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When Will the Market Growth for MEMS (Micro- Electronic Mechanical Systems) Accelerate? 5thSession in MT5009 
Jeffrey Funk...
Session 
Technology 
1 
Objectives and overview of course 
2 
When do new technologiesbecome economically feasible? 
3 
Tw...
Objectives 
What are the important dimensions of performance for MEMS and electronic systems? 
What are the rates of imp...
As Noted in Previous Session, Two main mechanisms for improvements 
Creating materials (and their associated processes) t...
Both are Relevant to MEMS 
Creating materials (and their associated processes) that better exploit physical phenomenon 
...
Outline 
What is MEMS and what are the applications? 
MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits of scaling) 
Challenges for MEMS 
...
Increasingly Detailed View 
of a Micro-Engine 
Source: http://www.memx.com/ 
Micro-engine Gear Train Multi-level springs t...
Ratchet Mechanism Actuator TorsionalAcutator 
Early Optical Switch Clutch Mechanism Anti-reverse mechanism 
http://www.mem...
Accelerometer 
less detail 
more detail 
Inertial Sensor 
(includes 
accelerometer 
and gyroscope) 
less detail 
more deta...
Source: Yole, July 2013
Source: 2011 
International 
Technology 
Roadmap 
for Semiconductors 
Other sensors include: position, motion, pressure (a...
Source: MEMS Technology Roadmapping, Michael Gaitan, NIST Chair, iNEMIand ITRS MEMS Technology Working Groups Nano-Tec Wor...
Outline 
What is MEMS and what are the applications? 
MEMS and Moore’s Law 
Challenges for MEMS 
Example of micro-gas ...
Figure 2. Declining Feature Size 
0.001 
0.01 
0.1 
1 
10 
100 
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 
Year 
Microm...
Source: AStar
http://www2.imec.be/content/user/File/MtM%20WG%20report.pdf 
Another Way to Look at “More than Moore (MtM)”
Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures 
Accelerometer 
Another Way to Look at “More than Moore”
Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures 
Early Application:
Limitations of Scaling for Accelerometers 
Since displacement is proportional to size of mass in accelerometer 
Smaller ...
Nevertheless, improvements were made to accelerometers in the form of smaller size chips. Source: Trends and frontiers of ...
Source: MEMS Technology Roadmapping, Michael Gaitan, NIST Chair, iNEMIand ITRS MEMS Technology Working Groups Nano-Tec Wor...
But then other Applications Began to Emerge 
Gyroscopes 
Micro-fluidics 
Digital mirror device 
Optical switches 
The...
Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
CastAR, a projected augmented reality system that displays 3D projections right in front of you. The frames of the glasses...
Benefits of Size Reduction: MEMS (2) 
Feature sizes are currently much larger than those on ICs (40 years behind) 
MEMS:...
High Surface Area is Important for many Applications 
Example Applications: filtration, separation, sunlight collection, s...
Outline 
What is MEMS and what are the applications? 
MEMS and Moore’s Law 
Challenges for MEMS 
Example of micro-gas ...
http://semimd.com/blog/2011/12/06/silicon-foundries-to-expand-into-mems-business/
Bottom Line: development costs are very high so applications must have very high volumes 
Integrated Circuits 
(CMOS) 
MEM...
Solutions? 
Can we identify a set of common materials, processes and equipment that can be used to make many types of MEM...
Since 2006, Akusticadesigns and manufactures MEMS microphones usingits unique and patented CMOS MEMS technology 
http://ak...
Emergence of foundries reflects the emergence of somewhat common materials and equipment 
Source: http://itersnews.com/?p=...
Still Many Challenges and Questions 
Do these foundries make multiple types of MEMS using the same materials, processes a...
Outline 
What is MEMS and what are the applications? 
MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits of scaling) 
Challenges for MEMS 
...
Gas Chromatography 
Gases must be separated, analyzed, and purified for a wide variety of applications 
These include la...
Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures; ppb: parts per billion; 
ppt: parts per trillion
Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures 
(1)
Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures 
(2)
Outline 
What is MEMS and what are the applications? 
MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits of scaling) 
Challenges for MEMS 
...
Ink Jet Printers 
While their hardware costs are much lower than those of laser printer (perhaps 1/10) 
the annual cost ...
Fires ink drops of between less than 1 pico-liter 
and these drops can be made smaller. The smaller 
drops increase resolu...
Ink Jet Printers can also be used to Print Biological Materials 
Ink jet printing can be used to print all the components...
Outline 
What is MEMS and what are the applications? 
MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits of scaling) 
Challenges for MEMS 
...
Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures 
Mass is function of length (L), width (W), and h (heigh...
Scaling of Mechanical Resonator 
Operates slightly different from guitar string 
Calculations show that frequency rises ...
Making Resonators with semiconductor processes/equipment
Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures 
But calculations show that disks scale better than do b...
Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures 
Multiple Disks Provide Better Performance
Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures; RF BPF: radio frequency bypass filter
Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures 
RF = radio frequency; SAW = surface acoustic wave: VCO:...
Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures 
Another 
application 
for MEMs 
in 
phones, 
GPS, 
and ...
Outline 
What is MEMS and what are the applications? 
MEMS and Moore’s Law 
Challenges for MEMS 
Example of micro-gas ...
Improvements in MEMS make new forms of electronic systems possible 
Some systems were discussed in the previous session 
...
Fracking and Modern Day Drilling 
Drilling has changed………. 
Better sensors, ICs, control monitors, joy sticks, other contr...
Pre-Fab Housing from DIRTT 
http://www.dirtt.net/ 
No screws, nails, snap fits 
change dimensions of one part, automati...
Internet of Things 
Everythingis being connected to the Internet 
New forms of sensors including MEMS-based sensors are ...
Intel Builds World’s 
Smallest 3G modem 
Internet of Things? 
http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-28939873
Cost of Autonomous Vehicles (e.g., Google Car) Falls as Improvements 
in MEMS and Other “Components” Occur 
Source: Wired ...
Better MEMS, ICs, Cameras, GPS, Lasers Making Autonomous Vehicles Economically Feasible 
1 Radar: triggers alert when some...
What an Autonomous Vehicle Sees
When Will AVs Become Economically Feasible? 
Cost of “Google Car” is $150,000 of which most is for electronic components ...
Roads dedicated to AVs can have higher speeds and 
thus higher Fuel Efficiencies
Other Advantages of Roads Dedicated to Autonomous Vehicles 
Less congestion 
Less traffic tickets and police officers 
...
Sources from last slide 
A highly popular article on SlashdotandRedditFuturologymakesnote that the Google driverless car h...
Drones 
Transportation of medical and other supplies with propeller driven drones that use batteries and a distributed ne...
“Big Data” Analysis was Discussed in Session 3 
What kinds of software and hardware will emerge that enable more extensiv...
Sensors Enable More Types of “Big Data” Analysis and System Control 
Higher resolution camera chips 
Better MEMS (micro-...
Sensors will enable new systems and improvements to existing systems
Mobile Phones Enable Greater Access and Control of Sensors 
Wireless Access and Control of Sensors 
Environmental (tempe...
Outline 
What is MEMS and what are the applications? 
MEMS and Moore’s Law 
Challenges for MEMS 
Example of micro-gas ...
Conclusions and Relevant Questions for Your Group Projects (1) 
Sometypes of MEMS greatly benefit from reductions in scal...
Conclusions and Relevant Questions for Your Group Projects (2) 
Another challenge is identifying a set of common material...
Appendix
MEMS design tools 
Create individual 2-D layers, stack them on top of each other, and create complex 3-D devices 
•Design...
Design Library Process simulator
http://www2.imec.be/content/ 
user/File/MtM%20WG%20report.pdf
http://www.google.com.sg/imgres?q=laboratory+on+a+chip+market+size&hl=en&biw=1280&bih=933&tbm=isch&tbnid=AkXuNv_HgBmSrM:& ...
Source: Boucher-Lensch 
Associates LLC 
MEMS Technology, 
2nd Edition
But Packaged Size will Always be Much Bigger than Minimum Feature Size…..
Source: Technology Watch 
http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/mm/research/ 
IPM-KTN/pdf/Technology_review/mems-recent- 
dev...
Source: Technology Watch http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/ 
mm/research/IPM-KTN/pdf/Technology_review/mems-recent- 
deve...
Source: http://www.isuppli.com/MEMS-and-Sensors/MarketWatch/Pages/MEMS-Market- Rebounds-in-2010-Following-Two-Year-Decline...
Source : http://www.memsindustrygroup.org/files/MEMSTrends_April2012_iMN.pdf
Source : http://www.memsindustrygroup.org/files/MEMSTrends_April2012_iMN.pdf
Economic Feasibility of Micro-Electronic Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
Economic Feasibility of Micro-Electronic Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
Economic Feasibility of Micro-Electronic Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
Economic Feasibility of Micro-Electronic Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
Economic Feasibility of Micro-Electronic Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
Economic Feasibility of Micro-Electronic Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
Economic Feasibility of Micro-Electronic Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
Economic Feasibility of Micro-Electronic Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
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Economic Feasibility of Micro-Electronic Mechanical Systems (MEMS)

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These slides discuss the potential for an acceleration in the rate of growth for MEMS. Just as ICs benefited from reductions in scale and increases in the number of transistors per chip, some applications for MEMS also benefit from such reductions in scale and thus are likely to experience rapid growth as certain problems are solved.

