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Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
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Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems

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These slides use concepts from my (Jeff Funk) course entitled analyzing hi-tech opportunities to analyze how the economic feasibility of kinetic energy recovery systems is slowly becoming better …

These slides use concepts from my (Jeff Funk) course entitled analyzing hi-tech opportunities to analyze how the economic feasibility of kinetic energy recovery systems is slowly becoming better through improvements in batteries, hydraulic pumps, and flywheels. Many of these systems are currently used in Formula 1 race cars because they enable these cars to achieve higher acceleration and longer times between pit stops. For consumers, flywheels may become the energy storage technology of choice for vehicles particularly as improvements in carbon nanotubes and graphene occur.
The rates of improvement for energy and power storage densities for batteries have been very slow and those of flywheels have been much faster. One of the reasons for the rapid improvements in the densities for flywheels is that improvements in the strength per weight of materials have enabled faster rotations and the storage densities are a function of rotation velocities squared. As shown in the slides, carbon fiber has about four times the strength to weight ratio and seven times the energy density of glass. Since carbon nanotubes have strength to weight ratios 15 times higher and graphene has ones 30 times higher than do carbon fiber, energy storage densities of 120,000 kJ/kg or 33.6 kWh are possible with graphene. This energy density is about 100 times higher than is currently available from lithium-ion batteries.

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  • 1. MT5009 Analyzing Hi-technology Opportunities Group Project 2012-2013, SEM 2 Team Members Ding Chao A0098500H Lin Nan A0023807L Pan Yunru A0105848Y Xu Mingjie A0082051U Zhang Mingqi A0028028L Zhu Jing A0082009M For information on other new technologies that are becoming economically feasible, see http://www.slideshare.net/Funk98/presentations
  • 2.  Technology Introduction  Three Main Categories  Electrical KERS  Mechanical KERS  Hydraulic KERS  Entrepreneurial Opportunities  Conclusion
  • 3.  Technology Introduction  Three Main Categories  Electrical KERS  Mechanical KERS  Hydraulic KERS  Entrepreneurial Opportunities  Conclusion
  • 4.  Kinetic Energy Recovery System - Automotive system for recovering the kinetic energy from waste heat generated during braking process  Energy stored in reservoir - Flywheel, Battery, etc  Utilized as auxiliary power during the accelerated process  An energy storage device releasing energy to wheels when required
  • 5.  Electrical KERS - use a motor-generator incorporated in the car’s transmission which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy and vice verse. Once the energy has been harnessed, it is stored in a battery and released when required.  Mechanical KERS - capture braking energy and use it to turn a small flywheel which can spin at up to 80,000 rpm. When extra power is required, the flywheel is connected to the car’s rear wheels. In contrast to an electrical KERS, the mechanical energy does not change state and is therefore more efficient.  Hydraulic KERS - where braking energy is used to accumulate hydraulic pressure which is then sent to the wheels when required.
  • 6. Only 88.85 kJ required instead of 278.2, 68% energy saving.
