessibility of services. The former is sub-district In relation to that, the data that are collected, workloads based on the number of population in theprocessed, and analyzed in this study are extracted from sub-district and the number of village/village unit. Thethe findings of the case studies concerned with latter is public accessibility in obtaining services basedsub-districts, particularly the data about sub-districts on the farthest village to regency/city and sub-district,public services and components of sub-district availability of transportation facilities, time to reach itorganizations. Both data are then classified into four and cost required by the society. The object andtypology areas, namely mountainous, beach, island and accessibility of services in this study is calledregency/city border areas. Sub-districts in the “complexity of sub-district public services”. It is thismountainous area are represented by Lubuk Basung Complexity and Priority of Sub-District Publik Servicessub-district and Ampek Angkek sub-district (Agam (CPSDPS) that will determine the model of theregency, West Sumatera Province). Sub-districts in the sub-district organization. Thus the model of sub-districtbeach area are represented by Bantul and Kretek organization developed in this study is “organization-sub-districts (Bantul regency, Special Province of based public service priority and complexity”. TheYogyakarta). Sub-districts in island area are represented quantitative analysis concerning the complexity andby Tanjung Pandan and Selat Nasik sub-districts priorities of public services within a sub-district refers to(Belitung regency, Bangka Belitung Province). Sub- the research findings of Sub-district Institutionaldistricts in border area of regency/city are represented by Development (Safitri et al. 2010), which was laterLabuapi and Gunungsari sub-districts (West Lombok analyzed sharply to determine the size model and theregency, West Nusa Tenggara Province). The data is then organizational structure of sub-district.analysed to answer the research question raised to be Next, the components of the sub-district organizationfurther used as the solution for the formulated issue. are categorized into four main organizational In this study the attributive duties of the head of components, namely tasks and functions, organizationalsub-district is confirmed as obligatory duties that must be structure, civil service apparatus, and business process.done by them, whereas their delegative duties are The classification of organizational components in this
  • 7. Meta Case Study of Public Services Based Sub-District Organization Models: Context of Indonesia 89study adapted 4 organizational components in FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONScongruence model offered by Nadler (1997). Certainadaptation of the organizational components as written in Basically the complexity and priority of sub-districtcongruence model is made to simplify the process in public services in each territorial typology (mountains,analyzing the following indicators of each component beaches, islands, and regent/city borders) indicatessharply: variety. In fact, the variety also takes place in the sub-districts within the same territorial typology. In 1) Main tasks and functions component is analyzed relation with the first statement, this gives a signal that based on consistency level of the tasks and the local policies between one territorial typology and the functions that are stipulated in the prevailing rules others show varieties. As for the second statement, this and regulations, as to whether both have shows that they use different strategies in implementing accommodated all aspects concerned with the their duties within one territorial typology. policy and have been proportionally distributed to This study found that the head of sub-district in the the available positions. mountainuous area (Ampek Angkek and Lubuk Basung 2) The organizational structure is analyzed based on sub-districts) conducts attributive and delegative duties the complexity and centralization dimensions. The simultaneously. In the Regional Regulation of Agam formulation of the organizational structure must fit Regency Number 5, year 2008 regarding Establishment in with the organizational needs and environmental of Organization and Work Procedures of a Sub-District demands, and decision-making should be stipulates that head of sub-district has main duties to implement authorities of local government devolved by decentralized until the lowest layer. regent to deal with part of local autonomy affairs. To 3) Government apparatus in this study are divided implement the main tasks, the head of sub-district has the into two, namely civil service apparatus, and tools/ following functions: facilities that support the jobs. The analysis towards the civil service apparatus is emphasized 1) coordinating society empowerment activities; on the appropriate quantity and quality of its 2) coordinating efforts to create peace and order; human resources with organizational needs. 