Flexible OLED Displays


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These slides use concepts from my (Jeff Funk) course entitled analyzing hi-tech opportunities to analyze how the economic feasibility of flexible OLED displays are becoming better through newer and thinner materials, roll-to roll printing, and larger production equipment. Thinner materials along with new materials increase flexibility, reduce moisture permeation and thus increase the lifetime, and reduce cost. Flexibility enables displays that conform to complex shaped things such as wrists and backpacks and that can be fit inside pens and other tubes. Along with other technologies, this further facilitates information access.

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Flexible OLED Displays

  1. 1. Chua Pei Pei Pauline - A0098566JSneha Shashi Kumar - A0102912WChan Yue Ming - A0098453UEdwin Gerard Lam - A0098404BNivali Chenreddy - A0102885A
  2. 2. Introduction to Flexible OLED Challenges of Flexible OLEDMaterials & Process - Improvisation Opportunities for Flexible OLEDs Conclusion
  3. 3. Evolution of Display TechnologiesLumpish CRT to Flexible Display – Source - http://jilinudt.com/english/Solutions.html Introduction to Flexible OLED
  4. 4. Introduction to OLED An OLED (organic light-emitting diode) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compound which emits light in response to an electric current.  Substrate  Anode layer  Organic layers  Cathode layer  Encapsulation layer Layers of OLED Introduction to Flexible OLED
  5. 5. Introduction to Flexible OLEDBasic Principle of OLED 1) Cathode (-) 2) Emissive Layer 3) Emission of Radiation 4) Conductive Layer 5) Anode (+)The flow of light emission can beillustrated by the concept of a persongoing down the big slide. Introduction to Flexible OLED
  6. 6. Comparison with OLED and LCD Parameters OLED LCD Color Brightness & Contrast Black Point/ Turning Pixels Off Incredible ContrastSource: http://www.smallhd.com/products/ac7/oled-vs-lcd-on-camera-field-monitors.html Introduction to Flexible OLED
  7. 7. Introduction to Flexible OLED Comparison with OLED and LCD Parameters OLED LCD Color Brightness & Contrast Power Consumption Viewing Angle Lower Power Consumption Better View Angle No constant burning backlight in OLED Viewing Angle of 165° technologySource: http://archive.siliconchip.com.au/cms/A_30650/article.htm Introduction to Flexible OLED
  8. 8. Introduction to Flexible OLED Comparison with OLED and LCD Parameters OLED LCD Color Brightness & Contrast Power Consumption Viewing Angle Cost OLED Displays Relative Cost difference between OLED LCD, White OLED and Red-Green- Lighting Blue OLED Producing large OLED panels is still very expensive - low yields and high material costs. LCD Source: OLED-Info, Aug 9,2012 Introduction to Flexible OLED
  9. 9. Introduction to Flexible OLEDComparison with OLED and LCD Parameters OLED LCD Color Brightness & Contrast Power Consumption Viewing Angle Cost Lifespan  Lifespan LCD OLED 60,000hrs Red – 46,000hrs, Green – 2,30,000hrs, Blue – 14,000hrs Source: http://www.differencebetween.info/difference-between-lcd-and-oled Introduction to Flexible OLED
  10. 10. Introduction to Flexible OLEDIntroduction to Flexible OLEDFlexible OLED is a type of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) incorporating aflexible plastic /glass substrate on which the electroluminescent organicsemiconductor is deposited.How is flexible OLED different from OLED?? Flexible substrate Electrode material Encapsulation process Introduction to Flexible OLED
  11. 11. Concept Video- 3M Flexible Display Introduction to Flexible OLED
  12. 12. Introduction to Flexible OLEDRoadmap for Flexible DisplayResolutionLifespanArea Source: http://www.3neo.org/rs/297/d112d6ad-54ec-438b-9358-4483f9e98868/e70/filename/workshopmadrid-cros.pdf Introduction to Flexible OLED
  13. 13. Introduction to Flexible OLED Challenges of Flexible OLEDMaterials & Process - Improvisation Opportunities for Flexible OLEDs Conclusion Challenges of OLED
