A/Prof Jeffrey Funk
Division of Engineering and Technology Management
National University of Singapore
For information on ...
Early Applications: cardiac pacemaker and
cochlear implant
http://www.siliconsemiconductor.net/article/69596-Efficient-mixing-in-milliseconds-with-lab-on-a-Chip.php
More Recent Type...
Another
view of
a bio-
electronic
IC
Using Micro-Fluidic Channels to Analyze Polymer
Additives and Synthesize Co-Polymer S...
core technology deployed to allow
conformal coupling to the human body
all on an ultrathin patch that mounts
onto the skin...
Can More Flexibility Enable Artificial Skin?
Science Vol 340, 7 June 2013, pp. 1162-1165
The Future of
Humans?
Rapid Improvements are
Occurring in Bio-Electronics
 Better materials (and their associated processes)
enable better prod...
Session Technology
1 Objectives and overview of course
2 When do new technologies become economically feasible?
3 Two type...
Outline
 Geometric scaling in bio-electronic ICs
 Similarities between ICs and bio-electronic ICs
 Applications for bio...
Source: AStar
Another Way to Look at “More Than Moore”
http://www2.imec.be/content/user/File/MtM%20WG%20report.pdf
Figure 2. Declining Feature Size
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
10
100
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000
Year
Micrometers(Mic...
 How might bio-electronic ICs benefit from reductions
in scale?
Many Bio-Electronic ICs have Micro-Fluidic Channels
Blood Analysis
MEMS compared to a Newer Technology,
Nanopores, which is another form of Bio-Electronics
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JvDZh8hmR84
DNA Sequencers also involve micro-fluidic channels and are
one type of bio-elec...
Many Bio-Electronic ICs Benefit from Reductions
in Feature Sizes, much more than for MEMS
Higher Resolution
Higher Resolution: Reductions in Feature Size Enable
Bio-Electronic ICs to Analyze Smaller Biological Materials
Viruses ar...
The Goal is to Analyze Even Smaller things
such as Proteins and Molecules
Smaller sizes (mM – milli moles) are needed for smaller
detection limits and to analyze more data intensive applications
(...
http://www2.imec.be/content/
user/File/MtM%20WG%20report.pdf
Smaller Sizes Requires Better Tools
Scanning tunneling
microscope
http://inhabitat.com/silicon-chips-embedded-in-human-cells-could-detect-diseases-earlier/
How Smaller ICs Might Impact on ...
February 2013, http://www.i-micronews.com/reports/BIOMEMS/4/345/
Outline
 Geometric scaling in bio-electronic ICs
 Similarities between ICs and bio-electronic ICs
 Applications for bio...
Control of Implants and Artificially
Implanted Tissues
 Examples: Cochlear implants, retinal implants,
implantable neural...
The cardiac pacemaker and the cochlear implant.
Outline
 Geometric scaling in bio-electronic ICs
 Similarities between ICs and bio-electronic ICs
 Applications for bio...
Applications in Laboratories and in Homes are Emerging as
Improvements are Made to Bio-Electronics
Labs:
End-users might be doctors, technicians,
nurses or consumers
 Very useful in rural areas where there are few doctors
 Sh...
Can Equipment Provide Better Advice than
Doctors?
 A conversation with Vinod Khosla, co-founder of Sun
Microsystems and m...
Can Better Diagnostics Provide a Faster Way
for Detecting Cancer?
 Cancer is usually detected too late, is there faster w...
Even Faster with
Smart Contact Lens
 Google and Novartis are working to develop contact
lens that monitor glucose levels ...
Outline
 Geometric scaling in bio-electronic ICs
 Similarities between ICs and bio-electronic ICs
 Applications for bio...
Flexible Electronics/Skin Patches
 Many kinds of skin patches
 But emergence of flexible displays (Next Session) is
chan...
http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2010/cs/b909902f#!divAbstract
Organic ICs are Experiencing Rapid Improvement...
Improvements in Mobility may Lead to Greater
Use of Flexible Materials
Mobilitycm2/Vs
Single Crystal Si Ribbon
Oxide Semic...
