Economic Feasibility of Bio electronics
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Economic Feasibility of Bio electronics

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These slides discuss the potential for an acceleration in the rate of growth for bio-electronic ICs. Just as ICs benefited from reductions in scale and increases in the number of transistors per chip, ...

These slides discuss the potential for an acceleration in the rate of growth for bio-electronic ICs. Just as ICs benefited from reductions in scale and increases in the number of transistors per chip, some types of bio-electronic ICs also benefit from such reductions in scale and thus are likely to experience rapid growth as certain problems are solved. the improvements in bio-electronic ICs are enabling new forms of point diagnostic systems, food sensors, drug delivery, exoskeletons, and other health care related systems

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  • Bio-electronic chip senses electric charges, elasticities, forces and pressures
  • How do bio-electronic chips become fasters

Economic Feasibility of Bio electronics Presentation Transcript

  • 1. A/Prof Jeffrey Funk Division of Engineering and Technology Management National University of Singapore For information on other technologies, see http://www.slideshare.net/Funk98/presentations
  • 2. Objectives What are the important dimensions of performance for bio-electronics including bio- electronic ICs? What are the rates of improvement? What drives these rapid rates of improvement? Will these improvements continue? What kinds of new electronic systems will likely emerge from the improvements in bio-electronics? What does this tell us about the future?
  • 3. Session Technology 1 Objectives and overview of course 2 When do new technologiesbecome economically feasible? 3 Two types of improvements: 1) Creating materials that better exploit physical phenomena;2) Geometrical scaling 4 Semiconductors, ICs, electronic systems 5 MEMSand Bio-electronic ICs 6 Lighting, Lasers, and Displays 7 DNA sequencing and Nanotechnology 8 Human-Computer Interfaces 9 Superconductivity and Solar Cells 10 Deepavali, NO CLASS This is Fifth Session of MT5009
  • 4. As Noted in Previous Session, Two main mechanisms for improvements Creating materials (and their associated processes) that better exploit physical phenomenon Geometrical scaling Increases in scale Reductions in scale Some technologies directly experience improvements while others indirectly experience them through improvements in “components” A summary of these ideas can be found in 1)forthcoming paper in California Management Review, What Drives Exponential Improvements? 2)book from Stanford University Press, Technology Change and the Rise of New Industries
  • 5. Both are Relevant to Bio-Electronics Creating materials (and their associated processes) that better exploit physical phenomenon Creating appropriate materials for specific application Geometrical scaling Increases in scale: larger wafers/production equipment Reductions in scale: small feature sizes for bio-electronic ICs. This is most important driver of improvements for bio- electronic ICs Some technologies directly experience improvements while others indirectly experience them through improvements in “components” Better bio-electronic ICs lead to better bio-electronic systems
  • 6. Outline What is bio-electronics? Geometric scaling in bio-electronics Similarities between ICs and bio-electronics Applications for bio-electronics Control of implants Point-of-care diagnostics, including skin patches Drug delivery, Bionic eyes, Exoskeleton Food and other sensors Challenges for Bio-electronics are similar to those for MEMS
  • 7. Early Applications: cardiac pacemaker and cochlear implant
  • 8. http://www.siliconsemiconductor.net/article/69596-Efficient-mixing-in-milliseconds-with-lab-on-a-Chip.php Another Type of Bio-Electronics: Simple form of MEMS with Micro-Fluidic Channels
  • 9. Another view of a bio- electronic IC Analyzing Polymer Additives and Synthesis of Co-Polymer Surfactants
  • 10. Blood Analysis MEMS compared to a Newer Technology, Nanopores, which is another form of Bio-Electronics
  • 11. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JvDZh8hmR84 DNA Sequencers also involve micro-fluidic channels and are one type of bio-electronics But the next session will focus more on the improvements in DNA sequencers that have occurred over the last 30 years
  • 12. Outline What is bio-electronics? Geometric scaling in bio-electronics Similarities between ICs and bio-electronics Applications for bio-electronics Control of implants Point-of-care diagnostics, including skin patches Drug delivery, Bionic eyes, Exoskeleton Food and other sensors Challenges for Bio-electronics are similar to those for MEMS
  • 13. Source: AStar
  • 14. Another Way to Look at “More Than Moore” http://www2.imec.be/content/user/File/MtM%20WG%20report.pdf
  • 15. Figure 2. Declining Feature Size 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year Micrometers (Microns) Gate Oxide Thickness Junction Depth Feature length Source: (O'Neil, 2003)
  • 16. How might bio-electronic ICs benefit from reductions in scale?
