OCEAN WAVE ENERGY             MT5009ANALYZING HI-TECH OPPORTUNITIES                    Team members                    Ary...
OUTLINE • INTRODUCTION TO WAVE ENERGY • WAVE ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS    OSCILLATING WATER COLUMN (OWC)    OVERTOPPING ...
Wave-Energy’s Characteristics The Process            Conversion of Wave’s Potential and Kinetic energy into               ...
Approximate global distribution of wavepower levels (kW/m of wave front)- Wave resource is strongest on the west coasts, a...
Wave-Energy’s Potential            Wave power available compared to electricity consumption for continents.            The...
Methods of Wave Capturing  Oscillating Water Column       Overtopping       Point-Absorber                             Att...
Wave Energy Conversion       (1) Control System of WEC       Primary                                                Power ...
OUTLINE • INTRODUCTION TO WAVE ENERGY • WAVE ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS    OSCILLATING WATER COLUMN (OWC)      •   Overvie...
Oscillating Water Column (OWC)1 As the wave rises   within the   Oscillating Water   Column (OWC),   Air is compressed   a...
Oscillating Water Column (OWC)                                                                                            ...
Typical OWC Efficiencies                                                                                                  ...
Factors Affecting Wave CaptureEfficiency                Generates useful                    power                         ...
Optimum Damping To ReducePower Loss                                                                                       ...
Available Energy Flux vs OceanDepth                                                                                       ...
Damaging Waves Occurrence vsOcean Depth                                                                                   ...
CAPEX vs Ocean Depth                                                                                           CAPEX gener...
Cost Power Production vs OceanDepth                                                                                       ...
Unit Power Cost vs Scale ofPower Plant                                                                               Unit ...
Deeper Water and Larger ScaleReduces Power Production Cost                            Shallow water with                  ...
Improvement Sensitivity                           Improvements in available                           wave energy resource...
Geometrical Scalingin Wave Power Capture                                                                        • Geometri...
Limitations to Geometric Scaling • Collector that is linked to a crest in one location   and a trough in another would hav...
Air Turbines - (Wells) OWC                             23
Air Turbine Scaling, Material & Price                                        24
Oscillating Water ColumnPotential for different types of Generator                                                        ...
Oscillating Water ColumnOutput Power at Different Sea State                                                               ...
OUTLINE • INTRODUCTION TO WAVE ENERGY • WAVE ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS        OSCILLATING WATER COLUMN (OWC)      OVERTO...
Overtopping – “Wave Dragon”    Electricity is generated3    by running the water    through    turbines in the bottom     ...
Overtopping – “Wave Dragon”                              Video Link                                           29
Installed Global Capacity of Wave Power on Trial (MW)            1600                                                     ...
Cost Comparison Amongst Various Technologies                                                                              ...
Costs Reduction Opportunity How is electricity cost expected to reach about 0.03-0.04 €/kWh by 2050? Main part of the cost...
Multi-levelReservoir                                                                                  3-Levels            ...
Improvised Wave Ramp• This wave energy converter  makes use of overtopping  wave energy conversion  technology to rotate a...
Wave Prediction Control Algorithm                                                                                         ...
Technical Learning Effects      €/kw                 Installation cost depending of production accumulated sales volume in...
Cumulative effects on Costs 4000                                                                       0.25 3500          ...
Hydro Electric Turbine - Overtopping                                           high flow rate is required                 ...
Structure Material•   Improved understanding of real-    sea performance should result in    is expected to lead to design...
OUTLINE • INTRODUCTION TO WAVE ENERGY • WAVE ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS •   WAVE ENERGY STATUS & OPPORTUNITIES        Curr...
Current StatusSource: Frost & Sullivan, “Marine Energy in Europe”, Published Jul 2008                                     ...
Current StatusSource: Frost & Sullivan, “European Wave Energy Market Assessment”, Published Jan 2012                      ...
Current StatusSource: Frost & Sullivan, “European Wave Energy Market Assessment”, Published Jan 2012                      ...
Breakdown Costs                                                                     44   44Source: Hayward, "The potential...
Motivations & ChallengesSource: Frost & Sullivan, “European Wave Energy Market Assessment”, Published Jan 2012            ...
Technology RoadmapSource: Frost & Sullivan, “European Wave Energy Market Assessment”, Published Jan 2012                  ...
OpportunitiesSource: Frost & Sullivan, “European Wave Energy Market Assessment”, Published Jan 2012                       ...
