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Carbon nanotubes and their economic feasibility

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These slides use concepts from my (Jeff Funk) course entitled analyzing hi-tech opportunities to analyze how the economic feasibility of carbon nanotubes is becoming better through developing new …

These slides use concepts from my (Jeff Funk) course entitled analyzing hi-tech opportunities to analyze how the economic feasibility of carbon nanotubes is becoming better through developing new forms of carbon nanotubes, new methods of synthesis, and increasing the scale of production equipment. New forms of carbon nanotubes continue to be developed; new ones include carbon nanobuds, doped carbon nanotubes, and graphenated carbon nanotubes, each of which includes many variations. The large number of variations suggests that carbon nanotubes will likely experience improvements in performance and the number of applications will continue to grow.

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  • 1. Group Members Chia Ding Shan A0098525U Dhanasekar Rajagopal A0103317W Du Yao A0040527N Feng Houyuan A0098526R Han Jiong A0082244L Vishwak Vajendar A0102831W Wu Runqi A0040053B Zhang Zhengchang A0104438L For information on other new technologies that are becoming economically feasible, see http://www.slideshare.net/Funk98/presentations
  • 2. • Introduction to Carbon Nanotubes • Growth Drivers  Development of Synthesis methods  Advancement in CNTs materials  Increasing Market demands • Entrepreneurial opportunities  Synthetic Skin  Self Healing • Q & A
  • 3. • Introduction to Carbon Nanotubes • Growth Drivers  Development of Synthesis methods  Advancement in CNTs materials  Increasing Market demands • Entrepreneurial opportunities  Stretchable Artificial Skin  Self Healing • Q&A
  • 4. What is Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs)  Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.  Diameter: from less than 1 nm up to 50 nm.  Length: few microns to few centimeters. Wang, X., et al, "Fabrication of Ultralong and Electrically Uniform Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Clean Substrates". Nano Letters 9 (2009): 3137–3141 http://www.nanocyl.com/CNT-Expertise-Centre/Carbon-Nanotubes
  • 5. Types of CNTs  SWNT  Wrapping of a 2-D graphene sheet into a seamless cylinder.  Characterized by how it is wrapped, and varies in properties, e.g. metallic vs. semiconducting  MWNT  Multiple rolled layers of graphene.  Russian Doll model: multiple concentric cylinders  Parchment model: single sheet rolled in around itself http://www.nanocyl.com/CNT-Expertise-Centre/Carbon-Nanotubes
  • 6. Mechanical Properties of CNTs  The strongest and most flexible molecular material  Young’s modulus (E) of over 1 TPa vs. 70 GPa for Aluminum, 700 GPa for C-fiber  Strength to weight ratio 500 times greater than Al  Maximum Strain ~10% , much higher than any material http://www.nanocyl.com/CNT-Expertise-Centre/Carbon-Nanotubes
  • 7. Conductivity Properties of CNTs  Thermal conductivity ~3000 W/m.k in the axial direction with small values in the radial direction  Electrical conductivity as efficient as that of Copper  Very high current carrying capacity  Excellent field emitter http://www.nanocyl.com/CNT-Expertise-Centre/Carbon-Nanotubes
  • 8. • Introduction to Carbon Nanotubes • Growth Drivers  Development of Synthesis methods  Advancement in CNTs materials  Increasing Market demands • Entrepreneurial opportunities  Synthetic Skin  Self Healing • Q & A
  • 9. CNTs Growth Drivers Development of Synthesis methods Advancement in CNTs materials Increasing Market Demand
  • 10. Existing Synthesis Methods for CNTs 1991 1995 1993 Under development Current standard 1995 Jan Prasek et. al., Methods for carbon nanotubes synthesis—review, J. Mater. Chem., 2011, 21, 15872