  14. 14. Challenges of Flexible OLEDs Efficiency Lifespan/ Reliability Large Area Devices Cost Challenges of OLED
  15. 15. Introduction to Flexible OLED Challenges of Flexible OLEDMaterials & Process - Improvisation Opportunities for Flexible OLEDs Conclusion Materials & Process - Improvisation
  16. 16. Materials & ProcessMaterial & Process - Improvisation Improving Improving Materials Process Substrate Cost of Manufacturing Lifespan Bigger/More Fabrication Electrode Plants Materials & Process - Improvisation
  17. 17. Materials Improvisation OLED Material Cost Targets Integrated Substrate Target by 2015 Integrated Substrate < $52/sq.m Organics < $10/sq.m Encapsulation < $20/sq.mSource: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/ssl/maikowski_enablers_longbeach2013.pdf Materials Improvisation
  18. 18. Materials ImprovisationFlexible Substrate Properties of Flexible Substrates:  Flexibility – Stiffness vs. Thickness  Mechanical, Thermal, and Dimensional Stability  Surface Roughness & Optical Transparency  Moisture Absorption Properties Polymide PEN Flexible Glass  Depends onMax Process Temp (0C) 350 180 600 various applicationsTransparency Low Good ExcellentSurface Roughness Medium Medium ExcellentCTE (ppm/0C) 16 40 5Moisture Absorption Low Medium NoneCost Medium Medium HighCTE – Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Materials Improvisation
  19. 19. Materials ImprovisationFlexible Substrate - Thickness As the thickness of theglass decreases it becomesmore flexible. Polymer has less stiffnesseven though if the thicknessof it is high comparatively. Source: Corning_AIMCAL_2011.pdf Schott – 25 & 50 µm thick Flexible glass Nippon Electric Glass – 100 µm thick Flexible glass Corning – 50 -200 µm thick Flexible glass Varied Thickness allows different type of applications. Materials Improvisation
  20. 20. Materials Improvisation Flexible Substrate - Mechanical Reliability  When a glass of thickness 50µm is bent at some radius the Stress on the glass is lower than 500µm or 100µm.  The failure probability is low when the glass is thinner and can be made more flexible. Need of Ultra thin glass for the substrate.Source : Corning_AIMCAL_2011.pdf - www.corning.com/WorkArea/downloadasset.aspx?id=48957 Materials Improvisation
  21. 21. Materials Improvisation Flexible Substrate - Thermal & Dimensional Stability Flexible Substrate benefits Thermal & Dimensional Stability Device Fabrication  Thermal Stability  Dimensional Stability Glass exhibits same Stress & Strain at 250C and 1500C when compared with PEN & Polymide. At higher temperatures Glass does not change it shape or size but Plastic has distortions. Glass is more thermally & dimensionally stable compared to plastic substratesSource : Corning_AIMCAL_2011.pdf - www.corning.com/WorkArea/downloadasset.aspx?id=48957 Materials Improvisation
  22. 22. Materials Improvisation Flexible Substrate - Device Performance Optimization Flexible Substrate Benefits Device Performance  Surface Roughness  Optical Transmission Peak to valley (Rpv) Surface Roughness Average Surface Roughness (Ra) Glass exhibits less surface roughness Glass - Transmission of light is more compared to othersSource: Corning_AIMCAL_2011.pdf - www.corning.com/WorkArea/downloadasset.aspx?id=48957 Materials Improvisation
  23. 23. Materials Improvisation Ultra Slim Glass, Plastic & Rigid Glass Substrates Advantages Over Thicker Glass: Over Plastic:  Perfect Barrier  More Flexible  Superior Surface Quality  7 x reduction in weight  ~7% Better transparency  7 x reduction in thickness  High Temperature processing >500 oC  ~50% process cost reduction by R2RSource: 2012 SID Exhibitor Forum (Dipak).pdf Materials Improvisation
  24. 24. Materials Improvisation Cost of Glass & PEN Substrates  Target Price for Flexible Glass - $20 per sq.m  PEN Substrate : $ 8 – 10 per sq.m Popular Glass Substrates Manufacturers for DisplaysSource: http://fennagain.wordpress.com/2013/03/29/ito-and-flexible-glass-substrates-3/ Materials Improvisation