Opportunities In Singapore                                                                      MADE IN                   ...
Opportunities In Singapore                                                                          MADE IN               ...
Opportunities In Singapore                                           MADE IN                                         SINGA...
Conclusion  Wave energy is a continuous, predictable and immerse source of   energy compared to other forms of renewable ...
Are you ready to ride the wave !?
References •   Journal / Conference Articles      –   Ted Brekken, “Fundamentals of Ocean Wave Energy Conversion, Modellin...
References •   Market Research Report      –   Frost & Sullivan, “European Wave Energy Market Assessment”, Published on 12...
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ELectricity from Ocean Waves

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These slides use concepts from my (Jeff Funk) course entitled analyzing hi-tech opportunities to analyze how wave energy is becoming more economically feasible. The potential for wave energy is particularly large in northern parts of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, for example near Canada, the UK, and other parts of Europe. There are a number of emerging designs and these designs benefit from increases in scale. Increasing their scale and other design changes are causing the costs to fall and it is estimated that the cost of electricity from wave energy will fall below that of wind turbines and other sources of clean energy in the near future.

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ELectricity from Ocean Waves

  1. 1. OCEAN WAVE ENERGY MT5009ANALYZING HI-TECH OPPORTUNITIES Team members Aryoko Wibowo S. A0082149A Jerico Juico A0091472E Lim Shoa Siong A0068312L Padmanaban Vivek A0035842H Prakash Sambasivam A0027237J Yeo Lian Sheng A0081976N
  2. 2. OUTLINE • INTRODUCTION TO WAVE ENERGY • WAVE ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS  OSCILLATING WATER COLUMN (OWC)  OVERTOPPING • WAVE ENERGY STATUS & OPPORTUNITIES • CONCLUSION 2
  3. 3. Wave-Energy’s Characteristics The Process Conversion of Wave’s Potential and Kinetic energy into Electrical energy. Constantly generated. Do not deplete Notable More depict able and reliable as a source of energy Characteristics Can be harnessed close to the shoreline, offshore, or anywhere in-between. Good forecast ability. With 12 m/s wave velocity, 10hrs or more forecast ability. Significance Estimated that 0.2% of Ocean’s untapped energy could provide power sufficient for the entire world ! [1] [1] Ocean Wave energy Current Status and Future Prospective by João Cruz 3
  4. 4. Approximate global distribution of wavepower levels (kW/m of wave front)- Wave resource is strongest on the west coasts, and toward the poles- At approx. 30 kW/mcl in the Northwest (yearly avg.), a single meter (3.3 feet) of wave has the raw powerfor 23 coastal homes. 4
  5. 5. Wave-Energy’s Potential Wave power available compared to electricity consumption for continents. The error bars show the 95% confidence intervals.Quantifying the global wave power resource 5Kester Gunn*, Clym Stock-Williams E.ON New Build & Technology, Technology Centre, Ratcliffe-on-Soar, Nottingham, England, UK
  6. 6. Methods of Wave Capturing Oscillating Water Column Overtopping Point-Absorber Attenuator 6
  7. 7. Wave Energy Conversion (1) Control System of WEC Primary Power Energy Generator Takeoff Capture (2) Wave Capturing Methods Device Name Wave Capturing Method Power Takeoff Generator Storage Limpet (1) Oscillating Water Column Wells Turbine Induction Flywheel Wave Dragon (2) Overtopping Kaplan Turbine PMSG Reservoir DFIG: Doubly-Fed Inductor Generator PMSG: Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator LPMG: Linear Permanent Magnet GeneratorSource: Frost & Sullivan, “European Wave Energy Market Assessment”, Published Jan 2012 7Mohamed, K.H.; Sahoo, N.C.; Ibrahim, T.B., “A Survey of Technologies Used in Wave Energy Conversion Systems”
  8. 8. OUTLINE • INTRODUCTION TO WAVE ENERGY • WAVE ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS  OSCILLATING WATER COLUMN (OWC) • Overview • Efficiency • Cost • Scaling • Components  OVERTOPPING • WAVE ENERGY STATUS & OPPORTUNITIES • CONCLUSION 8
  9. 9. Oscillating Water Column (OWC)1 As the wave rises within the Oscillating Water Column (OWC), Air is compressed and pushed through the turbine2 As the wave recedes, the air is sucked back into the OWC and past the turbine3 The turbine rotates in the same direction regardless of the direction of air flow 9
  10. 10. Oscillating Water Column (OWC) Video LinkHydrokinetic & Wave Energy Technologies Technical & Environmental Issues Workshop October 26-28, 2005 Cynthia Rudge –Business 10Development EnergetechAustralia
  11. 11. Typical OWC Efficiencies 11Source: The Carbon Trust, 2005. Marine energy challenge: oscillating water column wave energy converter evaluation report.
