Applications of biotechnology
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Applications of biotechnology

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    Applications of biotechnology Applications of biotechnology Presentation Transcript

    • APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
    • What is Biotechnology?Biotechnology applies the knowledge of biology to enhance and improve the environment, health, and food supply. Using biotechnology, scientists work to develop environment- friendly alternatives to fossil fuels and plastics; new medicines, vaccines and disease diagnostic tools; and higher yielding and more nutrient-rich crop plants.
    • APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY In the coming years, most of the commercial application of biotechnology will be in three markets:
    • The Applications of Biotechnology Medical Biotechnology  Diagnostics  Therapeutics  Vaccines Agricultural Biotechnology  Plant agriculture  Animal agriculture  Food processing Environmental Biotechnology  Cleaning through bioremediation  Preventing environmental problems  Monitoring the environment
    • Diagnostics Physicians can now detect many diseases and medical conditions more quickly and with greater accuracy. The time required to diagnose infectious diseases has dropped from days to minutes. Certain cancers are now diagnosed by simple taking a blood sample, thus eliminating the need for invasive and costly surgery.
    • BiomarkersMolecular footprints that are secreted by cells as the disease progresses from one stage to the next are known as “Biomarkers”.Biotechnology has also decreased the cost of disease diagnosis.A new blood test, developed through biotechnology, measures the amount of low- density lipoprotein in blood.
    • MEDICAL BIOTECHNOLOGYFORENSICSDNA fingerprinting allows for the identification of individuals by analyzing section of DNA that vary widely from one individual to another
    • Therapeutics Biotechnology will provide improved versions of today’s therapeutic regimens. The novel therapeutic advances biotechnology now makes following things feasible: Gene therapy to correct genetic disease Immunosuppressive therapies Cell therapy to produce replacement tissues and organs Replacement therapies
    • TherapeuticsCancer Therapy to suppress tumor genes and prevent or cure cancerDesign and production of vaccinesVaccine delivery systems (goats that produce milk with a malaria antigen in it)
    • Natural products aspharmaceuticalsMany plants produce compounds with human therapeutic value.For example: DigitalisBark of the slow-growing yew tree
    • Gene therapyIt is a technique for correcting defective genes that are responsible for disease developmentThere are four approaches: 1. A normal gene inserted to compensate for a nonfunctional gene. 2. An abnormal gene traded for a normal gene 3. An abnormal gene repaired through selective reverse mutation 4. Change the regulation of gene pairs16-02-09 11
    • How It WorksA vector delivers the therapeutic gene into a patient’s target cellThe target cells become infected with the viral vectorThe vector’s genetic material is inserted into the target cellFunctional proteins are created from the therapeutic gene causing the cell to return to a normal state
    • Picture  http://encarta.msn.com/media_461561269/Gene_Therapy.html
    • Cancer TherapiesBiotechnology research tools have permitted progress in treating cancer on a variety of fronts.
    • How it worksMAbs are being used to bind to and inactivates the protein produced by the genes that are involved in certain critical events of cell growth.When both copies of Tumor suppressor genes become inactive then by introducing normal copies of the genes into tumor cells through gene therapy made the tumor to be regress.
    • INTRODUCTIONA vaccine is a biological preparation that establishes or improves immunity to a particular disease.The term vaccine derives from Edward Jenners 1796 use of the term cow pox , which, when administered to humans, provided them protection against smallpox.
    • VACCINE DESIGN ANDPRODUCTIONThe vaccines that prevent small pox and other diseases are based on the use of either killed or live micro-organisms.When vaccinated with such a non-virulent microbe, your body produces antibodies to that organism, but you don’t get the disease.
    • VACCINE DESIGN ANDPRODUCTIONIf you are exposed to that microbe again, your body has a ready supply of antibodies to defend itself.
    • PROBLEMS WITH VACCINES1) Generally vaccines cause no serious problems, but they do have side effects, like :Allergic reactionsAches or painsFever
    • PROBLEMS WITH VACCINES2) A second problem with this method of vaccination is consistent production of virus based vaccines.3) Developing vaccinations for some deadly infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS and malaria is risky
    • VACCINE PRODUCTIONUsually, only one or a few proteins on the surface of pathogen trigger the production of antibodies.By isolating the gene and inserting into E.coli, large quantity of proteins can be produced to serve as vaccine.
    • VACCINE PRODUCTIONWhen protein is injected the body produces antibodies that can recognize the pathogen .Using these new techniques of biotechnology, scientists have developed vaccines against diseases such as Hepatitis B and Meningitis.
    • DNA VACCINESInjecting naked DNA into muscles or skin cells also elicits immune response.Researchers had assumed that DNA alone would not trigger an immune response of sufficient strength to impart protection against infectious diseases.
    • VACCINE DELIVERY SYSTEMSVaccine being developed is a Live Virus, a coat protein or a piece of its DNA, the production of vaccines require costly facilities and procedures.
    • USING BIOTECHNOLOGYIndustrial researchers are using biotechnology to develop edible vaccines.A company has genetically engineered goats to produce a malaria antigen in milk.Positive results shown for human volunteers who consumed hepatitis vaccines in bananas and cholera vaccines in potatoes.
    • •Agriculture Biotechnology•Plant Agriculture•Crop Production and Protection•Using Biological Methods to Protect Crops•Value of crops
    • AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGYModern agricultural biotechnology includes a range of tools that scientists employ to understand and manipulate the genetic make-up of organisms for use in the production of agricultural products.
    • APPLICATIONSMicro-organisms have been used for decades as living factories for the production of life-saving antibiotics including penicillin, from the fungus Penicillium, and streptomycin from the bacterium Streptomyces.Modern detergents rely on enzymes produced via biotechnology, hard cheese production largely relies on rennet produced by biotech yeast and human insulin for diabetics is now produced using biotechnology.
    • PLANT AGRICULTUREAs plants are genetically complex, plant agriculture biotechnology lagged behind medical advances in biotechnology.An Important fact is that animal research has received much more federal funding than plant research.
    • USING BIOLOGICAL METHODS TO PROTECT CROPSBiotechnology is also providing farmers with more opportunities to work with nature in plant agriculture.Scientists have discovered that plants and animals have endogenous defense systems, the hypersensitive response and systemic acquired resistance.Scientists are developing environmentally benign chemicals that can be used to trigger these two means of defense so that plants can better protect themselves against attack by insects and pathogens.
    • BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OR BIOCONTROLIt is suppression of pests and diseases through the use of biological agents.For example, a virus may be used to control an insect pest, or a fungus may deter the growth of a weed.
    • EXPLOITING COOPERATIVE RELATIONSHIPS IN NATUREIn addition to capitalizing on nature’s negative interactions---predation and parasitism--- tocontrol pests, farmers might also use existing positive relationships that are important for plant growth.For Example-symbiosis between plants in the bean family and certain nitrogen-fixing bacteria.By providing crop plant with a usable form of nitrogen, the bacteria encourage plant growth. Scientists are working tounderstand the genetic basis of this symbiotic relationship so that we can give nitrogen-fixing capabilities to crops other than legumes.
    • NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF CROPSThe first generation of genetically engineered crops primarily benefited farmers as well as consumers. Foe example:- Bt Corn sustains relatively little insect damage, it is also infected significantly less often by fungi and molds that produce toxins that are fatal to livestock and harmful to humans.Biotechnology also provide consumers with plant products that are designed specifically to be healthier and nutritious. Healthier cooking oils are being developed.Using genetic enginnering plant scientists have decreased the concentrations of saturated fatty acids in certain vegetable oils.