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  • Used in early 1990s at DARPA. Goal in 1990s was to put more components on a mems chip. DMD used to put projector on your cell phone. Put many transistors and components together in order to build good gyroscopes and accelerometers, which were big apps for MEMS. Need both sensing (movement) and computation (how much movement, should we deploy an airbag) in these apps. But realized later that smaller features had big advantages for many apps
  • Acceleration will bend the spring. The bending of the spring is typically measured by detecting change in capacitance as spring is displaced. Displacement is proportional to size of mass. MEMS is bad. As mass becomes smaller, the output displacement becomes smaller and thus sensitivity becomes worse. Therefore, to make up for worse performance we must put transistors close to the MEMS device in order to reduce parasitic capacitance. For apps in general, many believed we needed more transistors. But small size became advantage with micro-fluidics.
  • Speed: faster filters; power consumption – less heating with smaller sizes; g-force resilience – making it smaller made it worse as an accelerometer but can handle higher G-forces.
  • Micro-fluidics are for bio-electronics. Small size was an advantage because capillary forces become stronger. Thus can move fluidics easier and detect things with smaller amounts of fluids. For optics, mems mirrors can switch calls quickly due to smaller size. Smaller mirrors can move faster – also in dmd. Brightest ones are smallest. People began to realize that transistors weren’t needed for some apps and that components can be solely used. MEMS gives us benefits
  • Mobile phones also wants to specify a frequency in order to communicate at that frequency. Cant go higher than 3GHz because frequencies won’t pass through walls. Only good for outdoor apps. General frequency equation for mechanical devices. lots of movement when a device is excited at resonant frequency. Lower mass leads to higher frequency, much higher than 110 Hz. A micro-mechanical resonator (a beam that is anchored). Guitar string is 25 inches long while mechanical resonator is 40 microns long. The resonator is excited by an electrode that are separated by 100 nm. Q is amplification factor. You want a higher Q. higher Q is needed for cognitive radio. We need 30,000 for cognitive radio. Highest Q is 7 to 10 with ICs. Higher Q for mechanical than electrical resonators. MEMS enables you to put thousands of filters on a chip and each filter is for a different frequency. This causes power consumption to fall.
  • Need to scale all dimensions. Use nano-dimensions for h and w while only scaling down L to 2 microns. Signal and power dissipation become problems. Sending a lot of energy through nano-dimensions will cause this resonator to burn out. Create an array of these devices so that the energy is passed through many devices. 200 mw to 1 W is transmitted between phone and base station. if one device can handle 1 mW, then 1000 devices can handle 1 W. another solution is to use another geometry such as a free-free beam, one that is not anchored at the end. This reduces the power dissipation, which came from anchor. Can also use a disk instead of a beam.
  • This is closer to IC processing than is bulk micromachining. Sacrificial layer is used to free the device at the end, allow movement. See http://freevideolectures.com/Course/2736/Introduction-to-MEMS-Design - for more details
  • But actually calculations show that disks scale better than do beams/springs.Electro-static force. Electrical forces go up with smaller size while piezo-electric ones don’t. for example, scale up a transducer with a capacitive gap (type of electro-static) and the strength of a capacitive transducer goes up with fourth power of gap. Capacitive transducers become as strong as piezo-electric ones at about 25 nanometers.
  • The better the filter, the easier to design the other components. because filters increase noise.
  • The passives drive the size and cost of phones. MEMS can replace the passives and thus reduce the cost of these passives. Need better frequencies and bandwidth. 163 MHz.
  • Phones are a multi-band device. These requires a lot of filters. Current PDAs have about 20 filters. We may have hundreds of filters in the future in order to handle these different bands. We can put these filters on a single MEMS chip.
  • Why do we need a smaller phone?
  • Accuracy of triangulation for GPS depends on accuracy of atomic clock. MEMS can get us to 10 to -9, much better than crystals. Atomic clock can get to 10 to -15 but don’t need this. Atomic clock can enable instant GPS on your phone as opposed to several minutes with existing technology. low power consumption requires good timing for network sensors
  • Transcript of "Economic Feasibility of Micro-Electronic Mechanical Systems (MEMS)"

    1. 1. When Will the Market Growth for MEMS (Micro- Electronic Mechanical Systems) Accelerate? 5thSession in MT5009 Jeffrey Funk Division of Engineering and Technology Management National University of Singapore For information on other technologies, see http://www.slideshare.net/Funk98/presentations
    2. 2. Session Technology 1 Objectives and overview of course 2 When do new technologiesbecome economically feasible? 3 Two types of improvements: 1) Creating materials that better exploit physical phenomena;2) Geometrical scaling 4 Semiconductors, ICs, electronic systems 5 MEMS and Bio-electronic ICs 6 Lighting, Lasers, and Displays 7 DNA sequencing and Nanotechnology 8 Human-Computer Interfaces 9 Superconductivity and Solar Cells 10 Deepavali, NO CLASS This is Fifth Session of MT5009
    3. 3. Objectives What are the important dimensions of performance for MEMS and electronic systems? What are the rates of improvement? What drives these rapid rates of improvement? Will these improvements continue? What kinds of new electronic systems will likely emerge from the improvements in MEMS? What does this tell us about the future?