  12. 12. Factors Affecting Wave CaptureEfficiency Generates useful power Power Water column take-off heave (PTO) Front wall Outgoing swash /down- waves rush Incoming Water Viscous waves column slosh losses Power losses 12
  13. 13. Optimum Damping To ReducePower Loss 13Source: The Carbon Trust, 2005. Marine energy challenge: oscillating water column wave energy converter evaluation report.
  14. 14. Available Energy Flux vs OceanDepth Available wave energy flux increases as ocean depth increases 14Source: The Carbon Trust, 2005. Marine energy challenge: oscillating water column wave energy converter evaluation report.
  15. 15. Damaging Waves Occurrence vsOcean Depth Occurrence of damaging waves decreases as ocean depth increases 15Source: The Carbon Trust, 2005. Marine energy challenge: oscillating water column wave energy converter evaluation report.
  16. 16. CAPEX vs Ocean Depth CAPEX generally increases as ocean depth increases 16Source: The Carbon Trust, 2005. Marine energy challenge: oscillating water column wave energy converter evaluation report.
  17. 17. Cost Power Production vs OceanDepth Lowest cost of power production occurs at ocean depth of 10 metres 17Source: The Carbon Trust, 2005. Marine energy challenge: oscillating water column wave energy converter evaluation report.
  18. 18. Unit Power Cost vs Scale ofPower Plant Unit cost of power production decreases as scale of power plant increases 18Source: The Carbon Trust, 2005. Marine energy challenge: oscillating water column wave energy converter evaluation report.
  19. 19. Deeper Water and Larger ScaleReduces Power Production Cost Shallow water with Deep water with multiple single wave collector wave collectors Low energy High flux energy flux Low High CAPEX CAPEX High unit cost of Low unit cost power of power production production 19Source: The Carbon Trust, 2005. Marine energy challenge: oscillating water column wave energy converter evaluation report.
  20. 20. Improvement Sensitivity Improvements in available wave energy resource and capture efficiency has greatest Quality improvement impact on reducing unit cost of power production Cost reduction 20Source: The Carbon Trust, 2005. Marine energy challenge: oscillating water column wave energy converter evaluation report.
  21. 21. Geometrical Scalingin Wave Power Capture • Geometric Scaling Factor, S = LP / LMParameter Symbol Scaling Ratio For Constant FrLength L LP / LM SArea A AP / AM S2Volume V VP / VM S3Mass M MP / MM S3Time T TP / TM S0.5Velocity V VP / VM S0.5Acceleration g N.A. 1.0 (g is constant)Force F FP / FM S3Power P PP / PM S3.5By Definition, Power = Rate of Work Done Work Done Force x Distance Mass x Accelerati on x LengthPower    Massive Time Time Time M gL M S L S g 3 3 M L g  scaling S S P P M M M M   T S  3.5P P 0.5 0.5 X S X P M potential! T P M S T MThus for 1:10 geometrical scaling, PP increases by S3.5 which is equivalent to ~3000 times 21(Assuming all the system components scale up proportionally)
  22. 22. Limitations to Geometric Scaling • Collector that is linked to a crest in one location and a trough in another would have reduced capture efficiency • Max of 40m wave collector width recommended • Hence, most companies are scaling up power plant capacity by using multiple collectors instead of further scaling up the size of each collector 22
  23. 23. Air Turbines - (Wells) OWC 23
  24. 24. Air Turbine Scaling, Material & Price 24
  25. 25. Oscillating Water ColumnPotential for different types of Generator Per Unit (P.U.) Power Induction Generator has lower cost since it is not using expensive permanent magnetMachado, I.R.; Bozzi, F.A.; Watanabe, E.H.; Garcia-Rosa, P.B.; Martinez, M.; Molina, M.G.; Mercado, P.E.; , "Wave energy conversion system usingasynchronous generators - a comparative study," Power Electronics Conference (COBEP), 2011 Brazilian , vol., no., pp.286-291, 11-15 Sept. 2011doi:10.1109/COBEP.2011.6085300URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.libproxy1.nus.edu.sg/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6085300&isnumber=6085159 25
  26. 26. Oscillating Water ColumnOutput Power at Different Sea State Variable speed generator performs more efficient in lower power sea states otherwise with fixed speed generator Synchronous and Permanent Magnet generator output power is more efficient compare to Induction GeneratorOSullivan, D.L.; Lewis, A.W.; , "Generator selection for offshore oscillating water column wave energy converters," Power Electronics and MotionControl Conference, 2008. EPE-PEMC 2008. 13th , vol., no., pp.1790-1797, 1-3 Sept. 2008doi: 2610.1109/EPEPEMC.2008.4635525URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.libproxy1.nus.edu.sg/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4635525&isnumber=4635237