  • 11. Extensive Research  Extensive research has been performed during the past 2 decades Carbon Nanotubes and Their Applications, Qing Zhang, ed. 2012. 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Publications/year Year No. of Publications about CNTs from 1990 t0 2010
  • 12. $1 $10 $100 $1,000 $10,000 Price(USD/gram) Year Nanotechnology by Ben Rogers, Sumita Pennathur, Jesse Adams, CRC Press, 2011 New Method for Continuous Production of Carbon Nanotubes, Science Daily, Apr. 10, 2012z Improved CVD: HiPco 1991: Arc D Discharge 1995: Laser Ablation 1993: Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) CNTs Price vs. Synthesis Methods  New Synthesis methods lead to significant price drop Improved CVD: Continuous Rotation Reactor Improved CVD: CoMoCAT
  • 13. CNTs Growth Drivers Development of Synthesis methods Advancement in CNTs materials Increasing Market Demand
  • 14. Improvements in CNTs and its Impact Improvement Property Performance improved Potential Application Carbon Nanobud Field Emission Characteristics 3X reduced Field threshold Electronics – FET Graphenated Carbon nanotubes Energy Storage 7.3X increase in Capacitance/unit area Supercapacitor Doped Carbon nanotubes Energy Storage Triple capacity in batteries Batteries
  • 15. Carbon Nanobud  Synthesis of both CNTs and Fullerenes  Exhibit properties of both CNTs and Fullerenes  Improved field emission compared to SWNT or Fullerenes alone  Field thresholds of about 0.65 V/μm than compared to 2 V/μm for SWNT Synthesis of Fullerenes with CNTs Nasibulin, Albert G. et al. (2007). "A novel hybrid carbon material". Nature Nanotechnology
  • 16. Graphenated Carbon Nanotubes  Hybrid structure of Graphene foliates grown along the length of aligned CNTs  Specific capacitance increased by 5.4 times of CNTs’  7.3 times increase in capacitance per unit area  Potential application in supercapacitors Hsu, Hsin-Cheng, et. al, (2012), "Stand-up structure of graphene-like carbon nanowalls on CNT directly grown on polyacrylonitrile- based carbon fiber paper as supercapacitor". Diamond and Related Materials 25: 176–9 Synthesis of Graphenated CNTs Nano-scale Supercapacitor
  • 17. Doped Carbon Nanotubes  Improve CNTs properties by doping (e.g. Nitrogen, Boron, Silicon, Iodine etc)  Doping of Nitrogen with CNTs increases the capacity by providing more favorable binding  Boron doped nanotubes also increases the batteries with triple capacity Doping of Nitrogen in CNTs Nitrogen-Doped Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes for Lithium Storage with Extremely High Capacity Weon Ho Shin, Hyung Mo Jeong, et. al ,2012, 2283-2288 http://www.theregister.co.uk/2013/02/14/doped_nanotubes_lithium_battery/
  • 18. CNTs Growth Drivers Development of Synthesis methods Advancement in CNTs materials Increasing Market Demand
  • 19. Expanding Global CNTs Market  The global CNTs industry turned over : $668.3 million in 2010  MWNTs $631.5 million & SWNTs $36.8 million  Forecast to grow to $1.1 billion by 2016 at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 10.5%. Global carbon nanotubes market - industry beckons, Vivek Patel, 2011 http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=23118.php
  • 20. High Market Demand http://www.electronics.ca/presscenter/articles/1204/1/Market-Applications-of-Carbon-Nanotubes/Page1.html
  • 21. Current Market Applications of CNTs Most of the CNTs applications are still in R&D phase http://www.electronics.ca/presscenter/articles/1204/1/Market-Applications-of-Carbon-Nanotubes/Page1.html Huge potential in the future
  • 22. Kiloton/year $1 $10 $100 $1,000 Price(USD/gram) Year 15 12 9 6 3 0 CNTs Price vs. Production Capacity Market Demands Higher Production Capacity Price Drop Nanotechnology by Ben Rogers, Sumita Pennathur, Jesse Adams, CRC Press, 2011 New Method for Continuous Production of Carbon Nanotubes, Science Daily, Apr. 10, 2012 Michael De Volder et al, 2013. Carbon Nanotubes: present and future commercial applications, Science 339 (535)