    4. 4. As Noted in Previous Session, Two main mechanisms for improvements Creating materials (and their associated processes) that better exploit physical phenomenon Geometrical scaling Increases in scale Reductions in scale Some technologies directly experience improvements while others indirectly experience them through improvements in “components” A summary of these ideas can be found in 1)What Drives Exponential Improvements? California Management Review, May 2013 2)Technology Change and the Rise of New Industries, Stanford University Press, January 2013
    5. 5. Both are Relevant to MEMS Creating materials (and their associated processes) that better exploit physical phenomenon Materials created for MEMS with better characteristics for specific applications Geometrical scaling Increases in scale: larger wafers/production equipment Reductions in scale: small feature sizes for MEMS. This is most important driver of improvements for MEMS Some technologies directly experience improvements while others indirectly experience them through improvements in “components” Better MEMS lead to better electronic systems
    6. 6. Outline What is MEMS and what are the applications? MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits of scaling) Challenges for MEMS Example of micro-gas analyzers Example of MEMS for Ink Jet Printer Example of MEMS for filters and other components for mobile phone chips Improvements in MEMS make new forms of electronic systems possible Conclusions
    7. 7. Increasingly Detailed View of a Micro-Engine Source: http://www.memx.com/ Micro-engine Gear Train Multi-level springs that that are part of Micro-Engine Side view of springs
    8. 8. Ratchet Mechanism Actuator TorsionalAcutator Early Optical Switch Clutch Mechanism Anti-reverse mechanism http://www.memx.com/
    9. 9. Accelerometer less detail more detail Inertial Sensor (includes accelerometer and gyroscope) less detail more detail
    10. 10. Source: Yole, July 2013
    11. 11. Source: 2011 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors Other sensors include: position, motion, pressure (altitude measurement), temperature, magnetic field (electronic compass), humidity, light (image) and audio sound (microphone) The integration path towards the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is to join 3-axis accelerometers, 3-axis gyro- scopes, 3-axis magnetometers (compass), and a pressure sensor (altimeter). This is referred to as a 10 degree of freedom (DOF) multimode sensor.
    12. 12. Source: MEMS Technology Roadmapping, Michael Gaitan, NIST Chair, iNEMIand ITRS MEMS Technology Working Groups Nano-Tec Workshop 3, 31 May 2012
    13. 13. Outline What is MEMS and what are the applications? MEMS and Moore’s Law Challenges for MEMS Example of micro-gas analyzers Example of MEMS for Ink Jet Printer Example of MEMS for filters and other components for mobile phone chips Improvements in MEMS make new forms of electronic systems possible Conclusions
    14. 14. Figure 2. Declining Feature Size 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year Micrometers (Microns) Gate Oxide Thickness Junction Depth Feature length Source: (O'Neil, 2003)
    15. 15. Source: AStar
    16. 16. http://www2.imec.be/content/user/File/MtM%20WG%20report.pdf Another Way to Look at “More than Moore (MtM)”
    17. 17. Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures Accelerometer Another Way to Look at “More than Moore”
    18. 18. Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures Early Application:
    19. 19. Limitations of Scaling for Accelerometers Since displacement is proportional to size of mass in accelerometer Smaller mass leads to weaker sensitivity to displacement Thus smaller features (e.g., springs) are bad This led to pessimistic view towards MEMS Solution for MEMS-based accelerometers Integrate transistors with MEMS device to compensate for the poor sensitivity of MEMS-based accelerometers put transistors close to the MEMS device in order to reduce parasitic capacitance Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
    20. 20. Nevertheless, improvements were made to accelerometers in the form of smaller size chips. Source: Trends and frontiers of MEMS, Wen H. Ko; Cs: sensing capacitance
    21. 21. Source: MEMS Technology Roadmapping, Michael Gaitan, NIST Chair, iNEMIand ITRS MEMS Technology Working Groups Nano-Tec Workshop 3, 31 May 2012
    22. 22. But then other Applications Began to Emerge Gyroscopes Micro-fluidics Digital mirror device Optical switches These applications benefited a lot from smaller sizes! Emphasis changed from “adding transistors” to “reducing feature size” from “integration of transistors and mechanical functions” to chips with only mechanical functions/devices Source: Ngyuen, Berkeley lecture
    23. 23. Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
    24. 24. Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
    25. 25. CastAR, a projected augmented reality system that displays 3D projections right in front of you. The frames of the glasses contain micro-projectors that cast 3D images that change perspective depending on your orientation.
