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Membranes for Pervaporation
 

Membranes for Pervaporation

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These slides use concepts (e.g., scaling) from my (Jeff Funk) course entitled analyzing hi-tech opportunities to analyze how membranes have and are becoming more economically feasible for one ...

These slides use concepts (e.g., scaling) from my (Jeff Funk) course entitled analyzing hi-tech opportunities to analyze how membranes have and are becoming more economically feasible for one application, pervaporation. The economic feasibility of pervaporation is improved as temperatures and pressures of the systems are increased, which are facilitated by larger scale, and as the membranes are improved. Membranes become cheaper as they are made thinner (example of scaling) and they become better as the pore size is made both smaller and is designed for allowing specific molecules to pass through the pores.

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    Membranes for Pervaporation Membranes for Pervaporation Presentation Transcript

    • PERVAPORATIONMT5009 Analyzing Hi-Tech Opportunities Semester 2, 2011/2012 See Siew Hui A0077625X Too Kim Hui A0077025J Hubert Giam A0082070R Chua Wei Sun A0082022X Damien Poh Weiye A0076856M Linda Wibisono A0077098N
    • Overview1) Intro  Distillation and its disadvantage  What is pervaporation?  Applications of pervaporation2) Pervaporation Performance Parameters  Selectivity  Flux  Membrane Thickness  Temperature  Kinetic diameter3) Improvements4) Hybrid Process (Distillation and Pervaporation)5) Potential Business Opportunities
    • Drawbacks of the Existing Method (Distillation) Distillation is a conventional liquid mixture separation technology based on their boiling points. Disadvantages of distillation  Difficult to separate liquids mixtures which the components have similar boiling point (azeotropes). Advance in technology - Pervaporation can be used for breaking azeotropes.
    • Pervaporation Pervaporation is the separation of liquid mixtures by partial vaporization through a membrane. Key component in Pervaporation Feed membrane
    • Major Advantage of PervaporationDistillation has major disadvantage compared to the new method of Pervaporation.Distillation is a very energy consuming process (heating process). Source: Trends in Research and Development of Nanoporous Ceramic Separation Membranes, 2009
    • Applications of Pervaporation Applications include:  Environmental application: Removing organic solvents from industrial waste waters.  Pollution control: Removal of small quantities of VOCs (Volatile organic compounds) from contaminated water  Chemical Industry: removal of water from organic solvents and solvents mixtures – to obtain pure organic solvents Pervaporation is a very mild process and hence very effective for separation of those mixtures which can not survive the harsh conditions of distillation.
    • Overview1) Intro  Distillation and its disadvantage  What is pervaporation?  Applications of pervaporation2) Pervaporation Performance Parameters  Selectivity  Flux  Membrane Thickness  Temperature  Kinetic diameter3) Improvements4) Hybrid Process (Distillation and Pervaporation)5) Potential Business Opportunities
    • Measured Performance ParametersSome of the most important parameters used to assess the pervaporation process are:1. Membrane selectivity : what goes through and what gets rejected2. Flux: Denote the amount of output (measured in relation to membrane area , thickness and time). What will influence the performance?1. Feed temperature: Refers to temperature of the feed stock or any other representative between feed and retentate streams.2. Membrane thickness: Refers to dry thickness.3. Kinetic diameter: diameter of pore needed to let a specific molecule pass
    • Performance Parameters - Selectivity Membrane selectivity allows us to choose certain molecules to pass through the membrane  Improved membrane selectivity will increase absorption rates  more efficient and possible cost reduction  This can be achieved by better understanding of the material selected for the membrane
    • Impact of Feed Temperature on Flux Feed Temperature  Molecules movement increases exponentially with temperature  improve flux rate
    • Impact of Membrane Thickness on Flux The thinner the membrane, the faster the flux
    • Influencing Parameters – Kinetic Diameter (1)Kinetic diameter can be understood as the diameter of a pore needed to let thatspecific molecule pass Source: Fundamentals and applications of pervaporation through Zeolite membranes, 2004
    • Influencing Parameters – Kinetic Diameter (2) Source: Fundamentals and applications of pervaporation through Zeolite membranes, 2004
    • Overview1) Intro  Distillation and its disadvantage  What is pervaporation?  Applications of pervaporation2) Pervaporation Performance Parameters  Selectivity  Flux  Membrane Thickness  Temperature  Kinetic diameter3) Improvements4) Hybrid Process (Distillation and Pervaporation)5) Potential Business Opportunities
    • Key Cost Components For Pervaporation• The operating cost of pervaporation is heavily reliant on the cost of generating heat and the cost of the membrane used• Current trend: decreasing heating cost and decreasing membrane cost Source: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?pid=S0327-07932003000200018&script=sci_arttext&tlng=en