  25. 25. Materials Improvisation OLED Lifespan challenge OLED degrades overtime due to:  Intrinsic degradation of organic polymer - More stable and efficient molecules needed - Requires a barrier to prevent the flow of water or gas entering.  Electrode oxidation - Requires a barrier to prevent the flow of water or gas entering Black spots caused by permeation Black spots grow in timeSource : HolstCenter – Future of Flexible OLEDs Materials Improvisation
  26. 26. Materials ImprovisationUltra-good barrier needed Very low permeation rate in flexible OLED: - 10-6 g/m2/day of WVTR - 10-6 to 10-3 cm3/m2/day of OTR  Increase Lifespan by 10,000 hours  Barriers in production: glass or metal flip Barriers in OLED is 1 million times stronger than typical package of a potato chips! Source : HolstCenter – Future of Flexible OLEDs Materials Improvisation
  27. 27. Materials ImprovisationPermeation rate of different Substrates WVTR – Water Vapour Transmission Rate, OTR – OxygenWater Vapor and Oxygen Transmission Rates of various materials Transmission Rateused as Substrates Material WVTR g/m2/day OTR g/m2/day PET 3.9 – 17 1.7 - 7.7 PEN 7.3 3.0 15 nm Al/PET 0.18 0.2 - 2.9 SiOx/PET 0.007 – 0.03 ORMOCER/PET 0.07 OLED Requirement 10-6 10-6 to 10-3 Source: IDTechEx Materials Improvisation
  28. 28. Materials Improvisation Comparison of Different Barrier Type Barrier Type WVTR OTR Strengths Weaknesses g/m2/day Cm3/m2/day Polymer 10-1 to 102 10-1 -10 Excellent clarity Expensive (no barrier) Flexible and tough Low performance WVTR can change abruptly Ceramic 10o – 10-2 3x10-1 Good Clarity Brittle in tension Coated Somewhat flexible Cannot creased Polymer Multilayer 10-3 – 10-6 10-1 – 10-4 Good Clarity Brittle in tension Ceramic Somewhat flexible Cannot creased coated High cost for > 2 polymer layers Glass zero zero Transparent Not used in Roll- Scratch resistant to- rollSource: http://www.flexcon.com/Resource-Center/~/media/Files/PDFs/Website/Resource%20Center/White%20Papers/Combining%20Barrier%20Technology%20with%20Other%20Important%20Properties%20in%20Flexible%20Electronics.ashx Materials Improvisation
  29. 29. Materials Improvisation Lifespan using Multilayer Ceramic Film Multilayer Film – Single Material Multilayer Flim – Different Materials  Up to 3 dyads of SiOx/Parylene  SiOx/Al2O3/Parylene  SiNx/Al2O3/Parylene > 7500 Hours > 7500 HoursSource: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/pdfs/pvrw2010_graham.pdf Materials Improvisation
  30. 30. Materials ImprovisationFlexible Electrode MaterialImprovement for Electrode (Anode and Cathode layer) Transmittance Luminance Efficiency Graphene Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes (G) – (ITO) - Current Future Brittle & inferior  More flexible and flexibility higher efficiencies Resistance increases  Fabrication & at low temperature processing cost is Expensive to integrate high and into displays complicated Materials Improvisation
  31. 31. Materials Improvisation Electrode Transmittance Graphene films have higher Transmittance over a wider wavelength range with respect to SWNT films, metallic films and ITOSource: http://ec.europa.eu/research/industrial_technologies/pdf/graphene-presentations/0-3-ferrari-21032011_en.pdf Materials Improvisation
  32. 32. Materials Improvisation Electrode - Luminous Efficiency Luminance Efficiency of Phosphorescent OLED Electrode Luminance Efficiency (lm/W) Graphene 102.7 (4L – G- HNO3) ITO 85.6 Graphene Electrode has higher luminous efficiency than the ITO electrode and hence the better.Source: http://home.skku.edu/~femlab/publications/2012/nphoton.2011.318.pdf Materials Improvisation
  33. 33. Materials ImprovisationPrice of ITO (Electrode material) ~$600 /Kg Source: http://www.bishop-hill.net/blog/2012/3/9/running-out-of-natural-resources.html Materials Improvisation
