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Micro-Electronic Mechanical Systems (MEMS): How is Technology Change Creating New Opportunities in Them?
 

Micro-Electronic Mechanical Systems (MEMS): How is Technology Change Creating New Opportunities in Them?

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These slides discuss how reductions in the feature sizes (i.e., scaling) of micro-electronic mechanical systems (MEMS) have and are still leading to rapid improvements in the cost and performance of ...

These slides discuss how reductions in the feature sizes (i.e., scaling) of micro-electronic mechanical systems (MEMS) have and are still leading to rapid improvements in the cost and performance of MEMS. Like the reductions in the feature sizes of transistors and metal lines on ICs, some mechanical systems benefit from reductions in feature sizes. These systems include resonators, micro-gas analyzers, ink jet printers, gyroscopes, and digital mirror devices. These systems are experiencing rapid improvements as the feature sizes are being reduced and these improvements will likely create entrepreneurial opportunities. These slides help students find technologies that benefit from reductions in scale and thus technologies that will both experience rapid improvements in cost and performance and create entrepreneurial opportunities. These slides are based on a forthcoming book entitled “Technology Change and the Rise of New Industries and they are the fifth session in a course entitled “Analyzing Hi-Tech Opportunities.”

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    Micro-Electronic Mechanical Systems (MEMS): How is Technology Change Creating New Opportunities in Them? Micro-Electronic Mechanical Systems (MEMS): How is Technology Change Creating New Opportunities in Them? Presentation Transcript