    • Decreasing Trend in Membrane Cost from 1989 to 2000 Reasons of decreasing membrane cost: 1. Membrane surface area per module increase  lesser membrane modules to produce the same amount of output 2. Membrane mass production  production cost decrease 3. More compact module  cost savings in civil worksSource: J.-M. Laine, D. Vial, Pierre Moulart, Status after 10 years of operation – overview of UF technology today, Desalination 131 (2000) 17-25
    • Similar Decreasing Trend in Membrane Cost from 1970 to 2010Source: American Membrane Technology Association (AMTA), www.amtaorg.com
    • Improvement in cost of heat generation-Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE) summarizes annual costs associatedwith saving a GJ (approximately 0.95 MBtu) of energy with a particularmeasure.-Table shows that energy efficient measures lead to energy savings thathave short payback periods from immediate to 2.7 years.-Industry is looking towards reducing cost of heat generation
    • Improvements in membrane1) Membrane preparation methods  more methods are developed to prepare membranes with different structures for different application  Phase separation method developed in 1960  Scanning Electron Microscope became available in 1960  helped in the detailed study of the membrane structure2) Membrane selective layer is getting thinner over 30 years 0.2 – 0.4 µm  <0.1 µm  0.05 µm (only in lab)3) In 30 years membrane flux and selectivity improved by 10 times, e.g. selectivity factor from 8 to 80.
    • How to control pore size? Methods used to create pores on membrane surface:  Sintering  Stretching  Casting  Leaching  Nucleation-track  Gelation by water vapor Variables that affect pore size:  Membrane materials  Different solvents used and concentration in the casting solution  Temperature of the casting solution
    • Overview1) Intro  Distillation and its disadvantage  What is pervaporation?  Applications of pervaporation2) Pervaporation Performance Parameters  Selectivity  Flux  Membrane Thickness  Temperature  Kinetic diameter3) Improvements4) Hybrid Process (Distillation and Pervaporation)5) Potential Business Opportunities
    • Conventional Process – DistillationEliminate:i) heating processii) use of benzene Heater
    • Hybrid Process(Distillation & Pervaporation)Distillation Pervaporation
    • Lower Cost of Hybrid Process 140 €130 / ton 120 - 45% 100Total Cost (€/ton product) 80 €72 / ton 60 40 20 0 Distillation Distillation - Pervaporation Maintenance Cost 15.11 12.45 Investment Cost 78.28 42.16 Operation Cost 36.65 17.25 Source: Economic comparison between azeotropic distillation and different hybrid systems combining distillation with pervaporation for the dehydration of isopropanol, Elsevier, 2004
    • Overview1) Intro  Distillation and its disadvantage  What is pervaporation?  Applications of pervaporation2) Pervaporation Performance Parameters  Selectivity  Flux  Membrane Thickness  Temperature  Kinetic diameter3) Improvements4) Hybrid Process (Distillation and Pervaporation)5) Potential Business Opportunities
    • Opportunity for Material Supplier1) Chitosan membranes “Natural membrane”, i.e. without chemical /toxic cross-linkers Used in biotechnology applications, e.g. entrap drugs, bioactive ingredients, enzyme immobilization2) Zeolite membranes Higher flux Higher output
    • Improvement with Zeolite membrane Higher flux with Zeolite Membrane Conventional Polymer Membrane Higher output withMembrane Type Feed Output Zeolite Membrane Polymer 99.59% IPA 83% IPA 0.41% Water Zeolite 17% Water 99.68% IPA 0.32% Water Source: Economic comparison between azeotropic distillation and different hybrid systems combining distillation with pervaporation for the dehydration of isopropanol, Elsevier, 2004
    • Opportunities for ITDiffusion of computer programs for selection of Zeolite membrane composition from databases
    • Opportunities for Pervaporation System Suppliers Huge market of the separation in the futureHuge business opportunity to introduce pervaporation to these plants
    • Others Opportunities1) For companies dealing with green energy (can recover biofuels from fermentation broths)2) For companies dealing with other membrane-property separations  Gas separation
    • THANK YOU!
    • Appendix
    • Pervaporation Advantages Drawbacks• Low energy consumption. • Scarce membrane market.• Low investment cost. • Lack of information.• Better selectivity without thermodynamic • Low permeate flows.limitations. • Better selectivity without thermodynamic• Clean and close operation. limitations.• No process wastes. • Limited applications:• Compact and scalable units. • Organic substances dehydration. • Recovery of volatile compounds at low concentrations. • Separation of azeotropic mixtures. 23
    • Summary (2) Membranes: Composite membranes with an elastomeric or glassy polymeric top layer. Thickness:  0.1 to few m (for top layer) Pore size: Non-porous Driven force: Partial vapor pressure or activity difference. Separation principle: Solution/Diffusion Membrane material: Elastomeric and glassy. Applications:  Dehydration of organic solvents.  Removal of organic compounds from water.  Polar/non-polar.  Saturated/unsaturated.  Separation of isomers.24
    • Zeolite Synthesis – A SummarySynthesis by Hydrothermal process involving1) crystallization of a zeolite layer onto a porous support2) from a gel that is usually composed of water, amorphous silica, a source for tetrahedral framework atoms other than Si, a structure directing organic template, and sometimes a mineralizing agent3) Difference in synthesis time, temperature, gel composition for crystallization results in different types of Zeolite formation