Introduction to biotechnologyPresentation Transcript
BIOTECHNOLOGY Using scientific methods with organisms to produce new products or new forms of organisms. Any technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals, or to develop micro- organisms for specific uses.
BIOTECHNOLOGY Manipulation of genes is called genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology. Genetic engineering involves taking one or more genes from a location in one organism and either. Transferring them to another organism. Putting them back into the original organism in different combinations.
Applications of Biotechnology Cell and Molecular biology. Microbiology. Genetics. Anatomy and Physiology. Biochemistry. Engineering. Computer Science.
Applications of Biotechnology Virus-resistant crop plants and livestock. Diagnostics for detecting genetic diseases and acquired diseases. Therapies that use genes to cure diseases. Recombinant vaccines to prevent disease. Biotechnology can also aid the environment.
Computers in Biotechnology Computer simulations with virtual reality and other uses help in biotechnology. Computer modeling may be done before it is tested with animals.
Goals of Biotechnology To understand more about the processes of inherita nce and gene expression. To provide better understanding & treatment of vari ous diseases, particularly genetic disorders. To generate economic benefits, including improved plants and animals for agriculture and efficient production of valuable biological molecules. Example: Vitamin A fortified engineered rice.
Biotechnology Development Ancient biotechnology- early history as related to food and shelter; Includes domestication. Classical biotechnology- built on ancient biotechnology; Fermentation promoted food production, and medicine. Modern biotechnology- manipulates genetic information in organism; Genetic engineering.
Fermented food, 1500 BC Yeast - fruit juice wine. Brewing beer - CO2. Baking bread, alcohol. Egyptians used yeast in 1500 B.C. 1915-1920 Baker’s Yeast.
Classical Biotechnology Describes the development that fermentation has taken place from ancient times to the present Top fermentation - developed first, yeast rise to top 1833 - Bottom fermentation - yeast remain on bottom 1886 – Brewing equipment made by E.C. Hansen and still used today
Classical Biotechnology Advances Today many things are produced: Pharmaceutical compounds such as antibiotics. Amino Acids . Many chemicals, hormones, and pigments. Enzymes with a large variety of uses. Biomass for commercial and animal consumption (such as single-cell protein).
ApplicationsAgriculture Plant breeding to improve resistance to pests, diseases, drought and salt conditions Mass propagation of plant clones Bioinsecticide development modification of plants to improve nutritional and processing characteristicsChemical Industry Production of bulk chemicals and solvents such as ethanol, citric acid, acetone and butanol Synthesis of fine specialty chemicals such as enzymes, amino acids, alkaloids and antibiotics
ApplicationsMedicine Development of novel therapeutic molecules for medical treatments Diagnostics Drug delivery systems Tissue engineering of replacement organs Gene therapy
ApplicationsFood Industry Production of bakers yeast, cheese, yogurt and fermented foods such as vinegar and soy sauce Brewing and wine making Production of flavors and coloring agentsVeterinary Practice Vaccine production Fertility control Livestock breeding
ApplicationsEnvironment Biological recovery of heavy metals from mine tailings and other industrial sources Bioremediation of soil and water polluted with toxic chemicals Sewage and other organic waste treatment
Future of Medicine Smart drugs for cancer and autoimmune diseases (arthritis, psoriasis, diabetes). Gene-based diagnostics and therapies. Pharmacogenomics and personalised medicine. Stem cells and regenerative medicine. Health and longevity.
the promise of biotech DNA proteindrugs are so complex they can only be synthesized in a living system