  • 23.  Most of the CNTs applications are in Research phase and need market application  Improving production process  Increase production efficiency  Lower cost for more commercialized applications Challenges Ahead
  • 24. • Introduction to Carbon Nanotubes • Growth Drivers  Development of Synthesis methods  Advancement in CNTs materials  Increasing Market demands • Entrepreneurial Opportunities  Synthetic Skin  Self Healing • Q & A
  • 25. Wide Range of Applications for CNTs http://www.cnanotechnology.com/  Wide range of unique properties  Breakthrough performance improvements in various applications
  • 26. CNTs-based Synthetic Skin (Introduction Video) Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NJHZylgWeJw Click to Play video
  • 27. Attributes of CNTs in Synthetic Skin http://www.cnanotechnology.com/
  • 28. PROPERTIES OF HUMAN SKIN PROPERTIES OF CNTs SYNTHETIC SKIN Strength and Elasticity Mechanically resistant but elastic at the same time1 Sensitivity Thermally and Electrically conductive1,2 Self Healing Self – Healing process of CNTs induced by electronic excitations2 Biological structure Carbon-based (Biocompatibility)3 Similarities between Human Skin and CNTs-based Synthetic Skin
  • 29.  Transparent and Elastic conductors are essential components of electronic and optoelectronic devices that facilitate human interaction and biofeedback  Conducting thin CNTs films with these properties could lead to the development of skin-like sensors  Stretch reversibly  Sense pressure (not just touch)  Flexible - Bend into hairpin turns  Integrate with collapsible, stretchable and mechanically robust displays and solar cells  Wrap around non-planar and biological surfaces such as skin and organs, without wrinkling. CNTs-based Synthetic Skin
  • 30. CNTs-based Synthetic Skin Strain and Electrical conductivity  Evidence that the electronic properties of the device are undamaged after significant repeated physical deformations ) of sprayed coated SWNT on PDMS thin films.  The images show the device unstrained (the LCR meter displays a capacitance of 5.3 pF), strained to 50%, in a direction 45° diagonal with respect to the grid of CNTs lines (6.5 pF), and returned to 0% strain (5.5 pF).  The difference between capacitances recorded before and after stretching is within the noise level of the device* STRAIN (%) CAPACITANCE Pico farad (pF) 0 5.3 50 6.5 0 5.5 *0.2 difference
  • 31. CNTs-based Synthetic Skin Strain and Electrical Resistivity (Sensitivity) Graph A : Changes in Resistance versus time in response to 4 cycles of stretching Graph B: Resistance versus number of stretches over 12,500 cycles of stretching to 25% A B
  • 32. Attributes of CNTs in Synthetic Skin http://www.cnanotechnology.com/ Self Healing
  • 33. Numberofsurroundingcarbonatoms (a) Number of atoms surrounding the damage* versus time at temperature 3000 K. The time span between two adjacent points is 1 ps. (b)–(g) Structural evolution during the self-healing procedure. * Lesser number of surrounding atoms implies damage site is getting smaller / healing. Self-Healing Properties of CNTs by Heat treatment
  • 34. • When a vacancy (defect) happens in the nanotube, the three neighbor atoms can create new bonding. A new bonding takes about 200 femtoseconds* after atoms are excited1. *A femtosecond is the SI unit of time equal to 10−15 of a second Self-Healing Properties of CNTs by Excitation
  • 35. Challenges Ahead  Improving mechanical properties  Better durability  Improving biocompatibility / biostability  Safe – Human Trials  Electrical stimulations to relay to human nervous system.  Improving self healing methods  Faster healing methods  “Natural” healing methods  Room temperature healing  Healing in the absence of light or electric excitations  Healing in the absence of catalysts

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