  • 17. Benefits of Reductions in Feature Sizes Is larger for Bio-Electronic ICs than for MEMS Higher Resolution
  • 18. Higher Resolution: Reductions in Feature SizeEnable Bio-Electronic ICs to Analyze Smaller Biological Materials Viruses are infectious agents that replicate inside the living cells of organisms Bacteria are multi-cell micro-organisms Proteins carry out duties in cell according to DNA
  • 19. The Goal is to Analyze Even Smaller things such as Proteins and Molecules
  • 20. Smaller sizes (mM–millimoles) are needed for smaller detection limits and to analyze more data intensive applications (millimole)
  • 21. http://www2.imec.be/content/ user/File/MtM%20WG%20report.pdf
  • 22. Smaller Sizes Requires Better Tools Scanning tunneling microscope
  • 23. http://inhabitat.com/silicon-chips-embedded-in-human-cells-could-detect-diseases-earlier/ How Smaller ICs Might Impact on the Biological World
  • 24. February 2013, http://www.i-micronews.com/reports/BIOMEMS/4/345/
  • 25. Outline What is bio-electronics? Geometric scaling in bio-electronics Similarities between ICs and bio-electronics Applications for bio-electronics Control of implants Point-of-care diagnostics, including skin patches Drug delivery, Bionic eyes, Exoskeleton Food and other sensors Challenges for Bio-electronics are similar to those for MEMS
  • 26. Control of Implants and Artificially Implanted Tissues Examples: Cochlear implants, retinal implants, implantable neural electrodes, muscle implants Chips directly interact with organs to elicit the sensation of sound, sight, neurological functions, and muscle contractions, respectively. Artificially generated electrical pulses must be engineered within context of physiological system and biological characteristics This often requires new materials
  • 27. The cardiac pacemaker and the cochlear implant.
  • 28. Outline What is bio-electronics? Geometric scaling in bio-electronics Similarities between ICs and bio-electronics Applications for bio-electronics Control of implants Point-of-care diagnostics, including skin patches Drug delivery, Bionic eyes, Exoskeleton Food and other sensors Challenges for Bio-electronics are similar to those for MEMS
  • 29. Applications in Laboratories and in Homes are Emerging as Improvements are Made to Bio-Electronics Labs:
  • 30. Not Just Physicians End-users might be technicians, nurses or consumers Very useful in rural areas where there are few doctors Share devices just like mobile phones are shared in some rural areas This might occur automatically; place bio-electronic ICs in toilet, bathroom mirror, and clothes mirror may detect a disease such as cancer through the presence of a mutated protein called P53 (exists in 50% of cancer treatments) Or place them in your body Or a skin patch on your body It depends on how cheap these systems become…….. Source: MichioKaku, Physics of the Future: How Science Will Shape Human Destiny and Our Daily Lives by the Year 2100 (2011)
  • 31. A Faster Way for Detecting Cancer? Cancer is usually detected too late, is there faster way? Blood tests can be used to test for cancer Could test for hundreds or thousands of biomarkers in one blood test with a single chip Then look for the location of the cancer With a radioactive or fluorescent probe (see next session) and a scanner (Computer tomography or positron emission tomography) Then kill the tumor with heat, radiation, or other things (see next session) Source: The End of Medicine, Andy Kessler
  • 32. Smart Contact Lens Google and Novartis are working to develop contact lens that monitor glucose levels for diabetics Can also monitor Lacryglobinlevels that are biomarker for cancer Intraocular pressure that results from liquid buildup in eyes of glaucoma patients Drug delivery is also a possibility Other possible features Autofocusing lens Infrared sensitive for night vision http://www.technologyreview.com/news/529196/what-else-could-smart-contact-lenses-do/
  • 33. Flexible Electronics/Skin Patches Many kinds of skin patches But emergence of flexible displays (Next Session) is changing the field of skin patches Organic materials are revolutionizing displays (See Session 7) and ICs (organic ICs) for the displays (Session 4) Thinner materials are more flexible than thicker materials Adding a stretchy electronic mesh of islands that is connected by springy bridges (i.e., conformal electronics) Conformal electronics can monitor bodily functions of athletes and others deliver drugs facilitate control of prosthetic devices Enable “electronic” skin
  • 34. http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2010/cs/b909902f#!divAbstract
  • 35. Improvements in Mobility may Lead to Greater Use of Flexible Materials Mobility cm2/Vs Single Crystal Si RibbonOxide SemiconductorsAmorphous SiliconOrganic Semiconductor19952000200520100.0010.010.11100101000Si Mono- CrystalSi Poly- Crystal2013Year
  • 36. Improvements in Flexibility Improvements in flexibility, which includes both bendabiiltyand stretchability, have come from thinner materials and a so-called island-bridge design. Extreme Thinness Leads to Flexibility of Semiconductor Materials Island-bridgedesign enables much higher levels of flexibility