  • 7. No. Title Assignee priority date Type EP 0016160 Vehicle braking and kinetic energy recovery system Purification Sciences Inc 20 July, 1978 compressed air EP 0083557 Device for recovering the kinetic energy of a motor vehicle during braking and exploiting same during speeding up Ferrero S.p.A 6 January, 1982 electrical US 4798053 Kinetic energy reclaiming system for vehicle Chang; Jimmy C.K. 10 December, 1986 compressed air EP 0558662 Mechanical energy storage for vehicle parking brakes Allied-Signal Inc 30 November, 1990 flywheel EP 0645272 Recovery system for dissipated energy of an engine motor vehicle during its running conditions Reis, Gianluigi 27 September, 1993 compressed air US 6460332 Pressure oil energy recover/regeneration apparatus Komatsu Ltd 4 November, 1998 hydraulic US 7293621 Vehicle drive system with energy recovery system and vehicle mounting same Charge-O-Matic Energy Recovery Devices, Llc 10 April, 2002 electrical EP 1433648 Energy recovery system for a work vehicle CNH Italia S.p.A 23 December, 2002 hydraulic US 7315088 Fluid device for recovery of the kinetic energy of a vehicle Erriu Fernando 9 July, 2003 hydraulic EP 1561625 Engine based kinetic energy recovery system for vehicles International Truck Intellectual Property Company, LLc 3 February, 2004 compressed air US 7201095 Vehicle system to recapture kinetic energy Pneuvolt Inc 17 February, 2004 hydraulic US 8290675 Recovery of energy in a hybrid vehicle having a hydraulic or pneumatic braking system Robert Bosch Gmbh 19 August, 2005 Electrical/hydraulic EP 1764256 Energy regenerating device for recovering kinetic energy in motor vehicles Ippolito, Massimo 20 September, 2005 electrical US 8327637 Hydraulic energy recovery system with dual-powered auxiliary hydraulics Parker-Hannifin Corporation 28 March, 2006 hydraulic EP 2125413 Hybrid vehicle energy management methods and apparatus Mack Trucks, Inc. 22 February, 2007 electrical US 8111036 System for electrically connecting and disconnecting a vehicle generator from a vehicle storage unit Stephen George Rosenstock 26 February, 2007 electrical US 20110320074 Kinetic energy recovery and electric drive for vehicles Erlston Lester J, Miles Michael D 19 December, 2007 electrical EP 2282907 An energy recovery system for a vehicle driveline Torotrak (Development) Limited 20 May, 2008 flywheel US 8281587 Supercharged boost-assist engine brake International Engine Intellectual Property Company, Llc 13 August, 2009 supercapacitor EP 2492125 Method for recovering kinetic energy of hybrid electric vehicles, and energy accumulator using compressed air Instituto Alberto Luiz De Coimbra 15 October, 2009 hydraulic US 20120212042 Hydraulic assembly and brake system for a motor vehicle Robert Bosch Gmbh 2 November, 2009 hydraulic US 8172022 Energy recovery systems for vehicles and vehicle wheels comprising the same Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc 30 November, 2009 flywheel EP 2397358 Regenerative brake system for a vehicle Paccar Inc 21 June, 2010 electrical/mechanical US 20120080249 Front wheel energy recovery system Yates Iii William MIngram Benjamin T 4 October, 2010 hydraulic EP 2450246 Energy recovering device for recovering energy in a vehicle ZanettiStudios S.r.l 3 November, 2010 electrical US 8344529 Method and system for energy harvesting Energy Intelligence, LLC 18 January, 2011 electrical/mechanical
  • 8.  Comparison of energy storage used in vehicles Source: Energy Storage Systems Cost Update, Sandia National Laboratories (SAND2011-2730) April 2011 Electrical Hydraulic Mechanical
  • 9.  Technology Introduction  Three Main Categories  Electrical KERS  Mechanical KERS  Hydraulic KERS  Entrepreneurial Opportunities  Conclusion
  • 10.  Technology: Energy Conversion  The vehicle’s electric traction motor is operated as a generator during braking and its output is supplied to an electrical load.  Examples: Electrical Pancake Generator in cars Source: (1) Cibulka, J., “Kinetic energy recovery system by means of flywheel energy storage”, Advanced Engineering 3(2009)1, ISSN 1846-5900 (2) Lester J Erlston, Michael D. Mikes, “ Kinetic energy recovery and electric drive for vehicles”, US Patent Application Publication, US 2011/03200074, Dec 29,2011