3) coordinating compliance and enforcement of rules Whereas the analysis towards the tools and of laws; facilities that support the jobs emphasizes on their 4) coordinating maintenance of public infrastructures availability in performing an activity. and facilities; 4) As for the business process, it is emphasized on the 5) coordinating the management of governmental availability or the absence of work system and activities at sub-district level; procedure to support the implementation of 6) fostering the management of village government organizational tasks. and/or village unit; 7) coordinating the activities of Technical Service The analysis construction in this study starts with gap Units/Government Institutionanalysis between complexity and priority of sub-district 8) delivering public services to the society withinpublic services and the availability of public services their scope of duties and/or that of unable to bedelivered by the sub-district. This gap analysis is useful delivered by the village government or villageto identify the size of the established sub-district unit; andorganization. Next step is to analyze alignment between 9) conducting other duties assigned by their superior(s)the four components of sub-district organization thatinclude tasks and functions of the head of sub-district, If their main tasks and functions are compared with thatorganizational structure, civil service apparatus, and of the results of identified required public services in thebusiness process of sub-district. This analysis is required sub-district and current demands within Ampek Angkekto describe the alignment among the components within sub-district (covers 11 administrative services and 5the sub-district organization. non-administrative services) and Lubuk Basung (covers 9
  • 8. 90 International Journal of Policy Studiesadministrative services and 5 non-administrative services), surprising because it was normal that it happened. Theit is understandable that the tasks and functions of the crucial matter that deserved to be paid attention to bysub-districts have not yet been able to accommodate all the Agam regency government was the need to pay moredemands. serious attention to civil service apparatus and However, in this case, the heads of sub-district in the formulation of main tasks and functions of the sub-mountanuous area (Ampek Angkek and Lubuk Basung district.sub-districts) have implemented attributive and delegative This study also found that the heads of sub-district induties simultaneously in a relatively bigger portion that the beach area (Bantul and Kretek sub-districts)includes 19 authorities, amongst others, are: workshop/ performed their attributive and delegative dutiesgarage permit, trade industry permit, letter of poverty, simultaneously. This was relatively similar with that ofrecommendation for building mosque assistance, permit to the mountaneous sub-districts. Regional Governmententer and exit livestock, research recommendation Number 18 Year 2007 regarding Establishment of Sub-(particularly for personal interest, unpublished and located District Organization within Bantul Regency stipulatedin the concerned sub-district), and private vocational that the duties of the head of sub-district were as follows:course permit. By looking at the devolution of authorities, Ampek 1) Implementation of general governmental affairsAngkek and Lubuk Basung sub-districts could be included the following:predicted to have high complexity and priority of a. coordinating society empowerment activities;sub-district public services. Nevertheless, the level of b. coordinating efforts to create peace and order;complexity and priority of sub-district public services are c. coordinating compliance and enforcement ofmaybe different, this is because each sub-district has rules of laws;different potencials. In this case Ampek Angkek d. coordinating maintenance of public infrastructuressub-district has greater potentials as compared with that and facilities;of Lubuk Basung sub-district. With the greater e. coordinating the management of governmentalcomplexity and priority of public services in the two activities at sub-district level;sub-districts, it could be understood why the size of their f. fostering the management of village governmentorganizations were established with maximum pattern and/or village unit;with the following structures: g. delivering public services to the society within their scope of duties and/or that of unable to be 1) Head of Sub-District delivered by the village government or village 2) Secretary: unit; and a. General Affairs and Personnel Sub-Division h. conducting other duties assigned by their b. Finance Sub-Division superior(s) c. Planning and Reporting Sub-Division 2) Implementation of governmental authorities devolved 3) Sections: by Regent to deal with part of local autonomy affairs; a. Government 3) Implementation of other duties assigned by Regent b. Peace and Order in accordance with their tasks and functions. c. General and Revenue Services d. Economy and Development The difference between the two previous sub-districts e. Welfare was that Bantul and Kretek sub-districts had not received the authorities as great as Ampek Angkek and Lubuk If it is related with the results of analysis calculation, Basung sub-districts. The devolution of the authorities ofthe components of the sub-district organization achieved the regent to the head of sub-district only covered ID cardaverage scores of approximately 77% (with sufficient/ services, family card services, and recommendations forconsistent category) for Ampek Angkek and Lubuk various permits applications in regency permit serviceBasung sub-districts (Safitri et al. 2010). This was not unit. Whereas the needs of the society in public services
