Bioluminescence
MT5009 – Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities
For information on other new technologies that are becoming...
2
Bioluminescence
3
5
Bioluminescence Why does Bioluminescence occur?
How it Happens ?
BioluminescenceVs. FluorescenceVs.
Incandescence
Opport...
6
Terrestrial Bioluminescence
Firefly
Glow Worms
Earthworms
Fungi,Algae
Mushrooms
• 80- 85% of oceanic world is
bioluminescent
• Jellyfish, coral.
• Dinoflagellates
7
Aquatic Bioluminescence
8
Bioluminescence Near Cape Horn
• Chart with sea depth and light penetration
Major reason why most bioluminescent organisms emit blue or green color
9
Bio...
Invitation to a meal
Mating games
Puzzling predators
Burglar Alarms
Clever disguise
10
Why does it occur !!
How it Happens?
11
BioluminescenceFluorescenceIncandescence
Lowest efficiency
12
BioluminescenceVs. Fluorescence and
Incandescence
Light Ligh...
Bioluminescence
BioluminescenceVs. Fluorescence and
Incandescence
13
Source: STRUCTURE and SPECTRA in BIOLUMINESCENCE John...
Parallel Streams of Research
14
CAN be Engineered
CANNOT be Engineered
Focus on optimizing growth conditions
Study on ligh...
Applications Lighting
hito ni akali wo nlisuru hotaru kana
The firefly Gives light to its pursuer…
15
Lighting Industry
Source: Lighting the way: perspectives on global lighting market 2012, Mckinsey study
16
Lighting consum...
17
Lighting consumes most Electricity
According to EIA, in commercial buildings Lighting fixtures
consume 3 times the ener...
Incandescence is “Hot light” or black body radiation
Creates light by heating of filament
Highly inefficient! 90% of energ...
Cold light
Most efficient of all the sources of lights. ~98% efficiency
As cultured at micro-organic level, immune to exte...
Uses bioluminescent bacteria, fed on methane and composted material
Provides soft mood lighting
Produces low intensity lig...
Team of researchers from Cambridge placed genes from fireflies and
bioluminescent bacteria into E.coli
Codon optimization ...
• Thinkers at IDEO are working with scientists from Lim Lab at the University of
California, San Francisco to find a way t...
• Luminosity comparison
– Spectrum of bioluminescence almost similar to fluorescence though its
more spread out.
• Scalabi...
• Synthetic Luciferin Vs. Natural Luciferin gene
– Scientists have been able to invent synthetic chemicals which have
almo...
• Luminosity of Bioluminescence
Limitations of Bioluminescence based
Lighting
Light source Output (Lumens)
Firefly 0.04
In...
Comparisons
28
Technology Adoption
High
Medium
Low
Technology Comparison
Drivers of Adoption
29
Bioluminescence Why does Bioluminescence occur?
How it Happens ?
BioluminescenceVs. FluorescenceVs.
Incandescence
Oppor...
Radiation and Scans
InVivo Imaging
A noninvasive insight into living organisms
Understand disease related changes in the body
What is InVivo I...
InVivo Imaging
Conventional Methods
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Single photon emission computed
tomography (SPECT)
Po...
Bacteria Cell
Virus Cell
Transgene
Bioluminescent Cell /
Receptor Gene
BLI - Concept
1 2 3 4
Inject, Infect, Implant Image...
BLI - Concept
Growth of cancer cell over 4 weeks can be observed
Source : A New Diagnostic System in Cancer Research: Biol...
PET vs. MRI vs. BLI
Equipment Costs
Mouse Preparation
Time
Scanning Time
Total Time for
1 animal
Data Analysis
Total Time ...
Market Potential – InVivo Imaging
790
900
1050
1200
1350
1550
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2012 2013 2014 20...
Cost Radiation
Level
Scanning
Time
Imaging
Quality
Preparation
Time
Bioluminescence MRI PET
Low
Medium
High
Technology Com...
Main Drivers for Technology Adoption
40%
40%
20%
Efficacy Health Safety Cost
39
Bioluminescence Why does Bioluminescence occur?
How it Happens ?
BioluminescenceVs. FluorescenceVs.
Incandescence
Oppor...
Food Industry
• Current food regulations
 Food development and Authority
 HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control
Po...
