Smart grid
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A Smart Grid is an electrical grid that uses information and communications technology to gather and act on information, such as information about the behaviors of suppliers and consumers, in an......

A Smart Grid is an electrical grid that uses information and communications technology to gather and act on information, such as information about the behaviors of suppliers and consumers, in an automated fashion to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and sustainability of electricity production and distribution. Just as ICs were used to improve the bandwidth of copper cable, they can also be used to improve the bandwidth of electrical cables. These improvements enable a Smart Grid to more effectively purchase and distribute electricity and provide users with real-time prices including time of day prices.

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  • 1. CLEINTLOGOApr 2013GREENER, SAFER, SMARTERSmart Grid TechnologyMT5009- Analyzing Hi-TechnologyOpportunities Group ProjectBae Jinwoo A0102853MChristopher Tan A0046244LIvan Mufthi A0077081EJames Tong A0081902LMun Kek Chian A0090745BPeter Katona A0103338N
  • 2. CLEINTLOGOWhat is a Smart Grid? Improvements in the smart grid Applications (Demand Response & Time Based Pricing)Key elements of the Smart Grid Smart Metering / Power Line Communication Transmission & Distribution, EVs Integration of renewable energyIs Smart Grid the way to go?Q & AAGENDA
  • 3. CLEINTLOGOAccording to GSGF (Global Smart Grid Federation) the official definition ofsmart grid is: An electrical* network Efficiently integrating all the stakeholders – From generators to consumers In order to ensure Economic efficiency (Time BasedPricing) Sustainable network (DemandResponse)WHAT IS SMART GRID?
  • 4. CLEINTLOGOImprovements of Smart Grid over the traditional grid over the past 30 years Communications (PLC, Optical) Transmission & Distribution(Super Conductors, Gas-insulated cables & equipment, BetterUnderground Works) Better Storage Capacities(Batteries) (Electric Vehicles / Uninterrupted Power Supplies) Better Smart meters & Controllers (processors / sensors / memory ) Integration to more distributed sources (Renew Energy; Wind/Solar Farms, EVs)WHAT IS SMART GRID?
  • 5. CLEINTLOGOLoading Curve Price CurveSource: IEEE Paper ; “Optimal Scheduling and Operation of Load Aggregator with Electric EnergyStorage in Power Markets”Demand Response & Time-based PricingWHAT IS SMART GRID?
  • 6. CLEINTLOGOSmart Metering &PowerlineCommunication
  • 7. CLEINTLOGOEvolution of Energy MetersSMART METERING+PLCMeters are measurement devices used by utilities to communicateinformation for billing customers and operating their electric systems.
  • 8. CLEINTLOGOBasic improvements to different Smart meter systems over timeSMART METERING+PLCAMIFull Two WayAMR PlusAMROne WaySmartMeterSystemCapability Real Time based rates Power Quality Remote meterprogramming Load forecasting Power procurement Outage notification Daily or On DemandReads Hourly interval data T&D Operation Metering Service Automated MonthlyReads One Way OutageDetection Meter Reading Billing, Account,CollectionSmart Meter System Functionality Stakeholders or Benefactors
  • 9. CLEINTLOGOAlthough price is $15 more, the AMI provides more functions and averageexpected payback time is the sameSMART METERING+PLCAMR/AMI AVERAGEE COST & FUNCTION COMPARISON
  • 10. CLEINTLOGOPLC compared with existing smart grid communicationSMART METERING+PLCHybrid Fibre Coaxial Asymmetric digitalsubscriber linePowerline Communication
  • 11. CLEINTLOGOPLC improvement - Carrier frequency and Max Effective Data RatesSMART METERING+PLC2001200120052010
  • 12. CLEINTLOGOElectric Vehicles(EVs)
  • 13. CLEINTLOGOA multitude of connected EVs acts like a big battery source to the grid.ELECTRIC VEHICLESVehicle-to-grid (V2G) Vehicle and Smart Gridinteraction Enables stored energy in EVs tosell back to the electrical grid Allows for Peak-load shifting
  • 14. CLEINTLOGOCase study of an unnamed energy market in the USELECTRIC VEHICLESLoading CurveSource: IEEE Paper ; “Optimal Scheduling and Operation of Load Aggregator with Electric EnergyStorage in Power Markets”
  • 15. CLEINTLOGOPilot project for EV parking integration to Smart GridELECTRIC VEHICLESEVs used on a Smart GridEVs used on a Normal GridSource: “Electric vehicle smart charging and vehicle-to-grid operation” , Siddhartha Mal, Arunabh Chattopadhyay, Albert Yang, Rajit GadhPockets of opportunity (Blackregions) to sell energy back tothe Smart GridShift PeakLoad
  • 16. CLEINTLOGOCase Study: EV Fleet Sedan in Southern CaliforniaELECTRIC VEHICLESRT GRID2011 Monthly Bi-Directional Power Capacity RevenuesAssumptions: Lease Price: $290/month 15KW bi-directional capability 12,000 miles driven per year Typical operation from 9am to 5pm (parked 90% of the time) 2011 remuneration values for California ISO, in Southern California
  • 17. CLEINTLOGOHow can Smart Grid make EVs more economically feasible?Cost of EV can be reduced by time-based pricing. EVs can be charged during “off-peak” hours EVs can sell back energy during “peak” hoursBottom line Bi-directional capacity alone can reduce the monthly lease price of aEV sedan by about 72% More savings expected with the increase in fuel pricesnthELECTRIC VEHICLESRT GRID