  • 9. Meta Case Study of Public Services Based Sub-District Organization Models: Context of Indonesia 91and current demands in Bantul and Kretek sub-districts, or not there was the delegative tasks of the head ofeach covered 7 administrative services and 5 non- sub-district” it should be based on the prevailing policiesadministrative services. The policy of devolution of and/or in harmony with the higher policies above it. Itauthorities needed to be reviewed to adjust or to other words, the delivery of public services –related withaccommodate the needs of the society. the devolution of authorities from regent o the head of If compared between the public services delivered by sub-district – that was not based on written policy wasthe sub-districts and the needs of the society and the considered incorrect.current demands, it could obviously find out that there Although the typology of the areas was different, thewere very wide gaps. This condition triggered more tasks of the heads of sub-districts of Tanjung Pandan andunaccommodated needs of the public services in the Selat Nasik (Belitung regency-island area), Labuapi andsub-districts. In fact, we knew that the existence of sub- Gunungsari (West Lombok regency-regency/city borderdistrict served as the frontline of the local government area) almost showed similarity (see Table 1).services. Therefore, this policy was not consistent with Based on the identificiation of the needs of the societythe spirit of the local autonomy itself. towards public services and current demands, actually Although the devolution of authorities by the regent to there were relatively many public services that should bethe head of the sub-districts was not significant, the size provided by the sub-district. The data showed that theand structure of their organizations were relatively big as society’s needs towards public services and currentfollows: demands in Tanjung Pandan sub-district covered 18 administrative services and 5 non-administrative 1) Head of Sub-District services, and Selat Nasik sub-district covered 11 2) Secretary: administrative services and 7 non-administrative a. General Affairs Sub-Division services, whereas in Labuapi and Gunungsari sub- b. Program and Finance Sub-Division districts, each covered 7 administrative services and 5 c. Planning and Reporting Sub-Division non-administrative services. The data underlined that the 3) Sections: sub-districts in island area (Tanjung Pandan and Selat a. Government Order Nasik sub-districts) and the sub-districts in regency/city b. Peace and Order borders area (Labuapi and Gunungsari sub-districts) c. Services actually had great potentials to be able to provide public d. Economy, Development and Living Environment services more maximumly. e. Society If the society’s needs and the current demands were compared with public services delivered in the sub- Based on that, it could be predicted that the decision of districts, it could be clearly seen here that there werethe size and structure of the sub-district organization in amazingly big gaps, and this was a fatal mistake. SuchBantul regency were not yet based on sufficient research. condition closed the opportunity of the sub-districts to beThis was strengthened by the calculation analysis of the able to provide public services optimally. If it was furthercomponents of the sub-district organization that showed observed, this condition showed non-compliance of theinsufficient or inconsistent category with the average local government towards the prevailing rules of law.scores of 75% for Bantul sub-district and 65% for Kretek Although the heads of sub-district only implementedsub-districts (Safitri et al. 2010). attributive tasks, the size and structure of sub-district Other findings of this study was that the head of organization in 2 typologies of area were decided withsub-district in island area (Tanjung Pandan and Selat maximum pattern (see Table 2). Looking at it, it could beNasik sub-districts) and the head of sub-district in ensured that the decision for the size and organizationregency/city border areas (Labuapi and Gunungsari sub- structure of sub-districts in Belitung and Lombok Baratdistricts) only implemented attributive duties, whereas regency were not based on sufficient research. This wasthe delegative duties were not devolved to the heads of strengthened by the calculation results analysis of thesub-districts. In this study it was confirmed that “whether components of the sub-district organizations that showed
  • 10. 92 International Journal of Policy StudiesTable 1. Duties of Head of Sub-district in Belitung and West Lombok Regency Duties of Head of Sub-district in Belitung Regency Duties of Head of Sub-district in West Lombok RegencyThe head of sub-district has main duties to implement the The head of sub-district has main duties to implement thegovernmental authorities devolved by regent to deal with part of governmental authorities devolved by regent to deal with part oflocal autonomy affairs. To perform their main duties, they had local autonomy affairs. To perform their main duties, they hadthe following functions: the following functions:1. coordinating society empowerment activities; 1. coordinating society empowerment activities;2. coordinating efforts to create peace and order; 2. coordinating efforts to create peace and order;3. coordinating compliance and enforcement of rules of laws; 3. coordinating compliance and enforcement of rules of laws;4. coordinating maintenance of public infrastructures and facilities; 4. coordinating maintenance of public infrastructures and facilities;5. coordinating the management of governmental activities at 5. coordinating the management of governmental activities at sub-district level; sub-district level;6. fostering the management of village government and/or 6. fostering the management of village government and/or village unit; and village unit; and7. delivering public services to the society within their scope of 7. delivering public services to the society within their scope of duties and/or that of unable to be delivered by the village duties