Improvements in Flexibility
 Improvements in flexibility, which includes both
bendabiilty and stretchability, have come f...
build a stretchy mesh with electronics
on thin islands connected by springy
bridges
print mesh onto thin plastic which
hol...
build body-worn stickers which seamlessly measure our body activity
breathablewaterproof
yet
Source: MT5016
group
presenta...
core technology deployed to allow
conformal coupling to the human body
all on an ultrathin patch that mounts
onto the skin...
wireless
connectivity
informed user
continuous
data
analysis
seamless
sensing
digital health
- moderate development cycle
...
How far in the Future?
From Skin Patches and Sensors to Artificial Skin
Science Vol 340, 7 June 2013, pp. 1162-1165
Outline
 Geometric scaling in bio-electronic ICs
 Similarities between ICs and bio-electronic ICs
 Applications for bio...
Smart Pills: A New Form of Drug Delivery
 Conventional methods
 Injections
 Pills
 skin patches
 The problem with con...
Smart Pills for Killing Cancer Cells (1)
 Most cancer treatments kill healthy cells even as they
try to kill cancer cells...
Source: http://www.slideshare.net/AsadAliSiyal/nanorobotics-nanotechnology-by-engr-asad-ali-siyal
Smart Pills for Killing Cancer Cells (2)
 One problem with nano-particles (molecular cars) is
that they have no engine
 ...
Outline
 Geometric scaling in bio-electronic ICs
 Similarities between ICs and bio-electronic ICs
 Applications for bio...
MEMs and Bionic Eyes
 MEMS playing an important role in improving
eyesight of people who suffer from macula, a disease
th...
All of the components in a Bionic Eye are Experiencing
Rapid Improvements in Cost and Performance
Source: Biomaterials 29(24–25): 3393–3399
MEMS-Based
Electrode
Electrode
Implanted
Into Retina
MEMS-Based Electrodes for B...
Increases in the Number of Electrodes Leads to
Higher Performing Bionic Eyes
Outline
 Geometric scaling in bio-electronic ICs
 Similarities between ICs and bio-electronic ICs
 Applications for bio...
Source: Cyberdyne Corporation, www.cyberdyne.jp
Examples of Exoskeletons
50
23 20 15
60
160
240
300
0
30
60
70
1000
800
500
200
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
HAL-3
(199...
What About Robots that look like Humans
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/08/13/robot-sex_n_5675212.html?cps=gravity
Outline
 Geometric scaling in bio-electronic ICs
 Similarities between ICs and bio-electronic ICs
 Applications for bio...
Sensors for Food
 Dates on packages are very rough
 Food may spoil sooner or later than date
 Causes food to be discard...
Smart Chopsticks
Asthma and other Environmental
Sensors
 Would you avoid places if you knew these places
caused problems to your health?
...
Outline
 Geometric scaling in bio-electronic ICs
 Similarities between ICs and bio-electronic ICs
 Applications for bio...
Can Mobile Phones be Platform for
Managing Data
 Phones have high-performance processors, memory, and
displays
 Can send...
How Far in the Future?
Qualcomm will give $10 million USD for first Star Trek
Tricorder. Improvements in bio-electronic IC...
Outline
 Geometric scaling in bio-electronic ICs
 Similarities between ICs and bio-electronic ICs
 Applications for bio...
Like MEMS, development costs are very high for Bio-
Electronic ICs so applications must have very high volumes
Integrated ...
Solutions?
 Can we identify common materials, processes, equipment
that can be used to make most bio-electronic ICs?
 Us...
Conclusions and Relevant Questions for Your
Group Projects (1)
 Cost and performance of bio-electronics have
experienced ...
Conclusions and Relevant Questions for Your
Group Projects (2)
 These improvements will probably continue
 create new ap...
Conclusions and Relevant Questions (3)
 One challenge is identifying a set of common
materials, processes and equipment t...
p://intelligenthospitaltoday.com/rfid-tracking-vs-barcode-scanning-how-to-determine-which-is-essential-for-your-healthcare...