According to The US National Library of Medicine, in the United
States alone about 48 million people get sick from consumi...
Existing method for detection of
food contamination
Sample from
food item
Dilution planted in
agar based media
Incubation ...
Existing methods for detection of
food contamination - Limitations
Expensive laboratory equipment.
Requirement of speciali...
Evolution of the concept of ATP
bioluminescence in food industry
Adenosine-5’-Triphosphate (or ATP) is the most important ...
Applications in the Food Industry
VALUE
PROPOSITION
Disposable
Low cost
Easy operation
Fast response
Prototype of ATP biol...
Opportunities in the Food Industry
In a local butcher shops for detection of contaminated food substances such
as meat.
To...
Confectionary market growth worldwide
Source : http://www.nclcworld.com/pdf/Confectionery%20Market%20by%20Jim%20Corcoran.p...
Opportunities in industry
BioLume : Bioluminescent bacteria added will be regulated as a „food additive‟ by the FDA.
Touri...
Creation of dynamic art - The Center for Biofilm Engineering and the Montana
State University School of Art created the BI...
Genetically engineered Bioluminescent pets
Source : http://www.ibtimes.com/glowing-dark-rare-pictures-genetically-engineer...
51
Bioluminescence Why does Bioluminescence occur?
How it Happens ?
BioluminescenceVs. FluorescenceVs.
Incandescence
Oppor...
Interesting Opportunities
Plants andTrees
When crops need water or
nutrients, they'll be able to
tell farmers. Plants coul...
Factors for commercialization
Scalability
Maturity of technology
Entrepreneurial opportunities
Market penetration
Cost eff...
Lighting Opportunity
Non Nuclear Countries - need for sustainable lighting
Availability of oceans to tap Bioluminescent Ba...
Food Contamination - Opportunity
Legend
National Food Center
WHO Collaborating Testing Center
Located near Oceanic
Areas
C...
Identifying Opportunity
Base / Environment to enable Bioluminescent
Luciferase Enzyme is the base across all three applica...
Large Scale Production Setup
Production
center for
Luciferase
Enzyme
• Can be located near areas like Food
contamination t...
Technology Convergence
Nanotechnology
 System on Chip
 Nano particles
 Nano polymers
Minimum flashing
Maximum
Luminosit...
Conclusion
59
Change provides opportunities
Bioluminescence provides a new dimension to Lighting, Healthcare and Food
indu...
Name Matric Number
Ajay Srinivasan A0102866E
Anurag Sharma A0102808M
Shuchi Dangwal A0104405X
Souvik Sen A0102840W
Bioluminescence and its Applications and Economic Feasibility
Bioluminescence and its Applications and Economic Feasibility
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Bioluminescence and its Applications and Economic Feasibility

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These slides use concepts from my (Jeff Funk) course entitled analyzing hi-tech opportunities to analyze how the economic feasibility of bioluminescence is becoming better through finding better sources of bioluminescence and reducing the cost of Luciferin & luciferase. Organisms displaying bioluminescence include fungi, algae, mushrooms, fireflies, glow worms, earth worms, and jelly fish, coral, to name a few. An astonishing 80-85% of the deep oceanic world is bioluminescent and some of this can even be seen from outer space! Bioluminescence primarily occurs when chemical Luciferin reacts with oxygen in the presence of catalyst luciferase.
There are some exciting things about bioluminescence. First, it is possible to achieve it even with a coating as thin as 1mm as it works at microbial level. This would further reduce the size of lights far beyond what is possible with LEDs and OLEDs. Second, it is theoretically possible to grow trees and plants that are bioluminescent and thus use them for lighting streets and other outdoor areas. Clearly this would be tremendous success and have a large impact on the world’s energy needs in addition to possibly improving the aesthetics of cities.
More immediate applications can be found in disease detection where Bioluminescence is already being used. Specific cells, viral agents, or genes can be bioluminescently labeled. After injecting them into an organism, cameras and spectral analysis can be used to detect their movement and multiplication. This can be potentially much cheaper than MRI, computer tomography and other approaches; the challenge is to create the different bio-luminescent materials(synthetic Luciferin), their spectral signatures, and methods of injection.