  • 37. build a stretchy mesh with electronics on thin islands connected by springy bridgesprint mesh onto thin plastic which holds the entire mesh togetherSource: MT5016 group presentation in 2012
  • 38. build body-worn stickers which seamlessly measure our body activitybreathablewaterproofyetSource: MT5016 group presentation in 2012
  • 39. core technology deployed to allow conformal coupling to the human bodyall on an ultrathin patch that mounts onto the skin like a temporary tattoodigital health-moderate development cycle-high growth potential-white space opportunitymodular system with onboard sensing, processing, power and communicationSource: MT5016 group presentation in 2012
  • 40. wireless connectivityinformed usercontinuousdataanalysisseamlesssensingdigital health-moderate development cycle-high growth potential-white space opportunitySource: MT5016 group presentation in 2012
  • 41. How far in the Future? From Skin Patches and Sensors to Artificial Skin Science Vol340, 7 June 2013, pp. 1162-1165
  • 42. Can Mobile Phones be Platform for Managing Data Phones have high-performance processors, memory, and displays Can send data wirelessly, without cables Easy to develop and download apps Can phones handle multiple diagnostics/diseases maybe with one bio-electronic IC, like microprocessor? What about creating accessories/attachments test strips to analyze blood, skin, saliva; check for flu, insulin and other sicknesses microscope to analyze cells, electrodes for electro-cardigram Others for ultrasound, MRI, etc. Useful for athletes, sick people http://www.economist.com/news/technology-quarterly/21567208-medical-technology- hand-held-diagnostic-devices-seen-star-trek-are-inspiring
  • 43. How Far in the Future? Qualcomm will give $10 million USD for first Star Trek Tricorder. Improvements in bio-electronic ICs and other technologies (e.g., fMRI–see later session) will probably make this possible (http://gbmnews.com/wp/?p=254)
  • 44. Outline What is bio-electronics? Geometric scaling in bio-electronics Similarities between ICs and bio-electronics Applications for bio-electronics Control of implants Point-of-care diagnostics, including skin patches Drug delivery, Bionic eyes, Exoskeleton Food and other sensors Challenges for Bio-electronics are similar to those for MEMS
  • 45. Smart Pills: A New Form of Drug Delivery Conventional methods Injections Pills skin patches The problem with conventional methods is they often affect both good and bad cells Smart pill Pills that can administer drugs directly to specific places in a person’s body
  • 46. Smart Pills for Killing Cancer Cells (1) Most cancer treatments kill healthy cells even as they try to kill cancer cells Another approach is to use smart pills/nano- particles to kill cancer cells Example: illumination from a white light within smart pill/nanoparticle kills the cancer cell Example: cause tiny magnetic disks to vibrate violently when they are near the cancer cells. This is done by passing a small external magnetic field over them Cameras embedded in the smart pill enable doctor to see inside
  • 47. Source: http://www.slideshare.net/AsadAliSiyal/nanorobotics-nanotechnology-by-engr-asad-ali-siyal
  • 48. Smart Pills for Killing Cancer Cells (2) One problem with nano-particles (molecular cars) is that they have no engine Mother Nature uses the molecular adenosine triphosphatehas her energy source Possible engines A nano-rod can be moved with a mixture of water and hydrogen peroxide Embed nickel disks or antenna inside these nanorods. one can use an ordinary magnet or a radio transmitter from the outside of the body to steer a nanorodthrough the inside of a body
  • 49. Outline What is bio-electronics? Geometric scaling in bio-electronics Similarities between ICs and bio-electronics Applications for bio-electronics Control of implants Point-of-care diagnostics, including skin patches Drug delivery, Bionic eyes, Exoskeleton Food and other sensors Challenges for Bio-electronics are similar to those for MEMS
  • 50. MEMs and Bionic Eyes MEMS playing an important role in improving eyesight of people who suffer from macula, a disease that affects the retina Disease renders photoreceptors useless although the remaining parts of the eye such as the pupil, cornea, lens, iris, ganglion cells and optic nerve remain operative About two million people suffer from this disease in the U.S. or about 0.5% of Americans
  • 51. All of the components in a Bionic Eye are Experiencing Rapid Improvements in Cost and Performance
  • 52. Source: Biomaterials 29(24–25): 3393–3399 MEMS-Based Electrode Electrode Implanted Into Retina MEMS-Based Electrodes for Bionic Eyes
  • 53. Increases in the Number of Electrodes Leads to Higher Performing Bionic Eyes
  • 54. Outline What is bio-electronics? Geometric scaling in bio-electronics Similarities between ICs and bio-electronics Applications for bio-electronics Control of implants Point-of-care diagnostics, including skin patches Drug delivery, Bionic eyes, Exoskeleton Food and other sensors Challenges for Bio-electronics are similar to those for MEMS
  • 55. Source: CyberdyneCorporation, www.cyberdyne.jp Examples of Exoskeletons
