Superconducting materials becoming economicaly feasible for energy applications


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These slides use concepts from my (Jeff Funk) course entitled analyzing hi-tech opportunities to analyze how the economic feasibility of superconductors is becoming better for energy applications through improvements in critical currents, magnetic fields, and temperatures. These applications include fault current limiters, motors, generators, transformers, and transmission lines. These improvements are being achieved through changes in process design and the chemical composition of the superconducting materials. With rates of improvement exceeding 30% a year, it is likely that superconducting materials should be an important part of our energy policy and will contribute towards the diffusion of solar cells and electric vehicles.

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Superconducting materials becoming economicaly feasible for energy applications

  1. 1. Superconducting Materials in Power grid MT 5009 – Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities
  2. 2. Superconducting Materials Area of Applications Source: International Superconductivity Industry Summit, Gyeonggi‐do, Korea, October 31, 2011
  3. 3. Discovery of Superconductivity Materials High Temperature Superconductivity Mid Temperature Superconductivity Low Temperature Superconductivity Source:
  4. 4. Enabling Technologies for Superconducting Power Grid 2G tapes/wire based on BSCCO and YBCO film boosted a huge interest worldwide during the last decade in the new opportunities to develop practical power application. Superconducting material can only exhibit superconducting properties below characteristic critical temperature, hence refrigeration is important factor in superconductor. Improvement in these technologies and cost reduction will enable supercomputing power application diffuse into the market
  6. 6. Superconducting Cable Definition How Does It Works?
  7. 7. Superconducting Cable Advantages and Comparison • BSCCO and YBCO offers excellent performance for all electrical device operating ranges. • Superior performance in a magnetic field • Superior mechanical properties and extremely robust • High engineering current density; smaller, lighter and easier to site devices • Improved efficiency, reliability and power quality • Environmental friendly • 5 (AC) to 10 (DC) times more capacity than comparable conventional cables • Can be used in existing underground conduits, saves trenching costs • Liquid nitrogen coolant is also dielectric medium (no oil) • Greatly reduced right-of-way • Minimal conversion on conventional equipment • Critical current and production capacity key to advancement of Superconducting industry • Achieved through technological progression in manufacturing advancement Source: NY BEST Capture the Energy, Troy, NY, March 2012, SuperPower Inc, Symposium on Superconducting Devices for Wind Energy Barcelona, Spain – February 2011 and Workshop on Present Status and Future Perspectives of HTS Power Applications, August 29, 2012, Paris, France
  8. 8. Superconducting Cable Critical Current Improvement • Progress of development of BSCCO and YBCO superconducting wires/tapes. Source: Physica C: Superconductivity Volume 484, 15 January 2013, Pages 1–5 Proceedings of the 24th International Symposium on Superconductivity (ISS2011)
  9. 9. Cost Reduction & Projection BSCCO & YBCO Gradual transition, driven by cost and performance Source: L. Martini-SOWiT WS, 24 Oct 2011. Rome, Italy
  10. 10. Superconducting Cable Projected Improvement & Cost Reduction Source: CIGRÉ SC D1 WG38 Workshop on High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) for Utility Applications Beijing, China, 26 April 2013
  11. 11. Superconducting Cable Large Increases in High Current Density Current IC which is measured using the unit Ampere per 4 mm width (A/4 mm)cc Reduction in cost due to economic of scale !! Source: Source: SuperPower Inc, Symposium on Superconducting Devices for Wind Energy Barcelona, Spain – 25 February 2011
  12. 12. Superconducting Cable Improvement in Length • Using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) MgO and associated buffer sputtering processes, SuperPower has now exceeded piece lengths of 1000 m of fully buffered tape reproducibly with excellent in-plane texture of 6–7 degrees and uniformity of about 2%. Source: Progress in second-generation HTS wire development and manufacturing V. Selvamanickam et. al, SuperPower, Inc. and Superconductivity Web21, International Superconductivity Technology Centre, October 2011