    • How is Technological Change Creating New Opportunities in Micro-Electronic Mechanical Systems (MEMS) 5th Session of MT5009 A/Prof Jeffrey Funk Division of Engineering and Technology Management National University of SingaporeSources: Clark Ngyuen’s lectures at UC Berkeley and others
    • Objectives• What has and is driving improvements in cost and performance of MEMS?• Can we use such information to – identify new types of MEMS and applications for them? – analyze potential for improvements in these new technologies? – compare new and old technologies now and in future? – better understand when the new technologies might become technically and economically feasible? – analyze the opportunities created by these new technologies? – understand technology change in general
    • This is Part of the Fifth Session in MT5009Session Technology1 Objectives and overview of course2 Four methods of achieving improvements in performance and cost: 1) improving efficiency; 2) radical new processes; 3) geometric scaling; 4) improvements in “key” components (e.g., ICs)3 Semiconductors, ICs, new forms of transistors, electronic systems4 Bio-electronics, tissue engineering, and health care5 MEMS, nano-technology and programmable matter6 Telecommunications and Internet7 Human-computer interfaces, virtual and augmented reality8 Lighting and displays9 Energy and transportation10 Solar cells and wind turbines
    • Outline• What is MEMS and what are the applications?• MEMS and Moore’s Law (Benefits of scaling)• Example of MEMS for filters and other components for mobile phone chips• Example of micro-gas analyzers• Example of MEMS for Ink Jet Printer• Design tools for MEMS
    • Micro-engine Gear Train Multi-level springs that that are part of Micro-Engine Increasingly Detailed View of a Micro-Engine Source: http://www.memx.com/ Side view of springs
    • Ratchet Mechanism Actuator Torsional Acutator Early Optical Switch Clutch Mechanism Anti-reverse mechanism http://www.memx.com/
    • Accelerometer less detail more detailInertial Sensor (includes accelerometer and gyroscope) less detail more detail
    • Another List of Applications (1)• Accelerometer – cause airbag deployment in automobile collisions – control handheld games (Wii) or mobile phones – in PCs to stop hard disk head when free-fall is detected – Seismic imaging – Infrastructure monitoring (HP, sensing as a service, $150 B USD)• Gyroscopes (includes accelerometer and inertial sensor) – maintain orientation in mobile phones, automobiles• Pressure sensors – car tires, manifold, blood pressure• Fluid acceleration – micro-cooling of ICs, including bio-electronic ICs
    • Another List of Applications (2)• Inkjet printing – piezoelectrics or thermal bubble ejection to deposit ink on paper• Optical switching technology (Photonics)• Micro-mirrors – For various types of displays – Add a projector to your mobile phone• Interferometric modulator display – Used to create various colors in a display
    • Source: http://www.isuppli.com/MEMS-and-Sensors/MarketWatch/Pages/MEMS-Market-Rebounds-in-2010-Following-Two-Year-Decline.aspx
    • Outline• What is MEMS and what are the applications?• MEMS and Moore’s Law• Example of MEMS for filters and other components for mobile phone chips• Example of micro-gas analyzers• Example of MEMS for Ink Jet Printer• Design tools for MEMS
    • Figure 2. Declining Feature Size 100 10 Micrometers (Microns) Feature length 1 Junction Depth 0.1 Gate Oxide Thickness 0.01 0.001 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000Source: (ONeil, 2003) Year
    • In 1990s emphasis on both mechanical components and transistors Accelerometer Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
    • Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
    • Limitations of Scaling for Accelerometers• Since displacement is proportional to size of mass in accelerometer – Smaller mass leads to weaker sensitivity to displacement – Thus smaller features (e.g., springs) are bad• Solution for MEMS-based accelerometers – Integrate transistors with MEMS device to compensate for the poor sensitivity of MEMS-based accelerometers – put transistors close to the MEMS device in order to reduce parasitic capacitance• This led to pessimistic view towards MEMS Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
    • Nevertheless, improvements were made to accelerometers in the form of smaller sizechips. Source: Trends and frontiers of MEMS, Wen H. Ko; Cs: sensing capacitance
    • But then other Applications Began to Emerge • Gyroscopes • Micro-fluidics • Digital mirror device • Optical switches • These applications benefited from smaller sizes! Emphasis changed – from “adding transistors” to “reducing feature size” – from “integration of transistors and mechanical functions” to chips with only mechanical functions/devicesSource: Ngyuen, Berkeley lecture
    • Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
    • Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
    • Benefits of Size Reduction: MEMS (2)• Feature sizes are currently much larger than those on ICs – MEMS: around or less than one micron – ICs: 22 nanometers (0.02 microns)• Partly because – devices are different (e.g., much overlap of layers) – processes (e.g., wet vs. plasma etching) are slightly different……• The improvements and thus the opportunities are probably limitless – We just need to find the applications that will benefit from smaller sizes and to develop those applicationsSource: Nyugen’s Berkeley lectures andhttp://www.boucherlensch.com/bla/IMG/pdf/BLA_MEMS_Q4_010.pdf
    • Smaller feature sizes also lead to more mechanical & electronic components AccelerometerSource: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
    • Outline• What is MEMS and what are the applications?• MEMS and Moore’s Law• Example of MEMS for filters and other components for mobile phone chips• Example of micro-gas analyzers• Example of MEMS for Ink Jet Printer• Design tools for MEMS
    • Mass is function of length (L), width (W), and h (height); Q is amplification factor,V is voltage; d is distance between bottom of beam and underlying material Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
    • Scaling of Mechanical Resonator • Operates slightly different from guitar string • Calculations show that frequency rises as 1/L2 • Replacing anchored beam with free-free beam and reducing L (length) to 2 microns, W and H to nano- dimensions, causes frequency to rise to above 1 GHz – Inexpensive mechanical resonators can replace electrical filters – Which also enables the use of multiple filters and thus communication at many frequency bands (and thus cognitive radio) • There is no theoretical limit to reducing sizes and thus increasing frequenciesSource: EE C245/ME C218: Introduction to MEMS, Lecture 2m: Benefits of Scaling I
    • Making Resonators with semiconductor processes/equipment
    • (t = inner radius)But actually calculations show that disks scale better than do beams or springs Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
    • Build a filter with multiple disksSource: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
    • Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures; RF BPF: radio frequency bypass filter
    • Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lecturesRF = radio frequency; SAW = surface acoustic wave: VCO: voltage controlled oscillators
    • Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
    • Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
    • Anotherapplication for MEMs in phones, GPS, and other devices Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
    • Outline• What is MEMS and what are the applications?• MEMS and Moore’s Law• Example of MEMS for filters and other components for mobile phone chips• Example of micro-gas analyzers• Example of MEMS for Ink Jet Printer• Design tools for MEMS
    • Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures; ppb: parts per billion;ppt: parts per trillion
    • Chromatography is collective term for set of laboratory techniques for separation of mixturesSource: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
    • (1)Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
    • (2)Source: Clark Ngyuen, August and September 2011 Berkeley lectures
    • Outline• What is MEMS and what are the applications?• MEMS and Moore’s Law• Example of MEMS for filters and other components for mobile phone chips• Example of micro-gas analyzers• Example of MEMS for Ink Jet Printer• Design tools for MEMS
    • Outline• What is MEMS and what are the applications?• MEMS and Moore’s Law• Example of MEMS for filters and other components for mobile phone chips• Example of micro-gas analyzers• Example of MEMS for Ink Jet Printer• Design tools for MEMS
    • MEMS design tools• Create individual 2-D layers, stack them on top of each other, and create complex 3-D devices• Design tools (e.g., 3D process simulator) enable designers to visualize their creations before they are built • Similar to CAD tools for ICs • Improvements in ICs lead to better CAD tools• Design libraries have been developed which enable designers to create complex designs from multiple standard components – Similar to standard cell libraries with ICsSource: http://www.memx.com/design_tools.htm
    • Design Library Process simulator
    • Conclusions (1)• There appears to be many benefits from – reducing the scale of features in MEMS – adding more transistors to MEMS• These benefits depend on the application and the way in which the application is implemented• These benefits are causing many types of MEMS to experience exponential improvements in cost and performance• This degree of change will probably create many types of entrepreneurial opportunities
    • Conclusions (2)• For your presentations, – How will an existing new application diffuse to a broader market as this scaling proceeds? – When will a new application become technically and economically feasible as this scaling proceeds? – To what extent will this create entrepreneurial opportunities and what kinds of opportunities?