    26. 26. Benefits of Size Reduction: MEMS (2) Feature sizes are currently much larger than those on ICs (40 years behind) MEMS: around or less than one micron ICs: 22 nanometers (0.02 microns) Partly because devices are different (e.g., much overlap of layers) processes (e.g., wet vs. plasma etching) are slightly different…… As feature sizes get smaller, we can expect large changes in our world Current feature sizes of 0.5 to 1.0 microns for MEMS and thus industry is like ICs were in 1980 Improvements in MEMS will probably have similar impact as ICs have had since 1980 Source: Nyugen’sBerkeley lectures and http://www.boucherlensch.com/bla/IMG/pdf/BLA_MEMS_Q4_010.pdf
    27. 27. High Surface Area is Important for many Applications Example Applications: filtration, separation, sunlight collection, surface charge storage or catalysis Highly regular fractal structures lead to high surface areas. The procedure uses the built-in capability of the crystal lattice to form self-similar octahedral structures with minimal interference of the constructor. The silicon fractal can be used directly or as a mold to transfer the shape into another material. Moreover, they can be dense, porous, or like a wireframe. We demonstrate, after four levels of processing, that the initial number of octahedral structures is increased by a factor of 625. http://nextbigfuture.com/search?updated-max=2013-06-23T07:23:00- 07:00&max-results=7&start=28&by-date=false
    28. 28. Outline What is MEMS and what are the applications? MEMS and Moore’s Law Challenges for MEMS Example of micro-gas analyzers Example of MEMS for Ink Jet Printer Example of MEMS for filters and other components for mobile phone chips Improvements in MEMS make new forms of electronic systems possible Conclusions
    29. 29. http://semimd.com/blog/2011/12/06/silicon-foundries-to-expand-into-mems-business/
    30. 30. Bottom Line: development costs are very high so applications must have very high volumes Integrated Circuits (CMOS) MEMS Materials Roughly the same for each application Different for each application Processes Roughly the same for each application (CMOS) Different for each application Equipment Roughly the same for each application Different for each application Masks Different for each application. But commonsolutions exist! ASICs (application specific ICs), Microprocessors Different for each application and thus high volumes are needed
    31. 31. Solutions? Can we identify a set of common materials, processes and equipment that can be used to make many types of MEMS? Using common materials, processes and equipment involve tradeoffs Use sub-optimal ones for each application But benefit overall from economies of scale; similar things occurred with silicon-based CMOS devices One obvious option Can we make MEMS with materials, processes, and equipment used to fabricate CMOS ICs? Or should we look for a different set of materials, processes and equipment?
    32. 32. Since 2006, Akusticadesigns and manufactures MEMS microphones usingits unique and patented CMOS MEMS technology http://akustica.com/technology.asp
    33. 33. Emergence of foundries reflects the emergence of somewhat common materials and equipment Source: http://itersnews.com/?p=30549
    34. 34. Still Many Challenges and Questions Do these foundries make multiple types of MEMS using the same materials, processes and equipment? If so, how many types of MEMS are made using the same types of materials, processes and equipment? How can we characterize the progress in this area? Can this progress be quantified to help us understand the extent to which the market for MEMS may accelerate in the near future?
    35. 35. Outline What is MEMS and what are the applications? MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits of scaling) Challenges for MEMS Example of micro-gas analyzers Example of MEMS for Ink Jet Printer Example of MEMS for filters and other components for mobile phone chips Improvements in MEMS make new forms of electronic systems possible Conclusions
    36. 36. Gas Chromatography Gases must be separated, analyzed, and purified for a wide variety of applications These include laboratories, factories, water treatment plants, fish farms, and many more Separation, which is the first step in any analysis is usually called gas chromatography and involves columns that are made of glass or other materials MEMS enables much smaller gas chromatographs
    37. 37. Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures; ppb: parts per billion; ppt: parts per trillion
    38. 38. Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
    39. 39. Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures (1)
    40. 40. Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures (2)
    41. 41. Outline What is MEMS and what are the applications? MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits of scaling) Challenges for MEMS Example of micro-gas analyzers Example of MEMS for Ink Jet Printer Example of MEMS for filters and other components for mobile phone chips Improvements in MEMS make new forms of electronic systems possible Conclusions
    42. 42. Ink Jet Printers While their hardware costs are much lower than those of laser printer (perhaps 1/10) the annual cost of their cartridges can be much higher than the cost of their hardware e.g., higher maintenance costs due to clogging, they print much more slowly than do laser printers Gradually changing because MEMS reduces the amount of ink and thus the time for printing and the frequency of installing a new cartridge
    43. 43. Fires ink drops of between less than 1 pico-liter and these drops can be made smaller. The smaller drops increase resolution, allowing faster drying, and reduce ink consumption