A final challenge that is common to all bio-luminescent applications is the cost of the biological material, which is usually Luciferin. Extracting it from fireflies can cost tens of thousands of dollars for few milliliter, clearly a very high cost. However, synthetic methods of production have been devised and scaling up these production plants will likely lead to much lower costs. Given the experience in the chemical industry it is likely that in future with advances in technology the costs may fall more than a thousand times as the production processes are scaled up to the levels found in high-volume chemicals.

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Bioluminescence and its Applications and Economic Feasibility

  1. 1. Bioluminescence MT5009 – Analyzing Hi-Technology Opportunities For information on other new technologies that are becoming economically feasible, see http://www.slideshare.net/Funk98/presentations
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. Bioluminescence 3
  4. 4. 5 Bioluminescence Why does Bioluminescence occur? How it Happens ? BioluminescenceVs. FluorescenceVs. Incandescence Opportunities Lighting Biomedical Imaging Food Industry Inferences and Conclusion Commercialization Entrepreneurial Opportunities Technology Convergence Conclusion Outline
  5. 5. 6 Terrestrial Bioluminescence Firefly Glow Worms Earthworms Fungi,Algae Mushrooms
  6. 6. • 80- 85% of oceanic world is bioluminescent • Jellyfish, coral. • Dinoflagellates 7 Aquatic Bioluminescence
  7. 7. 8 Bioluminescence Near Cape Horn
  8. 8. • Chart with sea depth and light penetration Major reason why most bioluminescent organisms emit blue or green color 9 Bioluminescence.. In Sea
  9. 9. Invitation to a meal Mating games Puzzling predators Burglar Alarms Clever disguise 10 Why does it occur !!
  10. 10. How it Happens? 11
  11. 11. BioluminescenceFluorescenceIncandescence Lowest efficiency 12 BioluminescenceVs. Fluorescence and Incandescence Light LightHeat Light Chemical Light Moderate Efficiency Highest Efficiency
  12. 12. Bioluminescence BioluminescenceVs. Fluorescence and Incandescence 13 Source: STRUCTURE and SPECTRA in BIOLUMINESCENCE John Lee1 and Eugene S. Vysotski1,2 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 Bioluminescence has a spectrum from 430 nm to 600 nm
  13. 13. Parallel Streams of Research 14 CAN be Engineered CANNOT be Engineered Focus on optimizing growth conditions Study on lighting patterns to improve collective flashing Bioluminescent Dinoflagellates Synthetic Biology Bioluminescent bacteria Development of synthetic Luciferin Vibrio Fischeri animation
  14. 14. Applications Lighting hito ni akali wo nlisuru hotaru kana The firefly Gives light to its pursuer… 15
  15. 15. Lighting Industry Source: Lighting the way: perspectives on global lighting market 2012, Mckinsey study 16 Lighting consumes a substantial amount of electricity
  16. 16. 17 Lighting consumes most Electricity According to EIA, in commercial buildings Lighting fixtures consume 3 times the energy consumption of air conditioning
  17. 17. Incandescence is “Hot light” or black body radiation Creates light by heating of filament Highly inefficient! 90% of energy is wasted to heat & UV Adverse impact on environment- 69% of the energy used in coal, natural gas and nuclear power generation never does useful work as electricity Short lifespan- 1000 to 1500 hours Susceptibility to shocks and vibrations Problems with Incandescence 18
  18. 18. Cold light Most efficient of all the sources of lights. ~98% efficiency As cultured at micro-organic level, immune to external impacts No environmental impact Once genetically re-engineered, unlimited source “Grow your own light“ Bioluminescence as solution.. 19 Why is Bioluminescence special ?