  13. 13. Superconducting Cable Potential For Further Improvement • Increasing critical current density by enhancing Flux Pinning – Ion irradiation with controlled energy to introduce defects in materials ( up to X5 improvement) – Doping superconducting films with BaZrO3 (BZO) nanoparticles ( X2.4 improvement) • Improving YBCO grain alignment Source: IOSR Journal of Applied Physics (IOSR-JAP) e-ISSN: 2278-4861. Volume 2, Issue 6 (Jan. - Feb. 2013), PP 20-21 Critical Current Density Enhancement in High Temperature Superconductors by Flux Pinning
  14. 14. Superconducting Cable Potential IC Improvement Road Map to Enhance In-Field Critical Current IC Source: Magnet Technology 2013 (MT-23), Boston, MA, July 14-19 2013
  17. 17. Cryogenic Refrigeration Cooling requirement for various power application Component Cable Transformer (5-100 MVA) Generators (10-500+ MWe) SMES, magnetic separation, MRI BSCCO Heat load, Top 3-5 kW/km @ 70-80 K YBCO Heat load, Top 3-5 kW/km @ 70-80 K 50-100’s watt @ 25-45 K / 65-80 K 100-500 watt @ 25-40 K 10’s of watts @ 20-30 K 50-100’s watt @ 60-80 K 100-500 watt @ 50-65 K 10-100 watt @ 50-65 K Source: MJ Gouge talk at 2002 DOE wire workshop 22.1.02
  18. 18. Cryogenic Refrigeration Challenges in Various Power Applications Application HTS generator HTS transformer HTS cable SMES, magnetic separation, MRI, flywheel bearings Current Cryogenics Future Cryogenics N/A G-M single-stage cryocoolers, pulse tube cryocooler G-M 2-stage cryocooler, LN with sub-cooling G-M single-stage and pulse tube cryocoolers, LN with sub-cooling Open-cycle LN with sub-cooling, Reverse Brayton Reverse Brayton, Claude, large capacity cryocooler G-M 2-stage cryocooler G-M single-stage cryocoolers, pulse tube cryocooler
  19. 19. Cryogenic Refrigeration Performance Improvement Time Series Development of Pulse Tube Cooler:  Invented in 1960  First series of modern PTR developed in 1984 – reached 105 K  Lowest single stage PTR is 10 K  Development of 2 & 3 stage PTR with new refrigerant He. – 2.1K & 1.73K  1.2 K was reached by combining a PTR with a superfluid vortex cooler
  20. 20. Cryogenic Refrigeration Potential Cost Reduction • Increase production based - Economy of scale as number of units produced increased. - Depend on the development of HTS wire • Use standardized components for all applications -Expect the cost to drop by 80% of the cost Source: Cryogenics Assessment Report M. J. Gouge, J. A. Demko and B. W. McConnell, ORNL J. M. Pfotenhauer, University of Wisconsin
  21. 21. Cryogenic Refrigeration Projected Market • Projected Number of Cryogenic Units Required Each Year Cost reduction through potential economic of scale • Projected Market for Cryogenic Refrigerators (Thousands of Dollars) Source: ANALYSIS OF FUTURE PRICES AND MARKETS FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS, JOSEPH MULHOLLAND, THOMAS P. SHEAHEN, AND BEN MCCONNELL
  23. 23. Superconducting Generator Schematic Drawing YBCO & BSCCO
  24. 24. Superconducting Generator HTS vs. Conventional: Size & Losses 80% reduction in size and weight !! 50% reduction in input power losses !! Source: High-Temperature Superconductors -contributions to future energy technology, Tabea Arndt,Siemens AG, CT PS 3,Günther-Scharowsky-Str.1, D 91050 Erlangen Germany
  25. 25. Superconducting Generator HTS vs. Conventional: Cost • The conventional technology costs cheaper when dealing with low power levels • However, when talking about high power, the cost SC is much lower and achievable • Cost per power lesser with SC Source: Super Conducting Generators September 3rd, 2013
  26. 26. Superconducting Generator HTS Improvement Electrical power output (MV) Superconducting Generator Performance Improvement 600.00 500.00 400.00 300.00 200.00 100.00 0.00 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 Year Power requirement for power grid generator is a few hundred MW !!
  27. 27. Superconducting Generator Potential HTS Improvement Using Pulse Tube Cooler  Slowly replaces conventional Gifford-McMahon coolers  Made without moving parts in the low temperature part of the device - Longer life operation - Higher reliability Life cycle cost reduction !!  Able to take more vibration and shocks  Simpler  Lighter
  28. 28. Superconducting Generator Entrepreneur Opportunities More requirement for HTS wire and Coolers Economic of scale !!