and/or that of unable to be delivered by the village government or village unit. government or village unit.8. Implementing governmental authorities that were devolved by 8. Implementing governmental authorities that were devolved by regent to deal with part of local autonomy affairs that regent to deal with part of local autonomy affairs that covered permit aspect, recommendations, coordination, covered permit aspect, recommendations, coordination, fostering, supervision, facilities, decision, management and fostering, supervision, facilities, decision, management and other devolved authorities. other devolved authorities.Source: Local Government Regulation of Belitung Regency Source: Local Government Regulation of West Lombok RegencyNumber 22 Year 2007 regarding Organization and Work Number 8 Year 2009 regarding the Amendment upon LocalProcedures of Sub-District and Village Unit Government Regulation of West Lombok Regency Number 9 Year 2008 regarding Establishment of Structure of Organization Peripheral of Areainsufficient or inconsistent category in 4 (four) public services, the development of business process wassub-districts in the 2 (two) regencies (Safitri et al. 2010). oriented or emphasized on public service delivery that The development of the sub-district organizations, in was increasingly better quality at the sub-district level. Inprinciple, was an integration between the attached duties relation to that the development of business process inand/or obligatory duties that had to be done by the head such context was a new approach or innovation that hadof sub-district or the sub-district, the organizational to be developed in the framework of realizing publicstructure of the sub-district was perceived in order to services at the sub-district level that were increasinglyimplement those duties, business process was perceived better quality. Considering the existence of the sub-for the organizational structure to achieve their tasks, and district organization –as organization peripheral of theavailability of adequate civil service apparatus for the area – decided by local regulation, in this case it wasrealization of the organizational objectives of the necessary to have an umbrella policy that enabled theconcerned sub-districts. manifestation of sub-district capacity that was able and The existence of sub-district institution initially had to competent in delivering public services of the concernedbe oriented to the work that had to be done. Next, such sub-district.work had to be closely looked into to be later decided on Civil service apparatus that covered civil servants andthe organizational structure that was considered right in other resources were needed in the framework ofimplementing the work optimally. Because the overall fulfilling tasks and functions that were mandated by theduties of the head of sub-district covered attributive and head of sub-district, which in the implementation theydelegative duties, the size and the institutional design of were types of public services. In relation to the civilthe sub-district had to be able to accommodate all their servants, sub-district required the qualifications that wasduties. in line with the orientation or emphasis of the prioritized Because the institutional development of the sub- public services. As for the number of civil servants thatdistrict was based on the complexity and priority of were required in delivering the prioritized public
  • 11. Meta Case Study of Public Services Based Sub-District Organization Models: Context of Indonesia 93Table 2. Size and Structure of Sub-District Organization in Belitung and Lombok Barat Sub-Districts Duties of the Head of Belitung Sub-District Duties of the Head of Lombok Barat Sub-District1. Head of Sub-District 1. Head of Sub-District2. Secretary: 2. Secretary: a. Planning and Reporting Sub-Division a. Program Sub-Division b. Finance Sub-Division b. Finance Sub-Division c. General Affairs and Personnel Sub-Division c. General Affairs and Personnel Sub-Division3. Sections: 3. Sections: a. Government a. Government b. Peace and Order b. Peace and Order c. Economy and Development c. Society’s empowerment d. Society’s Welfare d. Public Services e. Society’s empowermentSource: Local Government Regulation of Belitung Regency Source: Local Government Regulation of West Lombok RegencyNumber 22 Year 2007 regarding Organization and Work Number 8 Year 2009 regarding the Amendment upon LocalProcedures of Sub-District and Village Unit Government Regulation of West Lombok Regency Number 9 Year 2008 regarding Establishment of Structure of Organization Peripheral of Areaservices, they had to be refered to the available workload complexity). The model remained limited to the mainanalysis study. tasks and functions as well as the number of structures Apart from the civil servants, the availability of required in the sub-district, whereas for work relationsinfrastructures and facilities also needed to be paid more with other units they were in a form of generalsensistive attention to policy makers. This was because it description and had to be adjusted with geographicalwould be very difficult to deliver better quality public conditions and the civil service apparatus, supportingservices without the support of adequate infrastructures materials and facilities, and budget allocated for theand facilities. sub-district. The institutional model of sub-district that was developed in this study was illustrated in the organigram of the sub-district. CONCLUSION This study concluded that the head of sub-district held RECOMMENDATIONa very important role in the management of government.Sub-district was