Economic Feasibility of Bio electronics
Economic Feasibility of Bio electronics
Economic Feasibility of Bio electronics
Economic Feasibility of Bio electronics
Economic Feasibility of Bio electronics
Economic Feasibility of Bio electronics
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Economic Feasibility of Bio electronics

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These slides discuss the potential for an acceleration in the rate of growth for bio-electronic ICs. Just as ICs benefited from reductions in scale and increases in the number of transistors per chip, some types of bio-electronic ICs also benefit from such reductions in scale and thus are likely to experience rapid growth as certain problems are solved. the improvements in bio-electronic ICs are enabling new forms of point diagnostic systems, food sensors, drug delivery, exoskeletons, and other health care related systems

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  • Bio-electronic chip senses electric charges, elasticities, forces and pressures
  • How do bio-electronic chips become fasters
  • Economic Feasibility of Bio electronics

    1. 1. A/Prof Jeffrey Funk Division of Engineering and Technology Management National University of Singapore For information on other technologies, see http://www.slideshare.net/Funk98/presentations
    2. 2. Early Applications: cardiac pacemaker and cochlear implant
    3. 3. http://www.siliconsemiconductor.net/article/69596-Efficient-mixing-in-milliseconds-with-lab-on-a-Chip.php More Recent Type of Bio-Electronics: Simple form of MEMS with Micro-Fluidic Channels
    4. 4. Another view of a bio- electronic IC Using Micro-Fluidic Channels to Analyze Polymer Additives and Synthesize Co-Polymer Surfactants
    5. 5. core technology deployed to allow conformal coupling to the human body all on an ultrathin patch that mounts onto the skin like a temporary tattoo modular system with onboard sensing, processing, power and communication Source: MT5016 group presentation in 2012
    6. 6. Can More Flexibility Enable Artificial Skin? Science Vol 340, 7 June 2013, pp. 1162-1165
    7. 7. The Future of Humans?
    8. 8. Rapid Improvements are Occurring in Bio-Electronics  Better materials (and their associated processes) enable better products  Flexible electronics, skin patches, exoskeletons  Smaller feature sizes in micro-fluidic channels enable better bio-electronic ICs  Improvements in materials and reductions in scale are enabling new forms of products and systems  Wearable health care  Better and cheaper diagnostic equipment – no more doctors?  More synthetic tissue, limbs, and organs  How many of the previous slides will become a reality in the next 10 years?
    9. 9. Session Technology 1 Objectives and overview of course 2 When do new technologies become economically feasible? 3 Two types of improvements: 1) Creating materials that better exploit physical phenomena; 2) Geometrical scaling 4 Semiconductors, ICs, electronic systems 5 Internet of Things, MEMS and Bio-electronics 6 Chinese New Year 7 Lighting, Lasers, and Displays 8 Roll-to Roll Printing, Human-Computer Interfaces 9 Information Technology and Land Transportation 10 DNA Sequencing and Solar Cells This is Fifth Session of MT5009
    10. 10. Outline  Geometric scaling in bio-electronic ICs  Similarities between ICs and bio-electronic ICs  Applications for bio-electronics  Control of implants  Point-of-care diagnostics  Skin patches  Drug delivery  Bionic eyes  Exoskeleton  Food and other sensors  Can Mobile Phones be the center of this health care?  Challenges for Bio-electronics are similar to those for MEMS
    11. 11. Source: AStar
    12. 12. Another Way to Look at “More Than Moore” http://www2.imec.be/content/user/File/MtM%20WG%20report.pdf
    13. 13. Figure 2. Declining Feature Size 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year Micrometers(Microns) Gate Oxide Thickness Junction Depth Feature length Source: (O'Neil, 2003)
    14. 14.  How might bio-electronic ICs benefit from reductions in scale?