  27. 27. OUTLINE • INTRODUCTION TO WAVE ENERGY • WAVE ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS  OSCILLATING WATER COLUMN (OWC)  OVERTOPPING • Overview • Capacity • Cost • Efficiency • Components • WAVE ENERGY STATUS & OPPORTUNITIES • CONCLUSION 27
  28. 28. Overtopping – “Wave Dragon” Electricity is generated3 by running the water through turbines in the bottom 1 of the structure Two wave reflectors act to focus the incoming waves 2 Waves overtop the double curved ramp to reach the reservoir 28
  29. 29. Overtopping – “Wave Dragon” Video Link 29
  30. 30. Installed Global Capacity of Wave Power on Trial (MW) 1600 Based on National Targets set by 4 1400 EU Countries 1200 1000 800 600 400 Ongoing as planned 200 0 2000 2008 2009 2011 2012 2020 MW 0.5 2.25 0.34 6.4 73.6 1530http://clean-future.com/renewable-energy/wave-power/wave-farms 30EU Energy directive January 2008
  31. 31. Cost Comparison Amongst Various Technologies Natural Gas and Wave Dragon Solar PV Wind Biomass Coal Energy Density High Moderate Moderate High HighApprox. 1000 x denser Low – Moderate Low Moderate Very High NA than wind Predictability High. Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Accurate forecasts Low except in Dispatchable, Moderate Dispatchable Dispatchable days in advance some sites subject to fuel supply Capacity Factor 30% - 45% 12% - 25% 20% - 40% 85% 50% - 90% Visual Impact Moderate Unobtrusive Moderate High Very High Extensive but Extensive but Limited for large Potential Sites Extensive Moderate permitting process permitting process capacity sites can be lengthy can be lengthy Cost Per KilowattHour – Utility Power 12¢* 9 - 19¢ 5 - 24¢ 9 - 14¢ 7 - 15¢• By YEAR 2025: electricity costs of €0.08/kWh• By YEAR 2050: electricity costs of €0.03-0.04/kWh*OCEAN ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES for RENEWABLE ENERGY GENERATIONAUGUST 2009 Peter Meisen President, Global Energy Network Institute (GENI)Alexandre Loiseau Research Associate, Global Energy Network Institute alexandre.loiseau.10@eigsi.fr*Centre for Renewable Energy Sources. (2002). Wave energy utilization in Europe – Current status and 31perspectives. European thematic network on wave energy.
  32. 32. Costs Reduction Opportunity How is electricity cost expected to reach about 0.03-0.04 €/kWh by 2050? Main part of the cost reduction and efficiency improvement should be realized by: • R&D – Multi-Level Reservoirs – Improvised Wave ramp – Wave Prediction Control Algorithm • Technical Learning Effects • Cumulative effects on Costs 32
  33. 33. Multi-levelReservoir 3-Levels 1-Level  Maximize Potential Energy  Improve Constant water flow to turbineEXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF A MULTILEVEL OVERTOPPING WAVE POWER DEVICE, Jens Peter http://waveenergy.no/res/animasjoner/workingprincipl Kofoed, Tud Hald and Peter Frigaard, Hydrulics and Costal Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering Aalborg University, Sohngaardsholmsveu 57, DK-9000, Aalborg, Denmark e4raskere.gifVERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF WAVE OVERTOPPING FOR DESIGN OF MULTI LEVEL OVERTOPPING BASED WAVE ENERGYCONVERTERS Jens Peter KOFOED M. Sc., Ph. D., Assist. prof. Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University E-mail: 33i5jpk@civil.aau.dk
  34. 34. Improvised Wave Ramp• This wave energy converter makes use of overtopping wave energy conversion technology to rotate a dual rotor system and convert wave energy directly into continuous rotary motion.• This is done via mini buckets which are lined up along the ramp in a angled direction to support the rotation.• Current Overall wave-to- wire efficiency at 18% could be increased up to 30% http://www.kineticwavepower.com/ 34
  35. 35. Wave Prediction Control Algorithm Rc: Hs: Ramp Wave Height Height• 20% higher power production with the improved water flow with opportunity for further improvement• This is achieved by improving controls algorithm to better predict Wave Height, Hs so that Ramp Height, Rc could be adjusted accordinglySIXTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME Project no: 502687 NEEDS; New Energy Externalities Developments for Sustainability INTEGRATED PROJECT 35Priority 6.1: Sustainable Energy Systems and, more specifically, Sub-priority 6.1.3.2.5: Socio-economic tools and concepts for energy strategy.