  • 11.  The Development Direction  High energy density: to store energy efficiently  High power density: to release the energy quickly  However, sometimes the development path (indicated by the arrows) is NOT straight forward to the target. Source: Electric Power Research Institute, “Electricity Energy Storage Technology Options: A White Paper Primer on Applications, Costs, and Benefits”, 2010 Lead Acid Battery Supercapacitor Compressed Air Energy Storage Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Flow Battery
  • 12.  Application of Supercapacitors in Vehicles  Supercapacitor is one of the six key enabling technologies for electric vehicles.  Supercapacitor manufacturers are active and many others are tending on targeting electric vehicle sector. Source: Dr Peter Harrop, “EV lessons from Energy Harvesting and Supercapacitors event”, IDTechEx, 15 Nov 2012
  • 13.  Start a car with Supercapacitors Source: CAP-XX, “Supercapacitors for Automotive & other vehicle application”, March 2012
  • 14.  Case Study -1 Source: CAP-XX, “Supercapacitors for Automotive & other vehicle application”, March 2012
  • 15.  Comparison with Batteries & Conventional Capacitors Source: P Kurzweil, “Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors” Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources, Pages 607-633, 2009
  • 16.  Cost Comparison between Battery & Supercapacitor  Cost per energy ($/kWh) of supercapacitor is almost 10 times of battery.  Cost per power ($/kW) of supercapacitor is only ~25% of battery. Source: Andrew Burke, “Ultracapacitor Technologies and Application in Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, International Journal of Energy Research, July 2009
  • 17.  Specific properties of different supercapacitor technologies Source: P Kurzweil, “Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors” Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources, Pages 607-633, 2009
  • 18.  Carbonaceous materials for supercapacitors Source: P Kurzweil, “Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors: Carbon Materials” Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources, Pages 607-633, 2009
  • 19.  The energy density of supercapacitors are improved through using different materials as electrode. Source: Charith Tammineedi, “Modeling Battery-ultracapacitor Hybrid Systems For Solar And Wind Applications”, A Thesis in Energy and Mineral Engineering , The Pennsylvania State University, 2011
  • 20.  The lifecycle degradation is improved by using Carbon NanoTubes as electrodes in superacapacitors. supercapacitor with CNT Other kinds of supercapacitor Source: Malachi Noked, Sivan Okashy, Dr. Tomer Zimrin, Prof. Doron Aurbach, “Composite Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Electrodes for Electrical Double-Layer Super Capacitors”, Angewandte Chemie, Volume 124, Issue 7, pages 1600–1603, February 13, 2012
  • 21.  Both energy and power density are improved by using Graphene:  Energy density - 25 Wh/Kg (comparable with conventional batteries)  Power density - 10 KW/Kg (suitable for surge power delivery) Source: (1) Yan Wang, etc, “Super Capacitor Devices Based on Graphene Materials” , J. Phys. Chem. C, 2009, 113 (30), pp 13103–13107, ACS, 2009 (2) Hongcai Gao, etc, “High-Performance Asymmetric supercapacitor based on Graphene Hydrogel and Nanostrucutred MnO2“ ACS, 2012 supercapacitor with GH//MnO2 Other kinds of supercapacitors
  • 22.  Technology Introduction  Three Main Categories  Electrical KERS  Mechanical KERS  Hydraulic KERS  Entrepreneurial Opportunities  Conclusion
  • 23.  Mechanical KERS, i.e., Flywheel KERS (Flybrid ®)  More efficient & less power loss in energy transfer  Direct translational kinetic energy to rotational kinetic energy transition  Flybrid® grows rapidly in racing cars having potential in commercial cars  Market players like Volvo, Jaguar, Ford have been actively in Flybrid®
  • 24.  Rotational engergy:  where  Another equation – energy density:  Material and size significantly change stored energy  Flywheel now can spin as high as 60,000RPM  400kJ usable energy storage for 60kW power transmission  Carbon fiber (25kg weight, 13L volume, A4 Paper Size)  Constraints: material tensile strength, weight, space Year Material Weight Ultimate Strength 1940s Steel 1633kg Up to 900Mpa 1950s Titanium alloy ~800kg Up to 1100Mpa 2000s Carbon Fiber 25kg 1600 – 6400Mpa Future Carbon Nanotube <20kg 11000 – 63000Mpa