    15. 15. Many Bio-Electronic ICs have Micro-Fluidic Channels
    16. 16. Blood Analysis MEMS compared to a Newer Technology, Nanopores, which is another form of Bio-Electronics
    17. 17. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JvDZh8hmR84 DNA Sequencers also involve micro-fluidic channels and are one type of bio-electronics But the next session will focus more on the improvements in DNA sequencers that have occurred over the last 30 years
    18. 18. Many Bio-Electronic ICs Benefit from Reductions in Feature Sizes, much more than for MEMS Higher Resolution
    19. 19. Higher Resolution: Reductions in Feature Size Enable Bio-Electronic ICs to Analyze Smaller Biological Materials Viruses are infectious agents that replicate inside the living cells of organisms Bacteria are multi-cell micro-organisms Proteins carry out duties in cell according to DNA
    20. 20. The Goal is to Analyze Even Smaller things such as Proteins and Molecules
    21. 21. Smaller sizes (mM – milli moles) are needed for smaller detection limits and to analyze more data intensive applications (millimole)
    22. 22. http://www2.imec.be/content/ user/File/MtM%20WG%20report.pdf
    23. 23. Smaller Sizes Requires Better Tools Scanning tunneling microscope
    24. 24. http://inhabitat.com/silicon-chips-embedded-in-human-cells-could-detect-diseases-earlier/ How Smaller ICs Might Impact on the Biological World
    25. 25. February 2013, http://www.i-micronews.com/reports/BIOMEMS/4/345/
    26. 26. Outline  Geometric scaling in bio-electronic ICs  Similarities between ICs and bio-electronic ICs  Applications for bio-electronics  Control of implants  Point-of-care diagnostics  Skin patches  Drug delivery  Bionic eyes  Exoskeleton  Food and other sensors  Can Mobile Phones be the center of this health care?  Challenges for Bio-electronics are similar to those for MEMS
    27. 27. Control of Implants and Artificially Implanted Tissues  Examples: Cochlear implants, retinal implants, implantable neural electrodes, muscle implants  Chips directly interact with organs to elicit the sensation of sound, sight, neurological functions, and muscle contractions, respectively.  Artificially generated electrical pulses must be engineered within context of physiological system and biological characteristics  This often requires new materials
    28. 28. The cardiac pacemaker and the cochlear implant.
    29. 29. Outline  Geometric scaling in bio-electronic ICs  Similarities between ICs and bio-electronic ICs  Applications for bio-electronics  Control of implants  Point-of-care diagnostics  Skin patches  Drug delivery  Bionic eyes  Exoskeleton  Food and other sensors  Can Mobile Phones be the center of this health care?  Challenges for Bio-electronics are similar to those for MEMS
    30. 30. Applications in Laboratories and in Homes are Emerging as Improvements are Made to Bio-Electronics Labs:
    31. 31. End-users might be doctors, technicians, nurses or consumers  Very useful in rural areas where there are few doctors  Share devices just like mobile phones are shared in some rural areas  This might occur automatically; place bio-electronic ICs  in toilet, bathroom mirror, and clothes  mirror may detect a disease such as cancer through the presence of a mutated protein called P53 (exists in 50% of cancer treatments)  Or place them in your body  Or a skin patch on your body  It depends on how cheap these systems become…….. Michio Kaku, Physics of the Future: How Science Will Shape Human Destiny and Our Daily Lives by the Year 2100 (2011)
    32. 32. Can Equipment Provide Better Advice than Doctors?  A conversation with Vinod Khosla, co-founder of Sun Microsystems and member of Kleiner Perkins Caufiled and Byers (biggest VC firm)  Researchers gave the same info to 40 cardiologists and asked the same question  Should this person have cardiac surgery or not?  Half said yes and half said no  Whether you get surgery depends on which doctor you happen to pick? That is pretty bad. And that’s not the worst part. Two years later they took the same data to the same cardiologists, and 40 percent changed their mind. I could give you ten examples like that. Source: Technology Review, A Closer Look at Data-Driven Health Care, July 21, 2014.