  19. 19. Uses bioluminescent bacteria, fed on methane and composted material Provides soft mood lighting Produces low intensity lighting, suitable for tracing, warning, indication In present form not suitable for functional illumination Luminescence by using energy stored in waste streams POC of a self sustainable microbial lighting system Current Research: Philips Concept 20 Cultured Bacteria having conducive environment Source: http://www.design.philips.com/philips/sites/philipsdesign/about/design/designportfolio/design_futures/bio_light.page
  20. 20. Team of researchers from Cambridge placed genes from fireflies and bioluminescent bacteria into E.coli Codon optimization and single amino acid mutagenesis allowed us to generate bright light output in a range of different colors Proposed a genetically modified tree which can be source of light in the dark Biological alternative to conventional lighting Potential could replace street lamps Current Research: Cambridge Concept 21 Source: http://www.holcimfoundation.org/T1560/Bioluminescent_lighting.htm
  21. 21. • Thinkers at IDEO are working with scientists from Lim Lab at the University of California, San Francisco to find a way to have E. coli bacteria form objects. • Like 3D printing, idea is to literally “grow” the product we use everyday. Even lights !!! • Idea is to put genes into an organism to make them self-aggregate into a solid material with the desired properties. Current Research: IDEO Concept 22Source: http://www.fastcompany.com/biomimicry/training-bacteria-to-grow-consumer-goods
  22. 22. • Luminosity comparison – Spectrum of bioluminescence almost similar to fluorescence though its more spread out. • Scalability of the light source- multiplication of bacteria. – Today scientists are able to synthetically culture genetically modified bacteria. – Research in substrate for repetitive culture. Dimensions of Performance 23
  23. 23. • Synthetic Luciferin Vs. Natural Luciferin gene – Scientists have been able to invent synthetic chemicals which have almost similar relative light Unit output to firefly gene. Dimensions of Performance 24
  24. 24. • Luminosity of Bioluminescence Limitations of Bioluminescence based Lighting Light source Output (Lumens) Firefly 0.04 Incandescent 200-800 Fluorescent 1000-7500 Metal Halide 1900-30000 High-Pressure Sodium 3600-46000 Low-Pressure Sodium 1800-33000 25 ~25,000 fireflies to flash simultaneously to match output of 60W bulb !!! Flashing  Better understanding of the chemistry of bioluminescence  Better control on flashing and are able to minimize it by studying fireflies.
  25. 25. Comparisons
  26. 26. 28 Technology Adoption High Medium Low Technology Comparison Drivers of Adoption
  27. 27. 29 Bioluminescence Why does Bioluminescence occur? How it Happens ? BioluminescenceVs. FluorescenceVs. Incandescence Opportunities Lighting Biomedical Imaging Food Industry Inferences and Conclusion Commercialization Entrepreneurial Opportunities Technology Convergence Conclusion Outline
  28. 28. Radiation and Scans
  29. 29. InVivo Imaging A noninvasive insight into living organisms Understand disease related changes in the body What is InVivo Imaging ? 70% 36% 32% 25% 18% Oncology/Cancer Inflammatory Diseases Neurology Cardiovascular Drug Metabolism Studies Detection of key Diseases Other Application 68% 59% 49% 41% 24% Monitoring Treatment Response Biodistribution Cancer cell detection Biomarkets Structural Imaging Source : Drug Discovery World Summer 2011, In vivo preclinical imaging Layout 1 23/06/2011 14:05 Page 59
  30. 30. InVivo Imaging Conventional Methods Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) Positron emission tomography (PET) MRI SPECT PET Optical Imaging – Bio Luminescence Imaging Optical, 28% MRI, 23% PET, 20% SPECT, 3% Others, 26% Optical MRI PET SPECT Others Source : Drug Discovery World Summer 2011, In vivo preclinical imaging Layout 1 23/06/2011 14:05 Page 59
  31. 31. Bacteria Cell Virus Cell Transgene Bioluminescent Cell / Receptor Gene BLI - Concept 1 2 3 4 Inject, Infect, Implant Image Acquisition Data Analytics 1 2 3 4 Bacterial Cells,Viral agents or genes can be bioluminescent labeled Labeled cell or gene is implanted into a mouse, Cells are allowed to multiply Mouse is placed highly sensitive CCD camera enclosure to obtain a 3D image Spectral analysis is used to see the progress of the malignant cells Source : A New Diagnostic System in Cancer Research: Bioluminescent Imaging (BLI)*, Z., Ralph MASON, Peter ANTICH, Edmond RICHER, Woodring E. WRIGHT
  32. 32. BLI - Concept Growth of cancer cell over 4 weeks can be observed Source : A New Diagnostic System in Cancer Research: Bioluminescent Imaging (BLI)*, Z., Ralph MASON, Peter ANTICH, Edmond RICHER, Woodring E. WRIGHT