  29. 29. Superconducting Generator Entrepreneur Opportunities – Wind Turbine
  31. 31. Superconducting Transformer Characteristics  Greater efficiency  Compact, lighter and quieter  Can run indefinitely above rated power without affecting transformer life  Do not require cooling oil like conventional transformers, thus eliminating the possibility of oil fires and environmental hazards  Do not Require Iron Hence, Compact and Lighter YBCO & BSCCO
  32. 32. Superconducting Transformer HTS vs. Conventional Transformer The impact of using HTS transformers is expected to depend upon their size because losses tend to scale nonlinearly with power ratings. Dependence on the Operating Temperature of the Total Power Dissipated by a 5 MVA HTS Transformer Source: Development and Technology of HTS Transformers, Xiaoyuan Chen and Jianxun Jin Center of Applied Superconductivity and Electrical Engineering
  33. 33. Superconducting Transformer HTS vs. Conventional Transformer: Size
  34. 34. Superconducting Transformer HTS Transformer improvement Power capacity is 100 MWA for conventional transformer Source: 'CAST Report : The Future of Superconducting Applications' Jan. 31. 2011
  35. 35. Outline Superconducting Cable Cryogenic Refrigeration Superconducting Generator Superconducting Transformer SMES (Energy Storage)
  36. 36. SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETIC STORAGE SYSTEM (SMES) Key Milestones of SMES Technology Discovery of HTS (copperoxide based ceramics) by Bednorz and Mueller 1986 M. Ferrier invented superconducting coils to store magnetic energy 1969 Significant size HTS-SMES successfully constructed in 1997 by American 1997 Superconductor 2011 Construction of 3.3 kWh costing $4.2 million SMES prototype by US DOE, Swiss engineering firm ABB and a handful of partners 1988 Large scale LTS Super-GM project in Japan involving the development of a 100MVA unit 1971 Construction of first SMES device by University of Wisconsin YEAR OF DISCOVERY
  37. 37. Working Principle of SMES 3 Key Parts: Superconducting Coil, Cryogenically Cooled Refrigerator & Power Conditioning System Magnetic field created by flow of DC over superconducting coils, cryogenically cooled Charged superconducting coil is charged and discharged through a solid state power conditioning system Conversion requires no moving parts, although charging and discharging limited by power conversion system YBCO and BSCCO Wire Source: Dynamic Modelling and Control Design of Advanced Energy Storage for Power System Applications, Marcelo Gustavo Molina
  38. 38. SMES Key Performance Energy Storage Key Performance Criteria Amount of Energy Stored, kWh • Magnetic energy stored is equals to half of the inductance of the coil times the square of the current E = ½ LI2 • SMES has very high inductance (zero electrical resistance), hence no loss due to electrical transmission inefficiency • Depends on the coil geometry and the magnetic permeability of the material inside and surrounding the coil Discharge Rate , kW • Superconducting material has no electrical resistance, very large amounts of current can be sent through these wires, up to a factor or 100-500 greater than equivalently sized copper wire • Short discharge times in the order of 1second  offers quicker recharging and discharging • Ability to recharge sequences several times without degradation of magnets • Discharge time limited by high cost of superconducting coils and cryocoolers 51 With Improvement in Current Density in new superconducting materials, the magnetic Energy Stored Increases rapidly
  39. 39. SMES Technology Performance Performance Summary and Technical Challenges SMES Key Strengths SMES Technical Challenges         Mechanical Support  Manufacturing techniques is still immature for delicate ceramics  Current superconductivity limited by “Critical Current”  Critical Magnetic Field High energy storage density Negligible resistive losses Milliseconds energy discharge rate High energy storage efficiency Long application lifetime Cleaner source of energy Reliability and Controllability SMES Characteristics SMES capacity density 160 kW/m2 SMES energy density Response rate < 1 cycle Response rate < 1 cycle (0.017 seconds) Instantaneous system efficiency 96%-98% Round trip efficiency Up to 95%; Highly dependent on operating characteristics Standby energy losses 1%/hr Design lifetime 20 years Source: E. Drury, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2009
  40. 40. SMES Technology Costs Assessing the Cost Improvements Capital Cost SMES Installation Cost With improvement of density (E ∝ I2), Energy Storage will ↑ dramatically, which will drive the cost ↓ 1. Power Conditioning System (PCS) represents 70% of the installation costs 2. Cost of PCS will ↓ with ↑ rated power and ↓ bridging time Source: SBC Energy Institute Analysis Based on Kyle Bradbury (2010), Energy Storage Technology Review
  41. 41. SMES Technology Key Points • Performance  Clean + High Efficiency + High Reliability + Controllability of SMES provides long term solution for power management (smart grid) applications • Costs  Current SMES cost per unit capacity=US$50,000/kWh  Forecasted to reduce to US$3500 by 2018  Expect further reduction to US1000/kWh to bring SMES cost to Competitive Levels Source: Renewable Energy Technologies, Jean-Claude Sabonnadi,
  44. 44. Superconducting Market Potential Growth Projected rapid growth in HTS based Superconducting Materials between 2012 and 2017, reaching above the US$ 400m landmark by 2018 Source: Superconductors Technologies & Global Markets, BCC Research, Oct 2012
  45. 45. Superconducting Technology Potential Roadmap
  46. 46. CONCLUSION Key Summary of Presentation KEY APPLICATIONS • Integrating Superconducting Technology in various applications. One example is to create an extremely efficient Power Grid System by using:  Wires  Transformers  Generators  Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) TECHNOLOGY & COST • HTS wire (YBCO and BSCCO) exhibits tremendous rate of improvement • Projected cost reduction in Superconducting Wire and Cryogenic Cooling improves Economics Feasibility of SC • Energy storage capacity improves rapidly with current density MARKET POTENTIAL • Continuous R&D efforts and investments by established organizations, the key drivers of this technology • Sustainable technology:  Huge market potential forecasted  Progressive applications of Superconducting Technology  Broad Applications  Relatively early stage of development, huge opportunity for technology breakthrough 59
  47. 47. CONCLUSION Our Thoughts…. • In short to medium term, superconducting materials should see increasing deployment in High Value Applications such as power grid system • In the longer term, discovery of more Cost-effective HTS Materials will gradually see broader adoption of superconducting technology • Co-evolution of Superconducting with new technologies  Projections of future market potential of Superconducting device do not reflect for Competition from other Emerging Technologies  Diffusion of Other Technology can spur on the other and vice versa  Require substantial Subsidies from government for Early Adopters