organization peripheral of the the area This study recommended three models for sub-districtand concomitantly the frontline for the government organization, namely Large Size Sub-Districtservices to the society. In this context the head of sub- Organization Model, Middle Size Sub-Districtdistrict was the liason between society and government in Organization Model, and Small Size Sub-Districtterms of government policy dissemination to the socity Organization Model. These three models could beand in terms of submitting the society’s aspirations to the described briefly as follows:government. The model that was developed perceived that 1. Large Size Sub-District Organization Model: andevolution of part of the regent’s/mayor’s authorities to organizational structure with the biggestthe head of sub-district was the types of prioritized public organization size because the mandated main tasksservices at sub-district level. Apart from that this model and functions were perceived complex (apart fromalso looked at the complexity of public services as one of attributive duties attached, delegative dutiesthe aspects that must be paid attention to so that the devolved were in big proportions). The structure ofinstitutional model of sub district that was developed the sub-district included: Head of Sub-District,“based on complexity and priority of sub-district public Secretariat supervising 3 Sub-Divisions, and 5services” (organization-based public service priority and Sections as the core units in the sub-district, and a
  • 12. 94 International Journal of Policy Studies Figure 1. Large Size Sub-District Organization Model group of functional (professional) positions. 2. Middle Size Sub-District Organization Model: The 1. Large Size Sub-District Organization Model: organizational structure with medium Organizational Structure of Sub-District with High organizational size in line with the main tasks and Complexity and Priority of Public Service Duties functions that generally implemented attributive (see figure 1) duties augmented by delegative duties in relatively big portion. The organizational structure of the Main Tasks and Functions of Head of Sub-District sub-disrict included: Head of Sub-district, The main tasks of Head of Sub-District are to Secretariat supervising 2 Sub-Divisions, and 4 implement attributive tasks or general governmental Sections as the core unit of the sub-district, and a tasks in accordance with the prevailing rules of laws, and group of functional (professional) positions. performing delegative tasks devolution of part of Regent/ 3. Small Size Sub-District Organization Model: The Mayor authorities in local autonomy affairs. (In this organizational structure with small organizational model context, the proportion of delegative tasks size. This reflected that the main tasks and includes most or almost all division affairs). In the functions of the sub-district tended to implement framework of achieving those tasks, the head of attributive duties of the head of sub-district, sub-district conducts the following functions, namely: whereas the proportion of delegative tasks were relatively small, thus they were seen adequate to 1) Secretariat (covering coordination functions and be accommodated in one section. The internal services) organizational structure of the sub-district 2) Government Order (covering governmental service included: Head of Sub-District, Secretariat functions) supervising 2 Sub-Divisions, and 3 Sections as the 3) Peace, order, and society empowerment (covering core units of the sub-district, and the group of public service functions, utility services, food, functional (professional) positions. clothing, and housing services)
  • 13. Meta Case Study of Public Services Based Sub-District Organization Models: Context of Indonesia 95 Figure 2. Middle Size Sub-District Organization Model 4) Education and health (covering such functions as division affairs). In the framework of achieving those development services, public services, and utility tasks, the head of sub-district conducts the following services) functions, namely: 5) Economy (covering such functions as governmental services, public services, and utility services) 1) Secretariat (covering coordination functions and 6) Development (covering such functions as internal services) development services, public services, utility 2) Government Order (covering governmental service services, and food, clothing and housing services) functions) 3) Peace, order, and society empowerment (covering2. Middle Size Sub-District Organization Model: The public service functions, utility services, food, Organizational Structure of Sub-District with Medium clothing, and housing services) complexity and Priority of Public Services Tasks (see 4) Education and health (covering such functions as Figure 2) development services, public services, and utility services) Main Tasks and Functions of Head of Sub-District 5) Economy and Development (covering such functions The main tasks of Head of Sub-District are to as governmental services, development services,implement attributive tasks or general governmental public services, utility services, and food, clothingtasks in accordance with the prevailing rules of laws, and and housing services)performing delegative tasks, devolution of part ofRegent/Mayor authorities in local autonomy affairs. (In 3. Small Size Sub-District Organization Model: Thethis model context, the proportion of delegative tasks Organizational Structure with Low Complexity andincludes medium or only covering part of available Priority (see Figure 3)