    33. 33. Can Better Diagnostics Provide a Faster Way for Detecting Cancer?  Cancer is usually detected too late, is there faster way?  Blood tests can be used to test for cancer  Could test for hundreds or thousands of biomarkers in one blood test with a single chip  Then look for the location of the cancer  With a radioactive or fluorescent probe (see next session) and  a scanner (Computer tomography or positron emission tomography)  Then kill the tumor with heat, radiation, or other things (see next session) Source: The End of Medicine, Andy Kessler
    34. 34. Even Faster with Smart Contact Lens  Google and Novartis are working to develop contact lens that monitor glucose levels for diabetics  Can also monitor  Lacryglobin levels that are biomarker for cancer  Intraocular pressure that results from liquid buildup in eyes of glaucoma patients  Drug delivery is also a possibility  Other possible features  Autofocusing lens  Infrared sensitive for night vision http://www.technologyreview.com/news/529196/what-else-could-smart-contact-lenses-do/
    35. 35. Outline  Geometric scaling in bio-electronic ICs  Similarities between ICs and bio-electronic ICs  Applications for bio-electronics  Control of implants  Point-of-care diagnostics  Flexible Electronics/Skin patches  Drug delivery  Bionic eyes  Exoskeleton  Food and other sensors  Can Mobile Phones be the center of this health care?  Challenges for Bio-electronics are similar to those for MEMS
    36. 36. Flexible Electronics/Skin Patches  Many kinds of skin patches  But emergence of flexible displays (Next Session) is changing the field of skin patches  Organic materials are revolutionizing displays (See Session 7) and ICs (organic ICs) for the displays (Session 4)  Thinner materials are more flexible than thicker materials  Adding a stretchy electronic mesh of islands that is connected by springy bridges (i.e., conformal electronics)  Conformal electronics can  monitor bodily functions of athletes and others  deliver drugs  facilitate control of prosthetic devices  Enable “electronic” skin
    37. 37. http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2010/cs/b909902f#!divAbstract Organic ICs are Experiencing Rapid Improvements in Mobility
    38. 38. Improvements in Mobility may Lead to Greater Use of Flexible Materials Mobilitycm2/Vs Single Crystal Si Ribbon Oxide Semiconductors Amorphous Silicon Organic Semiconductor 1995 2000 2005 2010 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 100 10 1000 Si Mono- Crystal Si Poly- Crystal 2013 Year
    39. 39. Improvements in Flexibility  Improvements in flexibility, which includes both bendabiilty and stretchability, have come from thinner materials and a so-called island-bridge design. Extreme Thinness Leads to Flexibility of Semiconductor Materials  Island-bridge design enables much higher levels of flexibility
    40. 40. build a stretchy mesh with electronics on thin islands connected by springy bridges print mesh onto thin plastic which holds the entire mesh together Source: MT5016 group presentation in 2012
    41. 41. build body-worn stickers which seamlessly measure our body activity breathablewaterproof yet Source: MT5016 group presentation in 2012
    42. 42. core technology deployed to allow conformal coupling to the human body all on an ultrathin patch that mounts onto the skin like a temporary tattoo digital health - moderate development cycle - high growth potential - white space opportunity modular system with onboard sensing, processing, power and communication Source: MT5016 group presentation in 2012
    43. 43. wireless connectivity informed user continuous data analysis seamless sensing digital health - moderate development cycle - high growth potential - white space opportunity Source: MT5016 group presentation in 2012
    44. 44. How far in the Future? From Skin Patches and Sensors to Artificial Skin Science Vol 340, 7 June 2013, pp. 1162-1165
    45. 45. Outline  Geometric scaling in bio-electronic ICs  Similarities between ICs and bio-electronic ICs  Applications for bio-electronics  Control of implants  Point-of-care diagnostics  Flexible Electronics/Skin patches  Drug delivery  Bionic eyes  Exoskeleton  Food and other sensors  Can Mobile Phones be the center of this health care?  Challenges for Bio-electronics are similar to those for MEMS
    46. 46. Smart Pills: A New Form of Drug Delivery  Conventional methods  Injections  Pills  skin patches  The problem with conventional methods is they often affect both good and bad cells  Smart pill  Pills that can administer drugs directly to specific places in a person’s body