    44. 44. Ink Jet Printers can also be used to Print Biological Materials Ink jet printing can be used to print all the components that make up a tissue (cells and matrix) to generate structures analogous to tissue (bio printing) Smaller feature sizes on these MEMS enable better resolution of tissue 1 picoliter volumes have 10 micron feature sizes, which is about the size of a cell Need the right material, bio-reactor, and the ejection of the bio- material may adversely impact on the cell This can also be done with 3D printers, but are they experiencing rapid rates of improvement? Sources: Brian Derby, Printing and Prototyping of Tissues and Scaffolds, Science 338, 16 Nov 2012, p 921. Thermal Inkjet Printing in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, XiaofengCui, Thomas Boland, Darryl D. D’Lima, and Martin K. Lotz
    45. 45. Outline What is MEMS and what are the applications? MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits of scaling) Challenges for MEMS Example of micro-gas analyzers Example of MEMS for Ink Jet Printer Example of MEMS for filters and other components for mobile phone chips Improvements in MEMS make new forms of electronic systems possible Conclusions
    46. 46. Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures Mass is function of length (L), width (W), and h (height); Q is amplification factor, V is voltage; d is distance between bottom of beam and underlying material
    47. 47. Scaling of Mechanical Resonator Operates slightly different from guitar string Calculations show that frequency rises as 1/L2 Replacing anchored beam with free-free beam and reducing L (length) to 2 microns, W and H to nano-dimensions, causes frequency to rise to above 1 GHz Inexpensive mechanical resonators can replace electrical filters Which also enables the use of multiple filters and thus communication at many frequency bands (and thus cognitive radio) There is no theoretical limit to reducing sizes and thus increasing frequencies Source: EE C245/ME C218: Introduction to MEMS, Lecture 2m: Benefits of Scaling I
    48. 48. Making Resonators with semiconductor processes/equipment
    49. 49. Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures But calculations show that disks scale better than do beams or springs (t = inner radius)
    50. 50. Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures Multiple Disks Provide Better Performance
    51. 51. Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures; RF BPF: radio frequency bypass filter
    52. 52. Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures RF = radio frequency; SAW = surface acoustic wave: VCO: voltage controlled oscillators Other Discrete Components can also be Replaced by Smaller MEMS components
    53. 53. Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
    54. 54. Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
    55. 55. Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures Another application for MEMs in phones, GPS, and other devices
    56. 56. Outline What is MEMS and what are the applications? MEMS and Moore’s Law Challenges for MEMS Example of micro-gas analyzers Example of MEMS for Ink Jet Printer Example of MEMS for filters and other components for mobile phone chips Improvements in MEMS make new forms of electronic systems possible Conclusions
    57. 57. Improvements in MEMS make new forms of electronic systems possible Some systems were discussed in the previous session Others include Oil and Gas Drilling, Internet of Things 3D scanners, printers, holographic displays, eye-tracking devices autonomous vehicles for land, undersea, in space, and other applications More big data analysis better health care and management of buildings, dams, bridges, power plants…….. Improvements in other components such as lasers are needed before these systems become economically feasible
    58. 58. Fracking and Modern Day Drilling Drilling has changed………. Better sensors, ICs, control monitors, joy sticks, other controls, and horizontal drilling Along with chemical based slurries that are pumped into the ground to break up shale The US will probably be a net energy exporter in a few years https://www.rigzone.com/training/insight.asp?insight_id=292&c_id=24
    59. 59. Pre-Fab Housing from DIRTT http://www.dirtt.net/ No screws, nails, snap fits change dimensions of one part, automatically changes dimensions on other parts through better CAD Uses ICE software, borrowed from video games Direct connection with manufacturing Quick installation No wastage Easy to reconfigure designs and rooms
    60. 60. Internet of Things Everythingis being connected to the Internet New forms of sensors including MEMS-based sensors are making the Internet of Things possible Smaller modems help Intel Builds World’s Smallest 3G modem http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-28939873
    61. 61. Intel Builds World’s Smallest 3G modem Internet of Things? http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-28939873
    62. 62. Cost of Autonomous Vehicles (e.g., Google Car) Falls as Improvements in MEMS and Other “Components” Occur Source: Wired Magazine, http://www.wired.com/magazine/2012/01/ff_autonomouscars/3/
    63. 63. Better MEMS, ICs, Cameras, GPS, Lasers Making Autonomous Vehicles Economically Feasible 1 Radar: triggers alert when something is in blind spot 2 Lane-keeping: Cameras recognize lane markings by spotting contrast between road surface and boundary lines 3 LIDAR: Light Detection and Ranging system depends on 64 lasers, spinning at upwards of 900 rpm, to generate a360-degree view 4 Infrared Camera: camera detects objects 5 Stereo Vision: two cameras build a real-time 3-D image of the road ahead 6 GPS/Inertial Measurement: tells us location on map 7 Wheel Encoder: wheel-mounted sensors measure wheel velocity ICs interpret and act on this data
    64. 64. What an Autonomous Vehicle Sees