  36. 36. Technical Learning Effects €/kw Installation cost depending of production accumulated sales volume in GW• Learning Rate of 14% (progress ratio of 0.86) for the whole period, which is at the same level as known from the wind industry.• The investment cost will decrease with increasing accumulated salesSIXTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME Project no: 502687 NEEDS; New Energy Externalities Developments for Sustainability INTEGRATED PROJECT 36Priority 6.1: Sustainable Energy Systems and, more specifically, Sub-priority 6.1.3.2.5: Socio-economic tools and concepts for energy strategy.
  37. 37. Cumulative effects on Costs 4000 0.25 3500 0.20 3000 2500 0.15 2000 1500 0.10 1000 0.05 500 0 0.00 €/kw 2007 2025 2050 €/kwh 2007 2025 2050 Very Optimistic Optimistic-realistic Pessimistic Very Optimistic Optimistic-realistic Pessimistic Electricity Investment Cost for Years 2007, Electricity Production Cost for Years 2007, 2025, 2050 2025, 2050• Gradual cost reduction is anticipated with the technical learning, volume growth and R&D for improvement in overall efficiency and output.SIXTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME Project no: 502687 NEEDS; New Energy Externalities Developments for Sustainability INTEGRATED PROJECT 37Priority 6.1: Sustainable Energy Systems and, more specifically, Sub-priority 6.1.3.2.5: Socio-economic tools and concepts for energy strategy.
  38. 38. Hydro Electric Turbine - Overtopping high flow rate is required for low headed turbine.Kaplan turbine is the mosteffective for Overtoppingdevices. Opportunity for Efficiency will be the adjustable blades and adjustable gates. 38
  39. 39. Structure Material• Improved understanding of real- sea performance should result in is expected to lead to design optimization and especially reduction in safety factor of main structures.• Innovations in manufacturing processes such as ‘batch production’ of multiple units are likely to reduce manufacturing costs and improve design through 1. maintenance and servicing learning. 2. surface treatment• Use of alternative structural 3. assembly (adjustment on site, crane, earthing) 4. production (e.g. welding, manufacture, adjustment) materials such GRP (glass- 5. material 6. project planning reinforced plastics), concrete and http://fibrolux.com/main/grp-profiles/advantages-cost/ rubbers. 39
  40. 40. OUTLINE • INTRODUCTION TO WAVE ENERGY • WAVE ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS • WAVE ENERGY STATUS & OPPORTUNITIES  Current Status  Motivations & Challenges  Technology Roadmap  Opportunities • CONCLUSION 40
  41. 41. Current StatusSource: Frost & Sullivan, “Marine Energy in Europe”, Published Jul 2008 41
  42. 42. Current StatusSource: Frost & Sullivan, “European Wave Energy Market Assessment”, Published Jan 2012 42
  43. 43. Current StatusSource: Frost & Sullivan, “European Wave Energy Market Assessment”, Published Jan 2012 43
  44. 44. Breakdown Costs 44 44Source: Hayward, "The potential of wave energy”, Published in 2011
  45. 45. Motivations & ChallengesSource: Frost & Sullivan, “European Wave Energy Market Assessment”, Published Jan 2012 45
  46. 46. Technology RoadmapSource: Frost & Sullivan, “European Wave Energy Market Assessment”, Published Jan 2012 46
  47. 47. OpportunitiesSource: Frost & Sullivan, “European Wave Energy Market Assessment”, Published Jan 2012 47
  48. 48. Opportunities In Singapore MADE IN SINGAPORE Opportunities in SingaporeSource: Frost & Sullivan, “European Wave Energy Market Assessment”, Published Jan 2012 48