    47. 47. Smart Pills for Killing Cancer Cells (1)  Most cancer treatments kill healthy cells even as they try to kill cancer cells  Another approach is to use smart pills/nano- particles to kill cancer cells  Example: illumination from a white light within smart pill/nanoparticle kills the cancer cell  Example: cause tiny magnetic disks to vibrate violently when they are near the cancer cells. This is done by passing a small external magnetic field over them  Cameras embedded in the smart pill enable doctor to see inside
    48. 48. Source: http://www.slideshare.net/AsadAliSiyal/nanorobotics-nanotechnology-by-engr-asad-ali-siyal
    49. 49. Smart Pills for Killing Cancer Cells (2)  One problem with nano-particles (molecular cars) is that they have no engine  Mother Nature uses the molecular adenosine triphosphate has her energy source  Possible engines  A nano-rod can be moved with a mixture of water and hydrogen peroxide  Embed nickel disks or antenna inside these nanorods. one can use an ordinary magnet or a radio transmitter from the outside of the body to steer a nanorod through the inside of a body
    50. 50. Outline  Geometric scaling in bio-electronic ICs  Similarities between ICs and bio-electronic ICs  Applications for bio-electronics  Control of implants  Point-of-care diagnostics  Flexible Electronics/Skin patches  Drug delivery  Bionic eyes  Exoskeleton  Food and other sensors  Can Mobile Phones be the center of this health care?  Challenges for Bio-electronics are similar to those for MEMS
    51. 51. MEMs and Bionic Eyes  MEMS playing an important role in improving eyesight of people who suffer from macula, a disease that affects the retina  Disease renders photoreceptors useless although the remaining parts of the eye such as the pupil, cornea, lens, iris, ganglion cells and optic nerve remain operative  About two million people suffer from this disease in the U.S. or about 0.5% of Americans
    52. 52. All of the components in a Bionic Eye are Experiencing Rapid Improvements in Cost and Performance
    53. 53. Source: Biomaterials 29(24–25): 3393–3399 MEMS-Based Electrode Electrode Implanted Into Retina MEMS-Based Electrodes for Bionic Eyes
    54. 54. Increases in the Number of Electrodes Leads to Higher Performing Bionic Eyes
    55. 55. Outline  Geometric scaling in bio-electronic ICs  Similarities between ICs and bio-electronic ICs  Applications for bio-electronics  Control of implants  Point-of-care diagnostics  Flexible Electronics/Skin patches  Drug delivery  Bionic eyes  Exoskeleton  Food and other sensors  Can Mobile Phones be the center of this health care?  Challenges for Bio-electronics are similar to those for MEMS
    56. 56. Source: Cyberdyne Corporation, www.cyberdyne.jp Examples of Exoskeletons
    57. 57. 50 23 20 15 60 160 240 300 0 30 60 70 1000 800 500 200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 HAL-3 (1999) HAL-5 (2005) HAL-5 (2008) HAL-5 (2011) Suit Weight (Kg) Operating Time (mins) Weight Lifting (kg) Response Time (ms) From better materials From better batteries From better materials Right Axis: from better bio-electronic and conventional ICs Improvements in HAL’s Exoskeleton Suits
    58. 58. What About Robots that look like Humans http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/08/13/robot-sex_n_5675212.html?cps=gravity
    59. 59. Outline  Geometric scaling in bio-electronic ICs  Similarities between ICs and bio-electronic ICs  Applications for bio-electronics  Control of implants  Point-of-care diagnostics  Flexible Electronics/Skin patches  Drug delivery  Bionic eyes  Exoskeleton  Food and other sensors  Can Mobile Phones be the center of this health care?  Challenges for Bio-electronics are similar to those for MEMS
    60. 60. Sensors for Food  Dates on packages are very rough  Food may spoil sooner or later than date  Causes food to be discarded too early or eaten when dangerous  Better sensors for food spoilage  Measure at various points in value chain including when they are placed on refrigerators and appliances  In combination with RFID tags, can help us identify points of food spoilage  Better sensors for factors related to food spoilage  E.g., temperature
    61. 61. Smart Chopsticks
    62. 62. Asthma and other Environmental Sensors  Would you avoid places if you knew these places caused problems to your health?  How about enabling people to build a map of asthma or other hot spots?  By using GPS and various sensors, users can build such maps