    65. 65. When Will AVs Become Economically Feasible? Cost of “Google Car” is $150,000 of which most is for electronic components (e.g., about $70,000 is for LIDAR) Current rates of improvement are 30%-40% If costs drop 25% a year, cost of electronics will drop by 90% in ten years What about dedicating roads or lanes in roads to AVs? Would this reduce the technical requirements of the cars and thus make them cheaper? Cars could rely more on wireless communication than on sensors AVs could move very quickly thus reducing travel time, no more traffic jams! http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2013/jun/02/autonomous-cars-expensive-google-
    66. 66. Roads dedicated to AVs can have higher speeds and thus higher Fuel Efficiencies
    67. 67. Other Advantages of Roads Dedicated to Autonomous Vehicles Less congestion Less traffic tickets and police officers Fewer crashes, accidents, deaths, ambulances, insurance expenditures Denser cities and thus lower energy expenditures Sources: see next slide
    68. 68. Sources from last slide A highly popular article on SlashdotandRedditFuturologymakesnote that the Google driverless car has not gotten a traffic ticket after driving 700,000 miles. Local government revenue in the USA was $1.73 trillion in 2014.So the traffic tickets make up 0.38% of the local government revenue. Self driving cars could save $500 billion in the USA from avoided crashes and traffic jams and can boost city productivity by30% of urban GDP after a few decades enabling larger and denser cities. So traffic tickets are 1.2% of the $500 billion from avoided crashes and traffic jams in the US. It is even less worldwide with more crashes and traffic jam costs.It is 0.15% of the 30% of urban GDP. In 2010, there were an estimated 5,419,000 crashes, killing 32,885 and injuring 2,239,000 in the United States.According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), 33,561 people died in motor vehicle crashes in 2012, up 3.3 percent from 32,479 in 2011. In 2012, an estimated 2,362,000 people were injured in motor vehicle crashes, up 6.5 percent from 2,217,000 in 2011.In 2012, the average auto liability claim for property damage was $3,073;the average auto liability claim for bodily injury was $14,653. In 2012, the average collision claim was $2,950; the average comprehensive claim was $1,585. The Centersfor Disease Control and Prevention says in 2010 that the cost of medical care and productivity losses associated with motor vehicle crash injuries was over $99 billion, or nearly $500, for each licensed driver in the United States.All car crash costs in the USA are estimated at $400 billion per year.In 2013, worldwide the total number of road traffic deaths remainsunacceptably high at 1.24 million per yearTraffic Congestion $100 billion cost in the USAIn the USA, using standard measures, waste associated with traffic congestion summed to $101 billion of delay and fuel cost.The cost to the average commuter was $713 in 2010 compared to an inflation-adjusted $301 in 1982 Sixty million Americans suffered more than 30 hours of delay in 20101.9 billion gallons of fuel were wasted because of traffic congestionTraffic congestion caused aggregate delays of 4.8 billion hours. Transport 2012.org puts a 200 billion Euro price tag on congestion in Europe (approximately 2% of GDP). Central America also has its traffic woes. Let’snot forget other countries. On the weekend, Panama found that the price of congestion for business and the community was somewhere between $500 million-$2 billion annually. According to the Asian Development Bank, road congestion costs economies 2%–5% of gross domestic product everyyear due to lost time and higher transport costs. More traffic density and Larger, More Productive City populations can boost GDP by 30% Google told the world it has developed computer driving tech that is basically within reach of doubling(or more) the capacity of a road lane to pass cars. Pundits don’t seem to realize just how big a deal this is –it could let cities be roughly twice as big, all else equal.Seminal work by Cicconeand Hall (1996) assessed the impacts of density on productivity in the US, and found that doubling employment density, and keeping allother factors constant, increased average laborproductivity by around 6%. Subsequent work by Ciccone(1999) found that in Europe, all other things being equal, doubling employment density increased productivity by 5%. A third paper (Harris and Ioannides, 2000) applies the logic directly to metropolitan areas and also finds a 6% increase in productivity with a doubling of density. More recent work by Dan Graham (2005b, 2006) examines the relationship between increased effective density (which takes into account time travelled between business units) and increased productivity across different industries. Graham finds that across the whole economy, the urbanisation elasticity (that is, the response of productivity to changes in density) is 0.125. This means that a 10% increase in effective density, holding all other factors constant, is associated with a 1.25% increase in productivity for firms in that area. Doubling the density of an area would result in a 12.5% increase in productivity.Economist Robin Hanson noted that doubling the population of any city requires only about an 85% increase in infrastructure, whether that be total road surface, length of electrical cables,water pipes or number of petrol stations. This systematic 15% savings happens because, in general, creating and operating the same infrastructure at higher densities is more efficient, more economically viable, and often leads to higher-quality services and solutions that are impossible in smaller places. Interestingly, there are similar savings in carbon footprints —most large, developed cities are ‘greener’ than their national average in terms of per capita carbon emission. Road capacity could be boosted by 4 times using robotic cars. This could be another 30% boost to productivity. http://nextbigfuture.com/2014/05/for-self-driving-car-future-traffic.html#more