  33. 33. PET vs. MRI vs. BLI Equipment Costs Mouse Preparation Time Scanning Time Total Time for 1 animal Data Analysis Total Time for 10 animal >600 K USD 1-2 million USD <500 K USD 1hr 30 min 30 min 20 min 15min / 3D Scan 30 min / 2D Scan 1s – 2min Experts Required Experts Required Straight Forward 1 hr 1hr 30min 20min >600 K USD 1-2 million USD <500 K USD Data Analysis Time >600 K USD 1-2 million USD <500 K USD PET MRI BLI Source : A Comparison of Imaging Techniques to Monitor Tumor Growth and Cancer Progression in Living Animals, Anne- Laure Puaux,Lai Chun Ong,Yi Jin,Irvin Teh,Michelle Hong,Pierce K. H. Chow, Xavier Golay
  34. 34. Market Potential – InVivo Imaging 790 900 1050 1200 1350 1550 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 $ Million Source : WWW.Marketresearch.com CAGR 14.5%
  35. 35. Cost Radiation Level Scanning Time Imaging Quality Preparation Time Bioluminescence MRI PET Low Medium High Technology Comparison
  36. 36. Main Drivers for Technology Adoption 40% 40% 20% Efficacy Health Safety Cost
  37. 37. 39 Bioluminescence Why does Bioluminescence occur? How it Happens ? BioluminescenceVs. FluorescenceVs. Incandescence Opportunities Lighting Biomedical Imaging Food Industry Inferences and Conclusion Commercialization Entrepreneurial Opportunities Technology Convergence Conclusion Outline
  38. 38. Food Industry • Current food regulations  Food development and Authority  HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points)  Principle 4 – Establish monitoring procedures  When and which food should undergo microbiological test A study by the Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture in The USA showed a 22% increase in the average distance travelled by food products (arriving in Chicago) by truck in the past 2 decades. Food travels longer distances today Source:1) http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/HACCP/HACCPPrinciplesApplicationGuidelines/default.htm 2) http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/39927/food_miles.pdf
  39. 39. According to The US National Library of Medicine, in the United States alone about 48 million people get sick from consuming contaminated food each year.
  40. 40. Existing method for detection of food contamination Sample from food item Dilution planted in agar based media Incubation period Counting bacteria TotalViable Count (Standard Plate Count/Aerobic Plate Count) Source : Essential Microbiology for Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science, By Geoff Hanlon & Norman Hodges
  41. 41. Existing methods for detection of food contamination - Limitations Expensive laboratory equipment. Requirement of specialized transportation. Long wait involved, anywhere between 24-48 hours. In cases of fermented foods (such as soy sauce) this period could extend up to 7 days. This increases the storage time before fresh food can reach the market, and may actually decrease the quality of the food during the waiting period. Tedious and labor intensive. The enumeration of colonies is performed using an illuminated colony counter. There is also a minimum requirement of 30 colonies (maximum to not exceed 300) for accurate results. Results unnecessarily elaborate in cases where results are required to only immediately confirm if food is fit for consumption. Source : 1) ATP bioluminescence rapid detection of total viable count in soy sauce, Luminescence, The Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence,14-Jun-11 2) Food Microbiology and Hygiene, By P. R. Hayes & Richard Hayes, page 189
  42. 42. Evolution of the concept of ATP bioluminescence in food industry Adenosine-5’-Triphosphate (or ATP) is the most important biological fuel in living organisms, and the detection of ATP origination can be important to detect living microorganisms such as pathogens. LUCIFERASE The visible glow of pathogen helps provide instant counting results. WHAT? HOW? WHY?
  43. 43. Applications in the Food Industry VALUE PROPOSITION Disposable Low cost Easy operation Fast response Prototype of ATP bioluminescence based Biosensor for detection of bacteria Source : Disposable bioluminescence-based biosensor for detection of bacterial count in food, Analytical Biochemistry 394 (2009) 1-6
  44. 44. Opportunities in the Food Industry In a local butcher shops for detection of contaminated food substances such as meat. To quickly and easily detect if small individual samples (i.e. per bottle) of fluids, such as milk or water, have been contaminated/spoiled during packaging transportation. In remote areas such as Saharan desert and Alaska. Can be used by rescue workers during natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis. Future Space missions (e.g. during a long mars mission)
  45. 45. Confectionary market growth worldwide Source : http://www.nclcworld.com/pdf/Confectionery%20Market%20by%20Jim%20Corcoran.pdf
  46. 46. Opportunities in industry BioLume : Bioluminescent bacteria added will be regulated as a „food additive‟ by the FDA. Tourism opportunities in a country like Singapore. Huge profits possible in the industry due to novelty factor.
