What is Biotechnology?Biotechnology applies the knowledge of biology to enhance and improve the environment, health, and food supply. Using biotechnology, scientists work to develop environment- friendly alternatives to fossil fuels and plastics; new medicines, vaccines and disease diagnostic tools; and higher yielding and more nutrient-rich crop plants.
APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY In the coming years, most of the commercial application of biotechnology will be in three markets:
The Applications of Biotechnology Medical Biotechnology Diagnostics Therapeutics Vaccines Agricultural Biotechnology Plant agriculture Animal agriculture Food processing Environmental Biotechnology Cleaning through bioremediation Preventing environmental problems Monitoring the environment
Diagnostics Physicians can now detect many diseases and medical conditions more quickly and with greater accuracy. The time required to diagnose infectious diseases has dropped from days to minutes. Certain cancers are now diagnosed by simple taking a blood sample, thus eliminating the need for invasive and costly surgery.
BiomarkersMolecular footprints that are secreted by cells as the disease progresses from one stage to the next are known as “Biomarkers”.Biotechnology has also decreased the cost of disease diagnosis.A new blood test, developed through biotechnology, measures the amount of low- density lipoprotein in blood.
MEDICAL BIOTECHNOLOGYFORENSICSDNA fingerprinting allows for the identification of individuals by analyzing section of DNA that vary widely from one individual to another
Therapeutics Biotechnology will provide improved versions of today’s therapeutic regimens. The novel therapeutic advances biotechnology now makes following things feasible: Gene therapy to correct genetic disease Immunosuppressive therapies Cell therapy to produce replacement tissues and organs Replacement therapies
TherapeuticsCancer Therapy to suppress tumor genes and prevent or cure cancerDesign and production of vaccinesVaccine delivery systems (goats that produce milk with a malaria antigen in it)
Natural products aspharmaceuticalsMany plants produce compounds with human therapeutic value.For example: DigitalisBark of the slow-growing yew tree
Gene therapyIt is a technique for correcting defective genes that are responsible for disease developmentThere are four approaches: 1. A normal gene inserted to compensate for a nonfunctional gene. 2. An abnormal gene traded for a normal gene 3. An abnormal gene repaired through selective reverse mutation 4. Change the regulation of gene pairs16-02-09 11
How It WorksA vector delivers the therapeutic gene into a patient’s target cellThe target cells become infected with the viral vectorThe vector’s genetic material is inserted into the target cellFunctional proteins are created from the therapeutic gene causing the cell to return to a normal state
Cancer TherapiesBiotechnology research tools have permitted progress in treating cancer on a variety of fronts.
How it worksMAbs are being used to bind to and inactivates the protein produced by the genes that are involved in certain critical events of cell growth.When both copies of Tumor suppressor genes become inactive then by introducing normal copies of the genes into tumor cells through gene therapy made the tumor to be regress.
INTRODUCTIONA vaccine is a biological preparation that establishes or improves immunity to a particular disease.The term vaccine derives from Edward Jenners 1796 use of the term cow pox , which, when administered to humans, provided them protection against smallpox.
VACCINE DESIGN ANDPRODUCTIONThe vaccines that prevent small pox and other diseases are based on the use of either killed or live micro-organisms.When vaccinated with such a non-virulent microbe, your body produces antibodies to that organism, but you don’t get the disease.
VACCINE DESIGN ANDPRODUCTIONIf you are exposed to that microbe again, your body has a ready supply of antibodies to defend itself.
PROBLEMS WITH VACCINES1) Generally vaccines cause no serious problems, but they do have side effects, like :Allergic reactionsAches or painsFever
PROBLEMS WITH VACCINES2) A second problem with this method of vaccination is consistent production of virus based vaccines.3) Developing vaccinations for some deadly infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS and malaria is risky
VACCINE PRODUCTIONUsually, only one or a few proteins on the surface of pathogen trigger the production of antibodies.By isolating the gene and inserting into E.coli, large quantity of proteins can be produced to serve as vaccine.
VACCINE PRODUCTIONWhen protein is injected the body produces antibodies that can recognize the pathogen .Using these new techniques of biotechnology, scientists have developed vaccines against diseases such as Hepatitis B and Meningitis.
DNA VACCINESInjecting naked DNA into muscles or skin cells also elicits immune response.Researchers had assumed that DNA alone would not trigger an immune response of sufficient strength to impart protection against infectious diseases.
VACCINE DELIVERY SYSTEMSVaccine being developed is a Live Virus, a coat protein or a piece of its DNA, the production of vaccines require costly facilities and procedures.
USING BIOTECHNOLOGYIndustrial researchers are using biotechnology to develop edible vaccines.A company has genetically engineered goats to produce a malaria antigen in milk.Positive results shown for human volunteers who consumed hepatitis vaccines in bananas and cholera vaccines in potatoes.
•Agriculture Biotechnology•Plant Agriculture•Crop Production and Protection•Using Biological Methods to Protect Crops•Value of crops
AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGYModern agricultural biotechnology includes a range of tools that scientists employ to understand and manipulate the genetic make-up of organisms for use in the production of agricultural products.
APPLICATIONSMicro-organisms have been used for decades as living factories for the production of life-saving antibiotics including penicillin, from the fungus Penicillium, and streptomycin from the bacterium Streptomyces.Modern detergents rely on enzymes produced via biotechnology, hard cheese production largely relies on rennet produced by biotech yeast and human insulin for diabetics is now produced using biotechnology.
PLANT AGRICULTUREAs plants are genetically complex, plant agriculture biotechnology lagged behind medical advances in biotechnology.An Important fact is that animal research has received much more federal funding than plant research.
USING BIOLOGICAL METHODS TO PROTECT CROPSBiotechnology is also providing farmers with more opportunities to work with nature in plant agriculture.Scientists have discovered that plants and animals have endogenous defense systems, the hypersensitive response and systemic acquired resistance.Scientists are developing environmentally benign chemicals that can be used to trigger these two means of defense so that plants can better protect themselves against attack by insects and pathogens.
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OR BIOCONTROLIt is suppression of pests and diseases through the use of biological agents.For example, a virus may be used to control an insect pest, or a fungus may deter the growth of a weed.
EXPLOITING COOPERATIVE RELATIONSHIPS IN NATUREIn addition to capitalizing on nature’s negative interactions---predation and parasitism--- tocontrol pests, farmers might also use existing positive relationships that are important for plant growth.For Example-symbiosis between plants in the bean family and certain nitrogen-fixing bacteria.By providing crop plant with a usable form of nitrogen, the bacteria encourage plant growth. Scientists are working tounderstand the genetic basis of this symbiotic relationship so that we can give nitrogen-fixing capabilities to crops other than legumes.
NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF CROPSThe first generation of genetically engineered crops primarily benefited farmers as well as consumers. Foe example:- Bt Corn sustains relatively little insect damage, it is also infected significantly less often by fungi and molds that produce toxins that are fatal to livestock and harmful to humans.Biotechnology also provide consumers with plant products that are designed specifically to be healthier and nutritious. Healthier cooking oils are being developed.Using genetic enginnering plant scientists have decreased the concentrations of saturated fatty acids in certain vegetable oils.