  49. 49. Opportunities In Singapore MADE IN SINGAPORE  Keppel and Sembcorp Marine has shown that it is possible to produce 70% of the world’s oil rig even though Singapore does not have any oil resources  Similarly, Singapore could potentially venture into the wave energy market and become a leader in designing and building WEC platforms (or even power plants!)  Cross leveraging from the Emerging regional hub for high-tech alternative energy research  Solar photovoltaic cell manufacturing plant, REC, YR 2006  Wind Energy Giant, VESTAS $500 millions regional research facility setup, YR 2007  Biodiesel plant (200,000 tonne) commissioned by Peter Cremer of Germany  Home to the worlds most advanced and largest commercial-scale biodiesel facility producing diesel fuel from renewable feedstocks  Singapore as Asias Carbon Hub; Home to the only carbon emissions trading exchange in AsiaREFRAMING GLOBAL WARMING: TOWARD A STRATEGIC NATIONAL PLANNING FRAMEWORK Scott Victor Valentine 49National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772E-Mail: scott.valentine@nus.edu.sg
  50. 50. Opportunities In Singapore MADE IN SINGAPORE • Hann-Ocean Technology Pte Ltd – 7030 Ang Mo Kio Avenue 5, #09- 61, Northstar @ AMK, Singapore 569880 • WEC product - Drakoo – Patented Technology – Sponsored by Sembcorp and SPRING Singapore – Status as of Dec 2011: Sea trial & testing – Maximum output 4kW – Efficiency 65~80% 50
  51. 51. Conclusion  Wave energy is a continuous, predictable and immerse source of energy compared to other forms of renewable energy  Wave energy has immerse potential to provide as much renewable energy as wind energy  Wave energy technology is currently at the same stage as that of wind energy industry 10 years ago  Increasing fossil fuel prices will drive the growth of wave energy  Wave energy is expected to become competitive by 2025 with projected technology improvement and cost reduction  Singapore could potentially venture into the wave energy market and become a leader in designing and building WEC systems 51
  52. 52. Are you ready to ride the wave !?
  53. 53. References • Journal / Conference Articles – Ted Brekken, “Fundamentals of Ocean Wave Energy Conversion, Modelling and Control”, IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2010, Page(s): 3921 - 3966 – Lagoun, M.S.; Benalia, A.; Benbouzid, M.E.H., “Ocean Wave Converters: State of the Art and Current Status”, IEEE International Energy Conference and Exhibition (EnergyCon), 2010, Page(s): 636 – 641 – Mohamed, K.H.; Sahoo, N.C.; Ibrahim, T.B., “A Survey of Technologies Used in Wave Energy Conversion Systems”, International Conference on Energy, Automation, and Signal (ICEAS), 2011, Page(s): 1 – 6 – Kazmierkowski, M.P.; Jasinski, M., “Power electronic grid-interface for renewable ocean wave energy”, 7th International Conference-Workshop Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE), 2011, Page(s): 457 – 463 – Sabzehgar, R.; Moallem, M., “A review of ocean wave energy conversion systems”, IEEE Electrical Power & Energy Conference (EPEC), 2009, Page(s): 1 - 6 – António F. de O. Falcão, “Wave energy utilization: A review of the technologies”, Review Article, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 14, Issue 3, April 2010, Pages 899-918 – AbuBakr S. Bahaj, “Generating electricity from the oceans”, Review Article, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 15, Issue 7, September 2011, Pages 3399-3416 – Drew, B, Plummer, A R, Sahinkaya, M N, “A review of wave energy converter technology”, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers – A, Volume 23, Issue 8, June 2009, Pages 887 - 902 53
  54. 54. References • Market Research Report – Frost & Sullivan, “European Wave Energy Market Assessment”, Published on 12 Jan 2012 – Frost & Sullivan, “Hydro, Wave, and Tidal Power--Market Penetration and Roadmapping (Technical Insights)”, Published on 30 Mar 2010 – Frost & Sullivan, “An Assessment of Current Technologies in Ocean Energy (Technical Insights)”, Published on 31 Dec 2008 – Frost & Sullivan, “Marine Energy in Europe”, Published on 23 Jul 2008 • Books – Joao Cruz, “Ocean Wave Energy: Current Status and Future Perspectives”, SpringerLink 2008 – “Wave energy conversion”, Engineering Committee on Oceanic Resources, Working Group on Wave Energy Conversion, Elsevier 2003 54
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