  47. 47. Creation of dynamic art - The Center for Biofilm Engineering and the Montana State University School of Art created the BIOGLYPHS project Source : http://www.biofilm.montana.edu/Bioglyphs/ Opportunities for Bioluminescence in non- traditional arenas
  48. 48. Genetically engineered Bioluminescent pets Source : http://www.ibtimes.com/glowing-dark-rare-pictures-genetically-engineered-fluorescent-animals-photos-840089 Genetically engineered Angelfish (Pterophyllum Scalare) glow in a tank under a black light while being displayed at the 2010 Taiwan International Aqua Expo in Taipei October 29, 2010.
  49. 49. 51 Bioluminescence Why does Bioluminescence occur? How it Happens ? BioluminescenceVs. FluorescenceVs. Incandescence Opportunities Lighting Biomedical Imaging Food Industry Inferences and Conclusion Commercialization Entrepreneurial Opportunities Technology Convergence Conclusion Outline
  50. 50. Interesting Opportunities Plants andTrees When crops need water or nutrients, they'll be able to tell farmers. Plants could even go to red, yellow or green "alert" to give farmers early warning about disease and invasions by harvest- destroying pests. Smart Crops Streetlights Into Tree-lights Replace electricity-draining conventional streetlights, lit- up road signs and interior lighting. the trees would come "on" at night and go "off" during the day. The trees would need only air, water, and soil nutrients to maintain their urban lighting duties. Military Biodegradable landing zone markers Bioluminescent "friend vs. foe" identification markers and security systems Landing Lights 52
  51. 51. Factors for commercialization Scalability Maturity of technology Entrepreneurial opportunities Market penetration Cost effectiveness Need for a cheaper lighting Lighting Food Contamination BLI Othernewareasofmarketpenetration 53
  52. 52. Lighting Opportunity Non Nuclear Countries - need for sustainable lighting Availability of oceans to tap Bioluminescent Bacteria 80- 85% of oceanic world is bioluminescent Chemical Light Highest efficiency 54 Legend No power shortage Scarcity of electricity No huge infrastructure required or dams or gridlines
  53. 53. Food Contamination - Opportunity Legend National Food Center WHO Collaborating Testing Center Located near Oceanic Areas Cost involved in conventional testing is high Time taken for the results is more Advantage of Bioluminescent Food contamination testing Quicker Cheaper Ease of use of instrument 55 In situ – Lab to sample
  54. 54. Identifying Opportunity Base / Environment to enable Bioluminescent Luciferase Enzyme is the base across all three applications Typically any bacteria can be genetically modified to produce Luciferin Lighting Food contamination BLI - Imaging 56 Appropriate platform for sustainable culturing of Bioluminescent organisms presents a new horizon
  55. 55. Large Scale Production Setup Production center for Luciferase Enzyme • Can be located near areas like Food contamination test centres / Requirement for Bioluminescent based lighting • Can be used to make Bioluminescent based lighting. • Can employ “Made to order” lights / artistic pets / wall design / Bill boards and Biosensors • Can extract the enzyme in large scale. • Production of synthetic Luciferin Research Development Commercialization 57
  56. 56. Technology Convergence Nanotechnology  System on Chip  Nano particles  Nano polymers Minimum flashing Maximum Luminosity MEMS  Structural Changes  LED‟s Bio inspired lighting from firefly Genetics  DNA improvements  Technology merge Computational DNA‟s
  57. 57. Conclusion 59 Change provides opportunities Bioluminescence provides a new dimension to Lighting, Healthcare and Food industry Adoption of this technologies will lead to massive growth Bioluminescence When technology matures and becomes economically feasible, it will definitely offer a superior value proposition
  58. 58. Name Matric Number Ajay Srinivasan A0102866E Anurag Sharma A0102808M Shuchi Dangwal A0104405X Souvik Sen A0102840W
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