  • 18. CLEINTLOGOOpportunities of EVs in the Smart Grid With the increase in EV numbers, the Smart Grid will be more efficient inmanaging peak loads (Peak Load Shifting & Time-based pricing) Smart Grid allows for better integration of the EVs into the market With improvements to the V2G technology in the Smart Grid, it is moreeconomically feasible to own an EVELECTRIC VEHICLESRT GRID
  • 19. CLEINTLOGOTRANSMISSIONTransmissionHigh Voltage Direct Current (HVDC)High Temperature Superconductor (HTS)Power Electronics (Semiconductor)
  • 20. CLEINTLOGOKey drivers for Smart Grid TransmissionTRANSMISSION• All HVDC solutions prevent cascading disturbances,even in connected AC networksImprove quality, stability and reliability• Semiconductor solutionSaves space, reduced losses• Create long-distance energy highways via HTS cables• Underground, subsea solutionsMove more power, further
  • 21. CLEINTLOGOTechnological advancement of transportation of electricityHVDCYearPowered Distance Per unit Cost Vs. YearBoth charts show that HVDC is trending up over the year from 1960 and beyondSource: A Functional Approach for studying technological progress: Extension to Energy Technology, by Heebyung Koh, Christopher L.Magee - (MIT)Powered Distance Vs. YearPowered Distance = Amount of Energy transported over a given distance in a given timePerformance metric in transmission:
  • 22. CLEINTLOGOHVDC Vs. HVACHVDCBreak even distanceThe capability of an AC line degradeswith increasing length.Total CostSummary of cost after break evendistance
  • 23. CLEINTLOGOTechnology acceleration of DC transmission moving underground and subseaHVDC
  • 24. CLEINTLOGOSemiconductor solution for New transmission - Switching DevicePOWER ELECTRONICSIdeal controllable Power Semiconductor Switch When turned on, current can flow only in the direction of the arrow Instantaneous switching from one state to the other at extremely large switchingfrequency Zero voltage drop in on-state, therefore zero power loss When turned off, current flow is zero, therefore zero power loss
  • 25. CLEINTLOGOWhat is the next Semiconductor solution ?POWER ELECTRONICSBenefits of the AlGaN/ GaN material systemover SiCGallium Nitride promises performance that is at least 10times better than existing silicon devices and looks to bethe most promising all over the range from 20V- 1200VSiC based TechnologySignificant cost premiumsLimited scalabilityComparison of controllable power for differentpower electronic devices?????
  • 26. CLEINTLOGOHigh Temperature Superconductor (HTS)HTSImprovement in performance of YBCO &BSCCO superconducting cablesThis timeline of discovery of superconducting materials shows howdramatic the discovery of high-Tc YBCO was. Credit: Wikipedia.CurrentCarryingCapacity
  • 27. CLEINTLOGOThe Grid of Today VS. TomorrowTRANSMISSION
  • 28. CLEINTLOGOOpportunitiesTRANSMISSION Advanced designs and new materials for HTS cables high current carrying capacity reduced weight, line sags and corrosion Development of more efficient and affordable (costs and size) cryogenicrefrigeration system for HTS cable New types of semiconductors for a new generation of thyristors
  • 29. CLEINTLOGOIntegration ofRenewable EnergyINTEGRATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY
  • 30. CLEINTLOGOKey Driver for Smart Grid – Sustainability & IntegrationINTEGRATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY Renewable Energy (RE) is a sustainable solution which does not produceCO2 (green house gases) Smart Grid creates a highly flexible platform for the integration ofRenewable Energy any time and any where without any changes in theequipment configuration Higher adoption of more renewable energy sources into the Smart Grid,reduces reliance on fossil-power generation hence lowering CO2 emission.
  • 31. CLEINTLOGOAs high as 16.7% of global energy generation came from Renewable Energy in2010INTEGRATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY
  • 32. CLEINTLOGOGovernments Support & RE TrendINTEGRATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGYRenewable energy generationcapacity is trending upSource: Renewable 2012 Global Status Report; International Energy Agency: World Energy Outlook 2011
  • 33. CLEINTLOGOForecasted global impact on CO2 emission by 2020INTEGRATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGYTotal CO2 emissionCO2 reduction by Smart GridCO2 reduction from Integration ofrenewable energySource: The Climate Group, 2008. “SMART 2020: Enabling the low carbon economy in the information age.”Smart Grid has potential to reduce 2.03Gt CO2 emission where theintegration of renewable energy accounted for 41% of the reduction
  • 34. CLEINTLOGOChallenges and OpportunitiesINTEGRATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY Renewable energy supply intermittency raises its difficulty in theintegration with the electrical grid However, the flexibility of Smart Grid via demand response and time-based pricing has made the integration of renewable energybecomes feasible. For e.g., Utilities operator offers consumers incentives to shed loadduring peak hour based on the demand response and time-basedpricing
  • 35. CLEINTLOGOCONCLUSION Smart Grid is not only an electricity network A smart network of energy flow (Electricity, gas, etc.) The smartness brings Time-based pricing (Efficiency) Demand Response (Reliability) Higher integration of renewable sources with the grid(Sustainability) The possible FUTURE (Selling electricity as a commodity in thestock market)
  • 36. CLEINTLOGOQ&A