  34. 34. Materials ImprovisationPrice of Graphene (Electrode material) Graphene meets electrical and optical requirements The fracture strain of graphene is ten times higher than that of ITO. Advantages over ITO – Mechanical flexibility, chemical durability, good barrier Chemical Vapour Disposition Process $ 1K – 99K per Kg ( quality vs. price) Roll to Roll – mass production has potential to reduce operational costs by 70-80% at scaleSource: A roadmap for graphene - http://lib.semi.ac.cn:8080/download/2012/11/15/110603.pdf http://www.ornl.gov/adm/partnerships/events/Dec_Spark/Speight_Graphene%20v5.pdf http://www.alibaba.com/product-gs/825094072/Graphene_chemical_.html http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0912/0912.5485.pdf
  35. 35. Process Improvisation Roll to Roll Process Cost  Lower the cost of manufacturing of display  Cost per square foot of OLED are expected to decline with increase in volume Active Matrix OLED Passive Matrix OLED Projected Cost AMOLED - $74 per sqft  Minimum Efficient Scale – 20,000 square feet  Achieve a cost of $74 per square feet at a capacity of 100,000 square feet per weekSource: http://people.ccmr.cornell.edu/~cober/mse542/page2/files/Flex%20Manufacturing%20Concepts.pdf Process Improvisation
  36. 36. Process ImprovisationFuture Fabs for Flexible OLED Displays Pilot/Mass Production  8-Gen (2200x2500mm) Plants in next 2yrs: fab & 6.5 Gen fab – AMOLED displays 3.5-Gen (730 × 460 mm) flexible OLED production line. Process Improvisation
  37. 37. Introduction to Flexible OLED Challenges of Flexible OLEDMaterials & Process - Improvisation Opportunities for Flexible OLEDs Conclusion Opportunities for Flexible OLEDs
  38. 38. Opportunities for Flexible OLEDFlexible OLED Ecosystem  OLED Display Makers Opportunities for producing AMOLED and PMOLED displays  Chemical Companies Produce materials used in OLED production-emissive layers, transport layers, conductive inks, doping materials etc.  Manufacturing Equipment Develop research and production of OLED equipment Opportunities for Flexible OLEDs
  39. 39. Opportunities for Flexible OLEDFlexible OLED Ecosystem  Research/ IP Companies OLED Research and Technology services  OLED Retailors Sales of display, modules and other services  OLED Lighting OLED is set to revolutionize the lighting industry with all small and big players Opportunities for Flexible OLEDs
  40. 40. Opportunities for Flexible OLEDComplementary Opportunities to Flexible OLED Stretchable Batteries Flexible Electronics Opportunities for Flexible OLEDs
  41. 41. Opportunities for Flexible OLEDFrom flexible to conformable  For 3-D surfaces  Platform for large area conformable electronics Could this be the future?? Opportunities for Flexible OLEDs
  42. 42. Opportunities for Flexible OLEDApplications: Prototypes and Products Samsung, Microsoft • Hype on new ‘Youm’ Flexible OLED display Sharp • Flexible OLED prototypes Sony • "Rollable" OTFT - driven OLED Display that can wrap around a Pencil Opportunities for Flexible OLEDs
  43. 43. Opportunities for Flexible OLEDApplications - Navigation or Military Navigation Maps (or even photo albums) could be made from bendable media cards Military Researchers at HP are expected to deliver a Dick Tracey wrist watch to the US army Opportunities for Flexible OLEDs
  44. 44. Opportunities for Flexible OLEDApplications: Ultra Thin Rollable OLED  Flexible OLEDs can be manufactured akin to newspapers on a printing press  Creating innovative pens with displays Opportunities for Flexible OLEDs
  45. 45. Opportunities for Flexible OLEDOther Applications  Manufacturing car roofs, car tails and car windows  Designing OLED costumes  Headsets with OLEDs Opportunities for Flexible OLEDs
  46. 46. Introduction to Flexible OLED Challenges of Flexible OLEDMaterials & Process - Improvisation Opportunities for Flexible OLEDs Conclusion Conclusion
  47. 47. Conclusion Flexible OLED Challenges of Flexible OLED Substrate Cost of Manufacturing Electrode Bigger/More Fabrication Plants LifespanMaterials & Process Improvisation Entrepreneurial Opportunities Conclusion
  48. 48. Opportunities for Guys…
  49. 49. Q&A