    69. 69. Drones Transportation of medical and other supplies with propeller driven drones that use batteries and a distributed network of charging stations How about using solar power for drones that provide satellite services (economist, the west wind blows afresh, August 30, 2014) Easier to launch than satellites Lower altitudes reduces cost of optics How about underwater drones, perhaps for managing fish farms http://edition.cnn.com/2013/11/06/tech/innovation/underwater- drones/index.html?hpt=te_t1
    70. 70. “Big Data” Analysis was Discussed in Session 3 What kinds of software and hardware will emerge that enable more extensive data analysis of output from Particle accelerators, telescopes DNA sequencing equipment, other types of scientific and medical equipment What kinds of mathematical models will be the basis for this hardware and software so as to make predictions, rather than pursue more efficient algorithms better translations better predictions of flu trends, inflation, health problems, loan defaults, rising food prices, and even social problems such as riots or terrorism Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work, and Think, Viktor Mayer-Schonberger, Kenneth Cukier
    71. 71. Sensors Enable More Types of “Big Data” Analysis and System Control Higher resolution camera chips Better MEMS (micro-electronic mechanical systems) Better camera chips, ICs and other sensors enable better process control and better collection of data, extending the Internet to more devices What types of hardware and software will emerge that will enable better traffic management Traffic sensors, smart cards, better fare management Predictive analytics with better computers Navigation systems with better ICs and MEMS Goal should be to dramatically reduce public and private vehicle breakdowns and accidents These systems may have larger impact on energy usage than will improvements in batteries
    72. 72. Sensors will enable new systems and improvements to existing systems
    73. 73. Mobile Phones Enable Greater Access and Control of Sensors Wireless Access and Control of Sensors Environmental (temperature, pressure, gas content) Physiological (heart rate, brain wave, blood pressure) For vehicular and human traffic and many types of infrastructure (factories, buildings, dams, bridges, power plants) The phone may become a major collection, analysis, and control point for data Control and program the thermostat, lighting, and other appliances in homes Rent bicycles, vehicles and other things to increase capacity utilization and reduce energy usage
    74. 74. Outline What is MEMS and what are the applications? MEMS and Moore’s Law Challenges for MEMS Example of micro-gas analyzers Example of MEMS for Ink Jet Printer Example of MEMS for filters and other components for mobile phone chips Improvements in MEMS make new forms of electronic systems possible Conclusions
    75. 75. Conclusions and Relevant Questions for Your Group Projects (1) Sometypes of MEMS greatly benefit from reductions in scale Finding these MEMS is a big challenge Part of this challenge is understanding the types of phenomena that benefit from reductions in scale For MEMS that benefit from reductions in scale expect further improvements as additional reductions are achieved Since most MEMS are still fabricated with feature sizes of microns or in some cases tenths of micrometers, we are still far from minimum feature sizes found on ICs of about 20 nanometers This suggests that large improvements in MEMS can still be expected for many applications
    76. 76. Conclusions and Relevant Questions for Your Group Projects (2) Another challenge is identifying a set of common materials, processes and equipment that can be used to make many types of MEMS Can we identify a set of common materials, processes and equipment that can be used to make many types of MEMS What kind of progress is being made in this area? What are the major types of materials, processes and equipment that are used in the fabrication of bio-electronic ICs? Is a convergence occurring in the use of materials, processes, and equipment
    77. 77. Appendix
    78. 78. MEMS design tools Create individual 2-D layers, stack them on top of each other, and create complex 3-D devices •Design tools (e.g., 3D process simulator) enable designers to visualize their creations before they are built Similar to CAD tools for ICs Improvements in ICs lead to better CAD tools Design libraries have been developed which enable designers to create complex designs from multiple standard components Similar to standard cell libraries with ICs Source: http://www.memx.com/design_tools.htm
    79. 79. Design Library Process simulator
    80. 80. http://www2.imec.be/content/ user/File/MtM%20WG%20report.pdf
    81. 81. http://www.google.com.sg/imgres?q=laboratory+on+a+chip+market+size&hl=en&biw=1280&bih=933&tbm=isch&tbnid=AkXuNv_HgBmSrM:& imgrefurl=http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2008/lc/b811169c&docid=JN9ixr33C73xUM&imgurl=http://www.rsc.org/ej/LC/2008/ b811169c/b811169c- f2.gif&w=391&h=649&ei=fTd1UOiAOM3PrQeNuYDwAQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=695&vpy=90&dur=1862&hovh=289&hovw=174&tx=85&ty= 135&sig=111839047613402311162&page=2&tbnh=144&tbnw=87&start=30&ndsp=36&ved=1t:429,r:15,s:30,i:213
    82. 82. Source: Boucher-Lensch Associates LLC MEMS Technology, 2nd Edition
    83. 83. But Packaged Size will Always be Much Bigger than Minimum Feature Size…..
    84. 84. Source: Technology Watch http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/mm/research/ IPM-KTN/pdf/Technology_review/mems-recent- developments-future-directions.pdf
    85. 85. Source: Technology Watch http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/ mm/research/IPM-KTN/pdf/Technology_review/mems-recent- developments-future-directions.pdf
    86. 86. Source: http://www.isuppli.com/MEMS-and-Sensors/MarketWatch/Pages/MEMS-Market- Rebounds-in-2010-Following-Two-Year-Decline.aspx
    87. 87. Source : http://www.memsindustrygroup.org/files/MEMSTrends_April2012_iMN.pdf
    88. 88. Source : http://www.memsindustrygroup.org/files/MEMSTrends_April2012_iMN.pdf
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