  • 25.  Proportion of Kinetic Energy recoverable under braking values in Joules Douglas. C & Chris. B, Mechanical Hybrid comprising a flywheel and CVT for Motosport & mainstream Automotive applications, 2008 62.7%
  • 26.  Proportion of stored energy released back to the wheels values in Joules Douglas. C & Chris. B, Mechanical Hybrid comprising a flywheel and CVT for Motosport & mainstream Automotive applications, 2008 83.9%
  • 27. Carbon-fiber- reinforced polymer Glass-fiber- reinforced polymer Alloy
  • 28. 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Tensile Strength of Material (MPa) Steel Titanium E-Glass Laminate Carbon Fiber Carbon Fiber Carbon Fiber Toray T1000G S2-Glass Future: Carbon Nanotube: 63000 Graphene:130000
  • 29. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Material's Density (g/cm3) Steel Titanium E-Glass Laminate Carbon Fiber Carbon Fiber Carbon Fiber Toray T1000G S2-Glass Future: Carbon Nanotube: 0.37-1.34 Graphene:1.00
  • 30. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Specific Energy Specific Energy (kJ/Kg) Steel Titanium E-Glass S2-Glass Laminate Carbon Fiber Carbon Fiber Carbon Fiber Toray T1000G
  • 31. 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 Specific Energy Specific Energy Graphene Carbon Nanotube Carbon Fiber Toray T1000G (kJ/Kg)
  • 32.  Advantages  High Efficiency  Low weight  Long lifespan  Wide working temperature range  Low impact to environment  Disadvantages  Space & size constraints  Maintenance  Safety
  • 33.  Materials  Newer materials: carbon nanotube, etc  Process & Design  More efficient in transmission  Gears design  Future  Opportunity of magnetic rotor  Multi-flywheel  Aircraft application
  • 34.  Technology Introduction  Three Main Categories  Electrical KERS  Mechanical KERS  Hydraulic KERS  Entrepreneurial Opportunities  Conclusion
  • 35.  Axial Piston Unit + Gearbox (pump)  Hydraulic Pressure Accumulator  Pressure Relief Valve  Valve Control Block HIC  Electronic Controller RC
  • 36. Initial Status BrakingAccelerating
  • 37. http://www.grainger.com/Grainger/hydraulic-accumulator/hydraulic-system- components/hydraulics/ecatalog/N-c7a 12312.5 6512.5 3568.75 2762.5 1850 $1,000 $10,000 $100,000 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 DollarperGal Size (Gal) Price per unit volumn Hydraulic Accumulator
  • 38.  Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles  Conceptual/Passenger car – minor  McLaren Mercedes used it on 1999  City Bus/Delivery Trucks/Garbage Trucks  EATON-UPS HLA project: up to 35% improved fuel economy and up to 30% CO2 emissions reduction  Bosch Rexroth HRB for garbage trucks in Germany and US, 20-25% fuel save and 2-3 times brake life extended. - http://www.gizmag.com/formula-one-kers/11324/ - http://www.marketwatch.com/story/ups-to-add-40-hydraulic-hybrid-vehicles-to-its-fleet-2012-10-03
  • 39.  Advantages  High energy conversion efficiency  Disadvantages  Size  Weight  Safety
  • 40.  Apply to heavy vehicles  Size & weight reduction  Large Diameter Flat Format (LDFF) hydraulic motors  Development of Piezoelectric Hydraulic Pump
  • 41.  Technology Introduction  Three Main Categories  Electrical KERS  Mechanical KERS  Hydraulic KERS  Entrepreneurial Opportunities  Conclusion
  • 42.  KERS is a effective way to improve fuel efficiency by recovering the kinetic energy from braking energy  Economically save the cost especially the fuel price is rising.  Environmentally, reduced waste exhaust gas that cause pollution  Currently, mostly widely adopted in the Formula 1 racing  Commercial cars launched such as Mercedes S-Series Hybrid.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TgVvzoxGj_g  Battery? Flywheel? Hydraulic?  Future application in Aviation & Sailing
  • 43.  Technology Introduction  Three Main Categories  Electrical KERS  Mechanical KERS  Hydraulic KERS  Entrepreneurial Opportunities  Conclusion
  • 44.  Comparison of three technologies of KERS  KERS, with whatever technology, is still in the stage of explore and research, such as F1 and Le Mans, where commercialization of KERS still has a long way to go. Technologies Scale Material Cost ($/kW) Electrical - supercapacitor Larger Graphene 3626-10000 Mechanical - flywheel Smaller (weight & space constraints) Steel, Titanium, carbon fiber, carbon nanotube 1950-2200 Hydraulic Larger steel, carbon fiber 2500-4300

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