    63. 63. Outline  Geometric scaling in bio-electronic ICs  Similarities between ICs and bio-electronic ICs  Applications for bio-electronics  Control of implants  Point-of-care diagnostics  Flexible Electronics/Skin patches  Drug delivery  Bionic eyes  Exoskeleton  Food and other sensors  Can Mobile Phones be the center of this health care?  Challenges for Bio-electronics are similar to those for MEMS
    64. 64. Can Mobile Phones be Platform for Managing Data  Phones have high-performance processors, memory, and displays  Can send data wirelessly, without cables  Easy to develop and download apps  Can phones handle multiple diagnostics/diseases maybe with one bio-electronic IC, like microprocessor?  What about creating accessories/attachments  test strips to analyze blood, skin, saliva; check for flu, insulin and other sicknesses  microscope to analyze cells, electrodes for electro-cardigram  Others for ultrasound, MRI, etc.  Useful for athletes, sick people http://www.economist.com/news/technology-quarterly/21567208-medical-technology- hand-held-diagnostic-devices-seen-star-trek-are-inspiring
    65. 65. How Far in the Future? Qualcomm will give $10 million USD for first Star Trek Tricorder. Improvements in bio-electronic ICs and other technologies (e.g., fMRI – see later session) will probably make this possible (http://gbmnews.com/wp/?p=254)
    66. 66. Outline  Geometric scaling in bio-electronic ICs  Similarities between ICs and bio-electronic ICs  Applications for bio-electronics  Control of implants  Point-of-care diagnostics  Flexible Electronics/Skin patches  Drug delivery  Bionic eyes  Exoskeleton  Food and other sensors  Can Mobile Phones be the center of this health care?  Challenges for Bio-electronics are similar to those for MEMS
    67. 67. Like MEMS, development costs are very high for Bio- Electronic ICs so applications must have very high volumes Integrated Circuits Bio-Electronic ICs Materials Roughly the same for each application Different for each application Processes Roughly the same for each application (CMOS) Different for each application Equipment Roughly the same for each application Different for each application Masks Different for each application. But common solutions exist! Microprocessors, ASICs Different for each application
    68. 68. Solutions?  Can we identify common materials, processes, equipment that can be used to make most bio-electronic ICs?  Using common materials, processes and equipment involve tradeoffs  Use sub-optimal ones for each application  But benefit overall from economies of scale; similar things occurred with silicon-based CMOS devices  One obvious option  Can we make Bio-Electronic ICs with materials, processes, and equipment used to fabricate CMOS ICs?  Or look for different materials, processes, equipment?
    69. 69. Conclusions and Relevant Questions for Your Group Projects (1)  Cost and performance of bio-electronics have experienced large improvements and still have a large potential for improvements  can potentially follow path similar to (or steeper than) Moore’s Law  thus can lead to changes in health care that are similar to changes in electronic systems from Moore’s Law  They have already enabled dramatic reductions in the cost of many types of medical products  point-of-care diagnostics  Sequencing, synthesizing equipment (covered next week)
    70. 70. Conclusions and Relevant Questions for Your Group Projects (2)  These improvements will probably continue  create new applications within diagnostic equipment, drug delivery, and chips embedded in clothing, body, etc.  Lead to greater use of bionic eyes, artificial organs, exoskeletons  What does this tell us about the future  Will Cyborg man become a reality?
    71. 71. Conclusions and Relevant Questions (3)  One challenge is identifying a set of common materials, processes and equipment that can be used to make many types of Bio-electronics  What kind of progress is being made in this area?  What are the major types of materials, processes and equipment that are used in the fabrication of bio-electronic ICs?  Is a convergence occurring in the use of materials, processes, and equipment?
    72. 72. p://intelligenthospitaltoday.com/rfid-tracking-vs-barcode-scanning-how-to-determine-which-is-essential-for-your-healthcare-environment/ RTLS: real-time location service (e.g., GPS), UHF: ultra hi-frequency (activated by signal) portant Part of “Internet of Things” is Tracking of Thin th indoors/local (below) and outdoors/global (GPS, next sli
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