  • 14. 96 International Journal of Policy Studies Figure 3. Small Size Sub-District Organization Model public services, and utility services) Main Tasks and Functions of Head of Sub-District The main tasks of Head of Sub-District are to Each sub-district in Indonesia can decide theimplement attributive tasks or general governmental alternative model offered in accordance with thetasks in accordance with the prevailing rules of laws, and complexity and priority of public service within theirperforming delegative tasks, devolution of part of respective sub-districts.Regent/Mayor authorities in local autonomy affairs. (In In relation to the above mentioned issues, the size of thethis model context, the proportion of delegative tasks sub-district organization in a regency or city does not haveincludes few or only covers some available division to be the same. This will be adjusted with –one of them –affairs). In the framework of achieving those tasks, the devolution of part of Regent/Mayor authorities to the headhead of sub-district conducts the following functions, of sub-district. Part of the Regent/Mayor authoritiesnamely: devolved to the head of district in this study is called prioritized public services (with the assumption that the 1) Secretariat (covering coordination functions and devolution of part of public services [administrative or non internal services) administrative] that are considered prioritized to be 2) Government Order (covering governmental delivered by the sub-district). Therefore it can be affirmed service functions) here that the prioritized public services in the sub-district 3) Peace, order, and society empowerment (covering serve as one of the determinant main factors in the public service functions, utility services, food, organizational design of a sub-district to be developed. clothing, and housing services) 4) Education, health, economy, and development (covering such functions as development services,
  • 15. Meta Case Study of Public Services Based Sub-District Organization Models: Context of Indonesia 97 REFERENCES Centre for Institutional Performance Studies - The National Institute of Public Administration. (inFaozan, Haris, and Muzani M. Mansoer. 2008. Local Indonesian language) Government Organization. In Management of Local Wasistiono, Sadu, Ismail Nurdin, and M. Fahrurozi. 2009. Government. Edited by Adi Suryanto. Jakarta: The Milestones of Sub-District Organization from Time to Centre for Performance Evaluation of Local Autonomy Time. Bandung: Penerbit Fokusmedia. (in Indonesian – National Institute of Public Administration. (in language) Indonesian language)Faozan, Haris. 2005. Perestroika of Bureaucratic Structure: Rules of Laws: Renewing Space for the Growth of Government Law Number 32 Year 2004 regarding Regional Government Institution Performance. Journal of Administrative Science Vol 2 (4):335-46. (in Indonesian language) Government Regulation Number 19 Year 2008 regarding Sub-DistrictFaozan, Haris. 2007. Responding Institutional Issue of Cooperation Between Regions in the Midst of Global Local Regulation of Agam Regency Number 5 Year 2008 Strategic Collaboration Jump: An Initial Prognosa. regarding Organizational Establishment and Sub- istrict Journal of Administrative Science Vol. 4 (1): 1-15. (in Work Procedures Indonesian language) Local Regulation of Bantul Regency Number 18 YearNadler, David A., Marc. S. Gerstein, Robert B. Shaw, and 2007 regarding Organizational Establishment of Sub- Associates. 1992. Organizational Architecture: Designs istrict in Bantul Regency for Changing Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Local Regulation of Belitung Regency Number 22 YearNadler, David A., and Michale L. Tushman. 1997. 2007 regarding Organization and Work Procedures of Competing by Design: The power of organizational Sub-istrict and Village Unit architecture. New York: Oxford University Press. Local Regulation of Lombok Barat Regency Number 8 YearResearch Team of the Centre for Research and Education 2009 regarding Amendment upon Local Government of and Training for the Government Apparatus III- the Lombok Barat Regency Numbert 9 Year 2008 regarding National Institute of Public Administration. 2007. Establishment of Structure Organization Peripheral of Devolution of Part of Regent/Mayor Authorities to Area Head of Sub-District/Village Unit according to Law Number 32 Year 2004. Edited by Tri Widodo W. Haris Faozan is a senior researcher in Public Utomo. Samarinda: The Centre for Research and Administration at the Center for Institutional Education and Training for the Government Apparatus Performance Evaluation Studies in the National Institute III- The National Institute of Public Administration. (in of Public Administration, the Republic of Indonesia. Indonesian language) Since 1999, apart from his commitment to serve inSafitri, Yudiantarti, RR. Harida Indraswari, Rosita N. research and development within the National Institute of Andari, Shafiera Amalia, Joni Dawud, Zulpikar, Haris Public Administration, he also serves actively as a Faozan, and Gering Supriyadi. 2010. Sub-district consultant, designer, and facilitator in institutional Institutional Development. Sumedang: The Centre for capacity building for several local governments in Research and Education and Training for the Indonesia. He has publicized more than 60 papers both in Government Apparatus I- The National Institute of manuscript and book formats(faozan_aris@yahoo.co.id). Public Administration. (in Indonesian language) Received: June 17, 2011Sanusi, Anwar. 2010. Bunga Rampai Quo Vadis Accepted with one revision: July 26, 2011 Sub-District Institution in the Local Autonomy Era: Institutional Effectiveness Analysis. Jakarta: The