  • 56. 50 23 20 15 60 160 240 300 0 30 60 70 1000 800 500 200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 HAL-3(1999) HAL-5(2005) HAL-5(2008) HAL-5 (2011) Suit Weight (Kg) Operating Time (mins) Weight Lifting (kg) Response Time (ms) From better materials From better batteries From better materials Right Axis: from better bio-electronic and conventional ICs Improvements in HAL’s Exoskeleton Suits
  • 57. What About Robots that look like Humans http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/08/13/robot-sex_n_5675212.html?cps=gravity
  • 58. Outline What is bio-electronics? Geometric scaling in bio-electronics Similarities between ICs and bio-electronics Applications for bio-electronics Control of implants Point-of-care diagnostics, including skin patches Drug delivery, Bionic eyes, Exoskeleton Food and other sensors Challenges for Bio-electronics are similar to those for MEMS
  • 59. Sensors for Food Dates on packages are very rough Food may spoil sooner or later than date Causes food to be discarded too early or eaten when dangerous Better sensors for food spoilage Measure at various points in value chain including when they are placed on refrigerators and appliances In combination with RFID tags, can help us identify points of food spoilage Better sensors for factors related to food spoilage E.g., temperature
  • 60. Smart Chopsticks
  • 61. Asthma and other Environmental Sensors Would you avoid places if you knew these places caused problems to your health? How about enabling people to build a map of asthma or other hot spots? By using GPS and various sensors, users can build such maps
  • 62. Outline What is bio-electronics? Geometric scaling in bio-electronics Similarities between ICs and bio-electronics Applications for bio-electronics Control of implants Point-of-care diagnostics, including skin patches Drug delivery, Bionic eyes, Exoskeleton Food and other sensors Challenges for Bio-electronics are similar to those for MEMS
  • 63. Like MEMS, development costs are very high for Bio- Electronic ICs so applications must have very high volumes Integrated Circuits Bio-ElectronicICs Materials Roughly the same for each application Different for each application Processes Roughly the same for each application (CMOS) Different for each application Equipment Roughly the same for each application Different for each application Masks Different for each application. But commonsolutions exist! Microprocessors, ASICs Different for each application
  • 64. Solutions? Can we identify common materials, processes, equipment that can be used to make most bio-electronic ICs? Using common materials, processes and equipment involve tradeoffs Use sub-optimal ones for each application But benefit overall from economies of scale; similar things occurred with silicon-based CMOS devices One obvious option Can we make Bio-Electronic ICs with materials, processes, and equipment used to fabricate CMOS ICs? Or look for different materials, processes, equipment?
  • 65. Conclusions and Relevant Questions for Your Group Projects (1) Cost and performance of bio-electronics have experienced large improvements and still have a large potential for improvements can potentially follow path similar to (or steeper than) Moore’s Law thus can lead to changes in health care that are similar to changes in electronic systems from Moore’s Law They have already enabled dramatic reductions in the cost of many types of medical products point-of-care diagnostics Sequencing, synthesizing equipment (covered next week)
  • 66. Conclusions and Relevant Questions for Your Group Projects (2) These improvements will probably continue create new applications within diagnostic equipment, drug delivery, and chips embedded in clothing, body, etc. Lead to greater use of bionic eyes, artificial organs, exoskeletons What does this tell us about the future Will Cyborg man become a reality?
  • 67. These Examples may Become Common in the Near Future
  • 68. Conclusions and Relevant Questions (3) One challenge is identifying a set of common materials, processes and equipment that can be used to make many types of Bio-electronics What kind of progress is being made in this area? What are the major types of materials, processes and equipment that are used in the fabrication of bio-electronic ICs? Is a convergence occurring in the use of materials, processes, and equipment?
  • 69. Appendix
  • 70. How do bio-electronic chips work? (1) Bio-electron chips Extract Amplify (i.e., duplicate) Detect various substances They do so by sensing and analyzing Charges, Elasticities Forces, Pressures After translating these parameters into voltages and currents, they are processed in the same way voltages and currents are processed on a standard IC chip
  • 71. How do bio-electronic chips work? (2) Most chips are designed to analyze a specific type of fluid and for a specific purpose Combining functions on a single IC is currently very difficult One reason is that different functions require different temperatures But maybe we can control the heating of different parts of an IC chip?
  • 72. EPC: Endothelial Progenitor Cells; PBMC: peripheral blood mononuclear cells on the kind of artificial tubes to be used in patient